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The Amish


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Title: The Amish

The Amish
Fig. 1 Working the fields
  • Be not conformed to this world, but be
    transformed by the renewing of your mind that ye
    may prove what is good and acceptable and the
    perfect will of God." (Romans 122)

Be not conformed
  • The Amish society has little, if any, desire to
    participate in our modern world, doing so only
    when necessary. However, because of songs such
    Amish Paradise, movies such as Witness, and
    the huge Amish tourist industry, each Amish
    person accounts for 30,000 dollars per year in
    tourist revenue (Kraybill 327), most of us know
    some basic facts about the Amish.

  • For example, we know that they are very religious
  • We know that they dress in a particular way with
    clothes that look old-fashioned to us. The Amish
    refer to this mode of dress, and living, as

Fig. 2 Amish Youths
  • We know they do not use electricity or drive
  • We know that they do not like to have their
    picture taken.

Fig. 3 Amish, Intercourse Pennsylvania
  • We know they tend to live in certain areas of the
    country, such as Pennsylvania and Ohio.
  • And, we know that family plays an extremely
    important role in their culture.

Fig. 4 Amish Family
  • But beyond these basic facts, the Amish
    remain a mystery to most of us and questions
    still remain such as
  • Why can the children use roller blades but not
  • Why will the Amish ride in cars but not own nor
    drive them?
  • Why can they use calculators but not computers?
  • And, is it true that some of the Amish have
    adopted some items from our modern world, such as
    computers and televisions?

  • Hopefully, by examining their history and
    culture in more depth, these questions may be
    answered and a greater understanding of the Amish

Historical Background of the Amish
  • In 1517, Martin Luther led the Protestant
    Reformation and the breaking away from the
    Catholic Church.
  • In 1525, several followers of a Swiss pastor,
    Ulrich Zwingli, grew impatient with the pace of
    reformation and started their own reformation
    within the Protestant church.

  • The leaders of this group included Georg
    Blaurock, Conrad Grebel, and Felix Manz.
  • In a secret ceremony, they illegally baptized
    each other and began what is often referred to as
    the Radical Reformation. Because everyone in the
    group had been baptized already as infants in the
    church, either Catholic or Protestant, they
    became know as the Anabaptists, which means

  • These men held beliefs that differed from the
    mainline Protestant doctrine.
  • They believed that only adults willing to live a
    life of radical obedience to the teachings of
    Jesus Christ should be baptized (Kraybill 4).
    Consequently, their group refused to baptize
  • They also believed that government should not be
    involved with religion, that it had no authority
    within the church, and that the Bible was the
    only authority the church should obey. They also
    declared themselves to be pacifists.

  • Other core beliefs included
  • The church as a covenant community
  • Exclusion of errant members from communion
  • Literal obedience to the teachings of Christ
  • Refusal to swear oaths
  • Rejection of violence
  • Social separation from the evil world (Kraybill

  • Their beliefs brought them into direct conflict
    with civil and church authorities. They were
    viewed as a political threat as they questioned
    the historical interaction of civil government
    and the church.
  • Their refusal to baptize infants defied
    government orders that all infants be baptized.
    This was done as a way to confer citizenship,
    maintain tax rolls, and provide a list of
    potential military recruits.
  • Neither the church nor the government was going
    to allow this group to question their authority,
    and persecutions began almost immediately.

  • Less than five months after they had rebaptized
    themselves, a member of the Anabaptists was
    executed for sedition against the government.

Fig. 5 Anabaptist being burned at the stake
  • Despite the persecutions, the movement grew and
    spread throughout Sweden, the Netherlands, and
  • However, the persecutions also continued and
    increased. Over the next two centuries, thousands
    of Anabaptists would be killed for their
    religious beliefs. Special hunters would even
    be trained to seek them out, torture, and kill
    them (Kraybill 4).

  • The persecutions continued in various forms and
    gradually subsided in the 18th century. By then,
    thousands of Anabaptists had sought refuge in
    other countries, including America.
  • Today the stories of the early days of the Amish
    religion are contained in the Martyrs Mirror,
    originally printed in 1660. The Martyrs Mirror
    is one of the Amishs most beloved books from
    which they draw strength to continue in their
    faith and beliefs.

Fig. 6 Compassion for the enemy
  • Among the stories is one of an Anabaptist
    named Dirk Williams. He was being chased by a
    sheriff when the sheriff fell through the ice.
    Williams heard the mans cries for help, turned
    back and pulled him from the ice, thus saving his
    life. The sheriff promptly arrested Williams, and
    he was burnt at the stake in 1569.

  • Another Anabaptist, Michael Sattler, was
    sentenced to be delivered to the executioner,
    who shall cut out his tongue, then throw him upon
    a wagon, and tear his body twice with red-hot
    tongs and after he has been brought without the
    gate, he shall be pinched five times in the same
    manner (Igou 26). After the torture, Sattler was
    burned at the stake.

  • In 1537, a former Catholic by the name of Menno
    Simons joined the Anabaptists. His followers
    would come to be known as Mennonites and some of
    them would later settle in the Alsace region of
    modern-day France. One of these men would be
    Jakob Amman, who, in the 1690s, began to have
    problems with Mennonite and Anabaptist doctrine.

  • The church had drifted from many of its original
    ways, Amman declared, becoming too lenient in the
    process. He called for reform and renewal within
    the Mennonite and the Anabaptist church.
  • Some of the problems he had with the church
    revolved around communion. Amman thought that
    communion should be held twice a year instead of
    the annual service that was then being held. He
    also contended that foot washing should be part
    of the communion service something the
    Mennonites had drifted away from.

  • He also disagreed with the manner of
    excommunication of those who disobeyed church
    doctrine. Amman argued that not only should they
    be cast out of the church, but they should also
    be shunned in social circles as well, with true
    believers breaking off all contact with them.
  • Amman began to have open disagreements with the
    Swiss Anabaptist bishop, Hans Reist. These
    disagreements came to a head the day that Amman
    and his followers excommunicated Reist and other
    leaders of the church.

  • Despite later efforts to heal this breach, the
    damage had been done and Ammans followers split
    from the Mennonite church in 1693. They would
    later come to be known as Amish, named after
    Jakob Amman.
  • After the split, Amman followers adopted their
    own doctrine that included, among other things,
    prohibitions against trimming of beards,
    fashionable dress, and the use of buttons.
    Ammans followers would forgo the use of buttons,
    utilizing hook and eyes instead. They often
    referred to the Mennonite church they had left as
    the button people.

The Amish Today Day to Day Living
  • Today, the Amish order their communities around
    three basic components settlement, district, and

Fig. 7 Old Order Amish Couple circa 1940
  • The settlement consists of the Amish families who
    live within a geographical area. These
    settlements range in size from a few families to
    several thousand people. One such settlement is
    in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The settlement
    may have non-Amish, or English homes scattered
    amongst the Amish homes, but towards the center
    of the settlement, it will be almost exclusively
    Amish homes and farms. In some areas, the Amish
    may own up to 90 of the farmland within their
    settlement area.

  • The district refers to the church district, the
    basic organizational unit within the Amish
    society. The district typically consists of
    approximately twenty-five to thirty-five families
    living in close proximately to each other. Church
    services are held in homes, so houses in the
    district need to be large enough to accommodate
    all families with the district. When the district
    becomes too large, a new district is formed. In
    Lancaster County, four or five new districts are
    formed every year.

  • An affiliation is a cluster of Amish
    congregations in spiritual fellowship with each
    other. Congregations, or districts, within each
    affiliation will follow similar religious and
    social practices, cooperating with each other to
    survive. The Old Order Amish of Lancaster County
    is one such affiliation. However, there are also
    New Order Amish affiliations and the Beachy Amish
    affiliation, who are more progressive and thus,
    outside of the Old Order affiliation because of
    their views on religious and social issues.

  • There are over 1, 300 districts scattered
    throughout America and Canada today, with a total
    population around 180,000.
  • Of the 250 settlements, 70 were founded after
  • The largest settlement is in Ohio and contains
    more than 150 districts.

Old Order Amish
  • It is the picture of the Old Order Amish with
    their plain clothes and buggies that comes to
    most peoples mind when they think Amish.
  • The Old Order Amish today have deviated little
    from the regulations established by Jakob Amman
    over 300 years ago.

Fig. 8 Old Order Amish at a horse auction
  • They still dress plain, do not use electricity,
    do not own or drive cars, do not have telephones
    in their homes, and forbid the use of most modern
    farm equipment, including air-filled tires.
  • In an Old Order Amish home, all lighting is
    supplied by candle or oil and gas lamp.
    Bottle-gas appliances are acceptable under the
    Ordnung. The Ordnung, a verbal standard that the
    Amish live by, will be discussed in detail later.

Fig. 9 Old Order Amish with farm equipment
  • However, look inside an Old Order Amish cow barn
    and you will find a modern automated milking
    system with refrigerated tanks. Because the Amish
    must trade with the outside world to survive,
    they must conform to modern health and
    agriculture laws mandated by the various federal,
    state and local agencies. Thus, the modern
    equipment is necessary. However, it is all
    powered by gas generators, not electricity.

  • Old Order Amish follow strict clothing
    regulations. Men wear black suits without lapels
    or buttons, white or blue shirts, black
    suspenders, black shoes or boots and
    broad-brimmed hats in black felt or natural
    straw. Old Order women wear a frock type dress of
    mid-calf to ankle length with black stockings, an
    apron, black shoes or boots, black cape, and
    either a white "prayer cap" (if baptized) or a
    black hood.
  • Only solid colors are worn, with darker colors
    favored over lighter ones. The idea behind the
    dress code is not only that it sets them apart
    from the world, but that is also eliminates pride
    and envy.

  • Men crop their hair, and wear beards, if married,
    but not mustaches as they are associated with the
  • Women do not cut their hair but wear it tied in a
    bun on their head, which is always covered once
    she is baptized.

Fig. 10 Amish women
Fig. 11 Young Amish out for a ride
  • The Old Order Amish make their own clothes,
    although they do purchase the fabric. Hats,
    suspenders, and shoes can be bought ready-made.
  • The buggies they drive vary according to purpose.
    The family buggy will always be covered. Young
    people drive open buggies, such as the one in the
    photo above.

  • Old Order Amish use High German for church
    services, and their Bibles are also printed in
    High German. All Amish can speak English, but
    they use a form of Low German amongst themselves
    in everyday activities.
  • The name they give to those outside their order,
    the English, is not viewed by the Amish as
    derogatory, but simply refers to the language
    used most often by the world outside the order.

New Order and Beachy Amish
  • The important thing to remember when studying the
    Amish is that there are many variations within
    the culture. Some are more strict then others in
    matters of religion and society codes. Adherence
    varies from affiliation to affiliation some
    allow one thing while banning another.

  • For example, the New Order and Beachy Amish vary
    greatly from the Old Order in daily life, but not
    in religious practice.
  • The New Order Amish are more progressive than the
    Old Order but still restrictive in the use of
    modern items. They use telephones in their homes,
    allow air operated equipment, electrical
    generators, bicycles, and gas pressurized
    lights.  They also allow the use of rubber
    air-filled tires, milking machines and milk bulk
    tanks. However, horses are still mandated for
    field work and transportation. They do not own or
    drive cars.

  • The Beachy Amish have telephones, more modern
    clothing, and utilize modern farm equipment. They
    are also are allowed to own and drive cars and
    meet for worship in meeting houses instead of
    private homes. All but six of the Beachy
    districts now use English in their worship
    instead of German. They refer to their churches
    as fellowships and maintain just enough
    centralization to maintain the sense of
    congregationalism that is so highly valued by all

  • There are approximately 150 districts of Beachy
    Amish. They have fellowships in America, Latin
    America, Africa, Australia, and parts of Europe.
    They are considered by many in the Amish and
    Mennonite communities to be a combination of both
  • The New Order Amish are found almost exclusively
    in Ohio and Pennsylvania.

  • Both groups still hold to the Ordnung, like the
    Old Order, but in varying degrees.
  • Both groups also differ from the Old Order in the
    issues of Meidung (avoidance), Streng-Meidung
    (strict banning) what we today refer to as
  • The New Order and the Beachy Amish practice, for
    the most part, avoidance and not total shunning,
    like the Old Order.

Day to Day Life little known facts
  • The Amish are exempt from paying Social Security
    taxes, however they do pay all other federal,
    state, and local taxes.
  • They provide their own social security within
    their communities. Members are taken care of and
    provided for at all stages of life. Everyone is
    expected to contribute to a fund that is used to
    help members who need financial assistance.

  • Musical instruments are not allowed among the Old
    Order Amish, as they believe it would lead to
    pride and the stirring up of emotions.
  • Amish do not believe in having their picture
    taken they consider photographs to be graven
    images and thus against Gods law. However, many
    photos of the Amish are to be found. This is
    because while they will not pose for photos, they
    do not object to someone taking an unposed photo
    if permission is asked beforehand.

Fig. 12 On the way to a wedding
  • Families are a cornerstone of the Amish
    community, and as such, marriage is an important
    part of life.
  • Nine out of every ten adult Amish are married.
  • Marriages are traditionally held on a Tuesday or
    Thursday in November, after fall Communion

  • Most couples meet at singings, which are
    similar to country dances. Both must be members
    of the church to marry.
  • In October, the names of those seeking to be
    married are published by being read at Sunday
    service. The couple will not attend church that
    day, instead the woman will fix a special meal
    for her finance, which they eat at home alone.
  • Amish wedding dresses are blue and have no lace
    or train. This same dress is usually used by the
    woman to wear to church, and she will more than
    likely be buried in it as well.

  • The wedding service lasts for up to five hours,
    after which is a huge feast which continues long
    into the night. The marriage night is spent at
    the house of the brides parents.
  • The newlyweds will spend the rest of the winter
    visiting and spending time at various relatives
    houses. It will be spring before they establish a
    home of their own.

  • The Amish believe large families are a blessing
    from God, so contraception is not practiced. The
    typical Amish family has 8.5 children.
  • By the age of forty-five, an Amish woman has
    probably given birth to seven children.
  • Under the Ordnung, divorce is not allowed

  • Children are usually born at home and attend
    school only through the eighth grade.
  • Amish children walk to school, which are usually
    one room buildings.

Fig. 13 An Amish classroom
  • After the eighth grade, children are schooled at
    home, learning and working alongside their family
    until they marry and start a family of their own.
    In 1972, the Amish won an exemption from the U.S.
    Supreme Court, granting them exemption from
    Federal or state mandated school attendance. They
    had argued that their religious beliefs teach
    that a child should be schooled at home beyond
    the eighth grade, and to send their children to
    school beyond that would violate their religious

  • The Amish also currently have a proposal before
    the government requesting exemption from Federal
    Labor Laws regulating teen-agers and certain
    heavy woodworking machinery. Over the last
    decade, federal inspectors have fined some Amish
    wood mills as much as 20,000 for illegally
    allowing teens to work in the same buildings as
    this equipment.

  • Although the proposal does not specifically
    mention the Amish, it would give them an
    unconstitutional exception simply because of
    their religious affiliation." The Amish wish
    their teen-agers to be able to be around the
    equipment in order to learn how to operate it.
    They are seeking exemption based on religious
    grounds, as they view these apprenticeships as a
    cornerstone of their faith (Jordan),

  • In Amish society, woman are viewed as equal
    partners in the marriage, but it is the man who
    holds authority in the family and the church.
    Wives are expected to submit to their husbands.
  • Women do help with all aspects of family chores,
    although the men seldom help with household type

  • While womens rights is not an issue among the
    Amish, some women do wish for more equality and
    more modern conveniences to make their household
    job easier.

  • While more Amish women today own their own
    businesses than in the past, their traditional
    role is still viewed as being in the house taking
    care of home and family.
  • The Amish have no prohibition against using
    modern health services or medicines. They view
    these as ways of healing that are blessings from

  • While the Amish do not celebrate some national
    holidays such as Memorial Day or the Fourth of
    July, they do observe Thanksgiving Day,
    Christmas, New Years Day, and Easter, as well as
    other holidays that spring from their European
    roots, such as St. Michael's Day.

  • The Amish barn rising is another aspect of their
    culture that most people know about. The barn is
    started in the morning and finished by that night.

Fig. 14 Seven in the morning
  • One day work/social events, like the barn
    raising, are called frolics. Hundreds of people
    may come together to build a school, help plant a
    field, or women may gather to help clean a house
    or make a quilt. Women also hold Sisters Day,
    where all the sisters in a family gather one day
    a month to visit and chat. They will usually work
    on a quilt during that time, or clean a house.

  • While the Old Order Amish can not own cars, they
    often pay someone to drive them to various places
    too far to drive their buggy.
  • Amish also take vacations to such places as
    Europe. Although they are forbidden to fly, they
    can take a train or a boat to their destination.
    One popular vacation spot is an Amish community
    in Florida, which attracts hundreds of Amish on
    their vacations every year.

Amish Gangs
  • The Rumspringa is a time of life for Amish that
    typically begins at the age of sixteen and lasts
    until they are married. It loosely translates as
    sowing wild oats.
  • During this time, a young person will join a
    gang with whom they run around with on the
  • During this period of their lives, the youth are
    viewed as falling between the authority of their
    parents and the church because they are not yet

  • In Lancaster County alone, there are over twenty
    six Amish youth gangs, with names such as the
    Bluebirds, Canaries, Pine Cones, Drifters,
    Shotguns, Rockys, and Quakers.
  • Youth are free to join the gang of their choice.
    The gang will then become their primary social
    group until their marriage.
  • Gangs vary in the intensity of their activities.

  • While some gangs are reserved and do no more wild
    behavior than hold a dance on Saturday night or a
    volleyball game, others may hold parties where
    beer kegs will be present, modern music played by
    live bands with electric instruments, and all
    attendees dress in secular clothing.
  • Some gangs place fancy reflective tape on their
    buggies, which may have a radio or CD player
    hidden inside.

  • In 1998, two Amish men were arrested in
    Pennsylvania for buying cocaine, which they then
    sold to other members of their gang.
  • This very public incident, coupled with an
    increase in alcohol abuse among the youth in the
    gangs, prompted members of the Amish community to
    rein in the gangs to some extent. Many events are
    now chaperoned by adults and a closer eye are
    kept on the youth during these years.

Amish Religious Life
  • Amish are Christians, with all traditional
    Christian beliefs in the Divinity of Christ, the
    Trinity, salvation, etc.
  • The Ordnung, roughly translated it means order,
    is a set of oral laws that regulates all aspects
    of Amish society, from religion to family life.
    It is not something that is written down, instead
    all Amish just know it, thats all (Kraybill

  • The Ordnung is something that all Amish grow up
    with and learn by observing adults and their
  • In some aspects of life, the Ordnung is very
    specific, such as in the case of how hair should
    be worn. Other areas, such as food issues, are
    more open to individual interpretation.

  • New issues are constantly being addressed in the
    Ordnung as technology advances. It was recently
    decided that transplanting cow embryos was not to
    be allowed but that battery operated calculators
    could be used.
  • However, unless a practice begins to cause
    problems within the community, or is something
    that would obviously be forbidden, it is usually
    either overlooked or not addressed within the

  • Exemptions are made in some cases. A mental
    challenged child may be allowed to have a
    bicycle, for example, or a family with medical
    problems may be allowed to connect to electricity
    to run needed medical equipment.

Examples of Practices Prescribed by the Ordnung
  • color and style of clothing
  • hat styles for men
  • order of the worship service
  • kneeling for prayer in worship
  • marriage within the church
  • use of horses for fieldwork
  • use of Pennsylvania German
  • steel wheels on machinery

Examples of things prohibited by the Ordnung
  • air transportation
  • central heating in homes
  • electricity from public power lines
  • entering military service
  • jewelry, including wedding rings and wrist
  • joining worldly (public) organizations
  • owning computers, televisions, radios
  • using tractors for fieldwork
  • wall-to-wall carpeting (Kraybill 116)

  • Amish are typically baptized around the age of
    nineteen to twenty two. Baptism is viewed as a
    vow that the person agrees to submit to the
    church, the community, and the Ordnung.
  • Worship services are held every other Sunday in
    homes of members. The services traditionally last
    three hours, starting around 800am, lasting
    until 300pm with the meal that follows.

  • Men and women enter the house through different
    doors and sit separately for worship and eating.
  • Except in some New Order or Beach Amish
    districts, services are held in High German.
  • The worship service usually consists of
    fellowship, followed by congregational singing, a
    sermon, prayer, reading of Scripture, another
    sermon, more prayer, and a benediction. A meal is
    served afterward.

  • Who will preach is not decided until that
    morning this precludes any feelings of pride.
    However, only ordained men are allowed to preach.
  • There is no music, offering, cross, candles, or
    any other items likely to be found in a modern
    worship service. The Amish worship as they live
  • Sunday is considered holy a day when no work is
    to be done or money transacted. Even those few
    who smoke refrain from doing so on Sunday.

  • Communion is held twice a year and only after any
    changes to the Ordung have been agreed upon and
    the pastors feel all have fully confessed of
    their sins.
  • The Communion service will last all day, from
    800am to 400pm, culminating in a foot washing
    ceremony in which all members ritually wash each
    others feet.
  • Ministers are chosen by lot from a list of men
    recommended by men in the community.

  • A slip of paper with a Bible verse will be placed
    in a song book each man nominated, who agrees to
    serve, will then take a book from the pile and
    open it. The one whose book has the slip of paper
    is the one who will be ordained.
  • Amish ministers receive no pay, and they serve
    for life. A saying among the Amish is only God
    can fire an Amish minister (Kraybill 130).
  • Ministers are then ordained in the church, after
    which their family will be expected to follow the
    Ordnung to the exacting letter.

  • Within the Amish community, a term is often used
    to describe their life style. This word is
    Gelassenheit. It means, roughly translated, a
    yielding or submission, and it signifies the
    Amish life.

  • Gelassenheit involves submission to the family,
    submission to the community, submission to
    tradition, submission to the Ordnung, submission
    to the church, and most important, submission to

Amish and Technology
  • The Amish have found it increasingly difficult to
    moderate their beliefs with technology. This has
    resulted in some unusual practices throughout the
  • For example, phones are not allowed in homes, but
    the use of them is allowed, so you will see Amish
    using the phones of their non-Amish neighbors or
    the community phone that can be found outside
    stores or some houses.

  • The use of cell phones is increasing among the
    Amish, as they are easily hid from inquiring
    neighbors eyes.
  • Electricity generated from batteries or gas
    powered generators is allowed under the Ordnung.

  • These electricity may be used for things such as
    fence chargers, cow trainers, agitators for bulk
    milk tanks, calculators, adding machines, reading
    lights for the elderly, hand-held drills, small
    motors to operate equipment in shops, welders,
    the electrical tools needed by mobile
    construction crews, and to recharge batteries for
    a variety of uses.

  • It can not be used for general lighting in houses
    or barns, computers, hair dryers, or other
    similar modern electrical appliances, among other
  • If an Amish buys a house from an English, he
    has one year to tear out all electrical wiring in
    the house or face sanctions from the church.

  • Owning a car is grounds for automatic expulsion
    from the order.
  • A child may ride a scooter, but bicycles are
    forbidden. When asked why, one Amish replied, I
    dont know, they just are (Kraybill 12).

Fig. 15 Boy and his scooter
  • One young Amish woman joked that the the men
    make the rules so thats why more modern things
    are permitted in the barn than in the house
    (Kraybill 85).

  • There are three Biblical passages the Amish often
    quote to define who they are and why they live as
    they do.

  • The first verse is Peter 29 "But you are a
    chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy
    nation, a peculiar people.
  • The Amish feel this passage applies to them and
    that if it did not, then it is an indicator that
    something is wrong and must be corrected.

  • The second verse is Matthew 516 "Let your light
    so shine before men, that they may see your good
    works, and glorify your Father which is in
  • This verse is viewed as being directed towards
    themselves. The Amish feel that their plain
    clothes, honesty, generosity, life style, piety,
    and obedience to God are ways the world may see
    their good works and they may glorify God.

  • The third passage comes from 1 Corinthians 214
    "But the natural man receives not the things of
    the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto
    him neither can he know them, because they are
    spiritually discerned.
  • This third verse is seen by the Amish as
    explanation as to why the rest of the world does
    not follow their way of life and why their
    culture seems foolish to those outside their

  • The Amish today face increasing pressure to
    conform to the world. Until now they have managed
    to meld modernity with their beliefs without much
    social upheaval. Only time will tell if they can
    continue to do so successfully.

Works Cited
  • Good, Merle and Phyllis. 20 Most Asked Questions
    about the Amish and Mennonites. Intercourse,
    Pennsylvania Good Books, 1995.
  • Igou, Brad. The Amish in Their Own Words The
    Amish in Their Own Words Amish Writings From
    25 Years of Family Life Magazine. netlibrary. 9
    October 2003. lthttp/ /
  • Jordan, Lara, Jakes. Amish Want Labor Laws for
    Teens Relaxed. 8 October 2003. 10
    October 2003. lthttp//
    s/wire/sns-ap-amish- labor-laws,0,4218895.story?co
  • Kraybill, Donald. The Riddle of Amish Culture.
    netlibrary. 9 October 2003. lthttp//emedia.netlib

Image Credits
  • Figure 1 Plowing the fields. How Stuff Works. 9
    October 2003. lthttp//
  • Figure 2 Graham, Ira. Amish Youth. Ira Graham
    Photography web site. 9 October 2003.
  • Figure 3 Peled, Doran. Amish, Intercourse,
    Pennsylvania. 9 October 2003. lthttp//www.dcs.war
  • Fig. 4 Amish Family. Aaron and Jessicas Buggy
    Rides. 9 October 2003. lthttp//www.amishbuggyride
  • Figure 5 Anabaptist being burnt at the stake.
    The Hutterian Brethren. 9 October 2003.
  • Figure 6 Compassion for the Enemy. Mennonite
    Quarterly Review. 9 October 2003.
  • Figure 7 Old Order Amish Couple. Library of
    Congress Photo Archives. 9 October 2003.
  • Figure 8 Old Order Amish at a horse auction.
    Pennsylvania Press Association. 9 October 2003.

  • Figure 9 Mennonite Historical Society of Canada.
    9 October 2003. lthttp//
  • Figure 10 R.C. Quilts. 9 October 2003.
  • Figure 11 9 October 2003. lthttp//www.mountainedg
  • Figure 12 Mennonite Historical Society of
    Canada. 9 October 2003. lthttp//
  • Figure 13 Who are the Amish? 9 October 2003.
    lthttp// page2.htmgt.
  • Figure 14 Who are the Amish. 9 October 2003.
    lthttp// page2.htmgt.
  • Figure 15 Aaron and Jessicas Buggy Rides. 9
    October 2003. lthttp//
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