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MEDIEVAL MILLENNIUM

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Title: MEDIEVAL MILLENNIUM


1
  • MEDIEVAL MILLENNIUM
  • OBJECTS OF DESIRE
  • 9. GOTHIC
  • March 12 2003

2
  • Tues Mar 11 Gothic
  • Thur Mar 13 Visit to Saint John the Divine (meet
    on the steps)
  • Tues Mar 18 Spring Break
  • Thur Mar 20 Spring Break
  • Tues Mar 25 Technology
  • Thur Mar 27 Response
  • Tues Apr 1 Monasticism
  • Thurs Apr 3 Pilgrimage
  • Tues Apr 8 Body of Christ
  • Thur Apr 10 Cult of Saints
  • Tues Apr 15 Mary
  • Thur Apr 17 Devotional Images
  • Tues Apr 22 Love
  • Thur Apr 24 Warfare
  • Tues Apr 29 Death
  • Thur Apr 1 End

3
  • Readings
  • Enamels of Limoges, Techniques and Materials,
    48-64
  • P. Barnet, Images in Ivory
  • R. Toman, The Art of Gothic as reference source
  • Not on reserve
  • E. Panofsky, Abbot Suger on the Art Treasures of
    Saint-Denis
  • J. Bony, French Gothic Architecture of the 12th
    and 13th Centuries
  • W. Sauerländer, French Gothic Sculpture

4
  • GOTHIC
  • Historiography
  • The limits of classification
  • Architectural privileging
  • Entelechy
  • A common style implies enhanced communications
    critical response
  • This is a sociological/anthropological problem
  • Tensions between forces of centralization and
    local identity

5
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6
Pontault Chapter House
7
Soissons Cathedral Rib Vaults
8
Saint-Denis
9
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10
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11
Paris, Notre-Dame
12
Paris, Notre-Dame
13
Paris, fourteenth century
14
  • Gothic Technology
  • An architectural paradigm shift. Diaphanous
    architectural envelope light stained glass
    light-reflective liturgical objects. Metallurgy
    glass production--technology
  • Columns and vaults
  • Antique revival
  • Increased interest in Nature/naturalism
  • Monumental sculpture. Intelligibility
  • Platonic affect achieved through Aristotelian
    reason

15
Stained Glass from Saint-Denis
16
Christ with 2 Apostles, Troyes, c 1170-80
17
Troyes
18
Bourges Last Judgement
19
Bourges Last Judgement
20
Bourges Last Judgement
21
Panel with God blessing the Doors of Noahs Ark,
Poitiers Cathedral c 1190
22
Tree of Jesse Swabia, c1290
23
Tree of Jesse Swabia, c1290
24
  • Theophilus, c.1100 On the Various Arts
  • 3 Books--Painting, glass and metal.
  • The importance of the Prologue Book I, p. 11
  • We read in the account of the creation of the
    world that man was created in the image and
    likeness of God and was given life by the
    breathing-in of the Divine breath that by the
    excelling quality of such distinction he was
    preferred above all living creatures, so that,
    capable of reason, he might participate
    deservedly in the wisdom and skill of Gods
    design, and that, endowed with freedom of choice,
    he should respect the will and revere the
    sovereignty of his Creator alone. But, although
    he lost the privilege of immortality through the
    sin of disobedience, being pitifully deceived by
    the cunning of the devil, nevertheless he
    transmitted to the generations of posterity his
    distinction of knowledge and intelligence, so
    that whoever devotes care and attention to the
    task can acquire, a by hereditary right, the
    capacity for the whole range of art and skill.

25
God as creator. Moralized Bible (Vienna) c 1210
26
  • Prologue Book II, p. 47
  • Therefore, longing to be an imitator of this man
    Paul, extolling manual labor, I drew to the
    forecourt of holy Wisdom and I saw the sanctuary
    filled with variety of all kinds of different
    colors, displaying the utility and nature of each
    pigment. I entered it unseen and immediately
    filled the storeroom of my heart fully with all
    these things. I examined them one by one with
    careful experiment, testing them all by eye and
    by hand, an I have committed them to you in
    clarity and without envy for your study. Since
    this method of painting on glass cannot be
    obvious, I worked hard like a careful
    investigator using every means to learn by what
    skilled arts the variety of pigments could
    decorate the work without repelling the daylight
    and the rays of the sun.

27
  • 1. Building the glass furnace (clay)

28
  • The raw material ash from beechwood logs mixed
    with sand placed in iron melting pot and fired.
  • Blowing the glass with a pipe. Split and flatten
    bubbles
  • Colors--yellow and purple--can result from the
    length of firing
  • Laying out the window on a whitewashed table
  • Cutting the glass with a red-hot iron and a
    grozing iron
  • The pigment for painting glass--made from copper
    that has been burnt to a powder mixed with green
    and Byzantine blue glass ground up with urine
  • Fire the glass in a clay kiln

29
Iron mold for casting lead H sections
The kiln for firing painted glass
30
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31
Reliquary Head of Saint Yreix, Silver gilt with
wooden core, c 1220-40, Limoges Saint Yreix was
the sixth-century founder of a monastery in the
town south of Limoges that bears his name. On
feast days the head would be carried throught he
streets in procession and then placed on the
altar for the veneration of the faithful
32
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33
Châsse of Champagnat, Limoges, 1150, from the
church of S-Martial, Champagnat
34
  • Limoges enameling of the 12th century. Enameling
    is a vitreous or glass paste (occasionally
    ceramic) used to decorate metal.
  • Cloisonné enamel has thin wires (cloisons)
    soldered to the metal (copper) base.
  • Champlevé enamel made by gouging large troughs
    in thick metal base into which the glass powder
    or paste is set.
  • The first bishop of Limoges glorified with the
    Apostles and the Virgin Mary
  • Read Techniques and Materials in Limoges
    Enamels Enamels of Limoges, 48-60

35
  • Read Techniques and Materials in Limoges
    Enamels Enamels of Limoges, 48-60
  • Raw material. Copper obtained mostly from the
    Harz mountains in Lower Saxony and from southern
    Spain
  • Champlevé goes back to Celtic and Gaelic
    practices. Limoges tradition used incised
    hammered sheets 2-5mm thick hammered from cast
    ingots rather than cast-in cells. Ie more like
    cloisonné technique. The sheets would be
    periodically annealed or heated to relieve
    stresses.
  • Coppper surfaces would be purged of grease
    through salt, vingar or urine

36
  • Enamels are made from glass either produced
    specifically for the purpose or recycled. The
    glass rendered to a powder, fired and polished.
    To powder glass you heat sheet and drop it in
    cold water then grinding water with a pestle.
  • Using a sharpened quill the enameler placed the
    slightly damp powdered glass--differed colors
    could be placed in the same cell. The object
    then covered by a domed iron lid pierced by many
    holes glowing charcoal heaped around the iron
    lid and fanned with bellows
  • Polishing done with abrasives starting with flat
    coarse limestone with water as lubricant and
    ending with saliva and finely ground potsherd
    rubbed with a goatskin.

37
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38
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39
Reliquary Casket with Scenes from the Martyrdom
of Saint Thomas Becket, 1173-80, England
40
Scenes from the Life of Christ, champlevé enamel,
Cologne, 1150-60
41
The Letter Tau, Champlevé Enamel, Rhenish, c 1200
42
Moses, Aaron and the Brazen Serpent, Rhenish c
1200
43
Baptism of Christ, c.1150
44
Crucifixion, Mosan, c1150
45
Nativity, Champlevé, Mosan, 1165
46
Annunciation to the Shepherds, Mosan, 1165
47
Central Plaque of a Cross, Limoges, c 1185
48
Trilobed Arches. Workshop of Nicholas of Verdun,
Cologne, c 1181-1230
49
Coupled Colonnettes and Capital, Champlevé
enamel, c. 1186, possibly from the shrine of St
Pantaleon, Cologne
50
Saint-Denis
51
Column Figure from Saint-Denis
52
Saint-Denis
53
S-Denis center portal
54
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55
Column figure of an Apostle, Style of Guglielmo
di Verona, late 12th C
56
Column figure of Saint Hilarius of Galatea, late
12th C, N Italy, Abbey of Saint Ellero de Balatea
57
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58
Head of a king from the Portail Ste-Anne,
Notre-Dame, Paris, c 1160
59
Paris, Notre-Dame
60
Paris, Notre-Dame
61
Paris, Notre-Dame, Ste Anne portal column figures
62
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63
Old Testament Priest (Aaron) from Noyon Cathedral
c 1170
64
Reims Cathedral, Central Portal, c1215-40
65
Head of a king, N. French, c1230
66
Head of a king, N. French, c1220
67
Old Testament King, Nitalian c 1200-1250
68
  • The Sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt.
  • Bibliothèque nationale
  • Call it a portfolio
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