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Imperialism and Nationalism during the 19th century

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By the end of Victoria's reign, one-third of Africa was under British rule ... http://www.pbs.org/empires/victoria/secrets/index.html# 'The Sun Never Sets' RUSSIA ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Imperialism and Nationalism during the 19th century


1
Imperialism and Nationalism during the 19th
century
  • Western Civilizations

2
The Congress of Vienna
  • Held Sept. 1814 through June 1815
  • Goal?
  • rebuild Europe after the downfall of Napoleon I
  • Bring back monarchy
  • Effect?
  • Denial of democracy and nationalism
  • "put the genie back in the            
    bottle"       

3
Map of Europe after The Congress of Vienna 1815
4
European Imperialism
  • Reasons for European Imperialism during the 19th
    century
  • Scientific expeditions
  • Economics
  • Raw materials
  • Control of the source of materials to support
    manufacturing
  • Break the monopoly on materials controlled by
    another country
  • Control of markets
  • Wanted to end slavery (1700's and early 1800's)
  • Especially strong in England
  • Brazil had the largest slave trade in the world
  • The US had prohibited the trading of slaves even
    though slavery was still practiced

5
BRITAIN
6
British Empire
  • Early 1600s
  • North American
  • Asia under the East India Company
  • Beginnings of the Empire
  • 1707
  • Union with Scotland and Wales (1707)
  • 1800
  • Union with Ireland
  • 1921
  • Ireland won its independence
  • Except Northern Ireland is still part of the
    United Kingdom

7
Explorers and scientists
  • James Cook (1728-1779)
  • Discovered many lands
  • Australia, New Zealand, Tahiti, Samoa, Hawaii,
    and others
  • HMS Beagle (1831)
  • Darwin
  • Investigation of botanical and animal species
    around the world
  • David Livingstone (1813-1873)
  • Missionary/explorer in Africa
  • Famous for his
  • mapping of the Zambezi River
  • search for the source of the Nile

James Cook
HMS Beagle
David Livingstone
8
Expansion into Africa by Britain
  • British trade expanded throughout Africa during
    the 1700's and 1800's
  • When local tribes were unstable Britain would
    take control
  • Result of the Boer War
  • South Africa strengthened and held against
    natives
  • Established a protectorate over Egypt
  • Suez Canal
  • Extended its rule from Egypt to the Sudan
  • By the end of Victoria's reign, one-third of
    Africa was under British rule

9
Queen Victoria 1837-1901
  • Her most lasting achievement was the Empire
  • sun never set.
  • During her reign she conquered
  • Egypt in 1881
  • Canada in 1867
  • Empress of India in 1876
  • After her death in 1901
  • Edward VII conquered Australia and New Zealand in
    1907
  • South Africa in 1910
  • Ireland in 1922

Portrait of Queen Victoria in her Coronation
robes and wearing the State Diadem
http//www.pbs.org/empires/victoria/secrets/index.
html
10
The Sun Never Sets
11
RUSSIA
12
Russia
  • Romanoff Dynasty
  • Longest dynasty in Europe
  • Thought of themselves as the next Roman Empire
  • Russian expansion
  • Baltic states
  • Central Asia and Siberia
  • Black Sea ports
  • Crimean War (1853-1856)
  • Russia was defeated by Britain and France
  • Effects?
  • Russia began a strong effort at industrialization
  • not too successfully
  • Russia built up its military

13
Russia Revolution of 1905
  • Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War
  • large group went to ask Czar Nicholas II for
    improved living conditions
  • Nicholas was out of the city
  • Troops opened fire on the people
  • killing many
  • People all over Russia turned against the Czar
  • many strikes
  • peasant revolts
  • troop mutinies
  • Nicholas was forced to accept a Manifesto
  • limited his power
  • Created a representative body
  • The Duma

Czar Nicholas II
14
FRANCE
15
Lots of leaders throughout the 1800s
  • Louis XVIII
  • Younger brother of Louis XVI
  • Kept many of the changes made under Napoleon
  • Charles X
  • Tried to undo the Napoleonic changes
  • Revolution of 1830
  • toppled Charles X who went to England in exile
  • Louis Philippe
  • Became king after agreeing to some changes
  • 1848 worker revolt
  • Louis Philippe loses power

16
Lots of leaders throughout the 1800s
  • Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Elected president in 1848
  • Second Republic was declared
  • declared the Second Empire
  • called himself Napoleon III
  • Napoleon III was overthrown in 1870
  • result of France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian
    War
  • The Third Republic was proclaimed
  • coup d'etat in 1871
  • series of weak governments until WWI
  • Expansion into Africa
  • North Africa was occupied by the French in 1834

17
Spain
18
Loss of Territories
  • Early 1800s
  • Revolutions in South America almost all of
    Spain's territories away
  • Mexico gained its independence
  • 1833
  • Liberals took control
  • Isabella II became a constitutional monarch
  • eventually overthrown
  • 1876
  • Stable constitutional monarchy
  • Eventually Spain became chaotic and another
    revolution ensued
  • still unstable even though it kept power until
    after WWI

19
Belgium
20
Belgium
  • 1830s
  • constitutional monarchy with Leopold as king
  • Queen Victorias uncle
  • 1884
  • Colonized the Belgian Congo

21
Germany
22
Political Changes
  • During the Middle Ages
  • divided into small states
  • A strong German identity existed
  • The Congress of Vienna 1815
  • Created a German Confederation
  • The Revolution of 1848
  • Set off by the French revolution of 1848
  • People wanted a truly national and more
    representative congress
  • A constitution and limited monarchy was
    established

23
Bismark and Wilhelm
  • 1862 Otto von Bismarck became prime minister
  • policy of military expansion
  • started a war with
  • Austria
  • Won it in 7 days
  • The Franco-Prussian war
  • Germans defeated the French (1870)
  • German Empire was created
  • Wilhelm I became the kaiser
  • Bismarck became the chancellor
  • Colonized several states in East Africa and Samoa

Otto von Bismarck
24
Italy
25
Italy
  • Middle Ages
  • bunch of small states
  • Revolution of 1848
  • Austrians were defeated
  • Counter-revolution of 1849
  • restored all of Austria's holdings
  • eliminated the republics
  • toppled the throne in Sardinia
  • Victor Emmanuel II was put on the throne as a
    more enlightened leader
  • War of 1859
  • 1849 to 1859
  • Italian people wanted an Italian kingdom run by
    Victor Emmanuel II
  • Idea was suppressed by the Austrians

Italy in 1848
26
Italy
  • The Kingdom of Italy was declared which covered
    all of northern Italy and Sardinia
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • Began a revolt in Sicily in 1860
  • Freed it from the Bourbons (king of Sicily)
  • Garibaldi and his red shirt army marched
    northward and captured Naples where the people
    were already in revolt
  • Garibaldi united his territories with those of
    Victor Emmanuel II as King of Italy
  • Rome was also conquered (1870) and the Papal
    States taken over with only Vatican City given to
    the church as its territory
  • All Italy, except San Marino and Vatican City,
    are under one government
  • Creativity and Nationalism
  • Can political change be considered creative?
  • Is political stability a force for or against
    creativity?
  • Is nationalism a spur for creativity or a
    detriment?
  • What were the forces behind Empire building?
  • Did the Victorian attitude toward life promote or
    detract from creativity?
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