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EEC484584 Computer Networks

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Title: EEC484584 Computer Networks


1
EEC-484/584Computer Networks
  • Lecture 4
  • Wenbing Zhao
  • wenbing_at_ieee.org
  • (Part of the slides are based on Drs. Kurose
    Rosss slides for their Computer Networking book)

2
Outline
  • Principles of networked applications
  • Web and HTTP

3
Application Layer Protocols
  • Principles of networked applications
  • Client server model
  • Sockets
  • Addressing
  • Protocol
  • What do we need from transport layer?

4
Creating a Network Application
  • Write programs that
  • run on different end systems and
  • communicate over a network
  • No need to write code for devices in subnet
  • Subnet devices do not run user application code
  • application on end systems allows for rapid app
    development, propagation

5
Inter-Process Communications
  • Process program running within a host
  • Processes in different hosts communicate by
    exchanging messages
  • Client process process that initiates
    communication
  • Server process process that waits to be
    contacted

6
Sockets
  • Process sends/receives messages to/from its
    socket
  • For each point-to-point connection, there are two
    sockets, one on each side
  • API (1) choice of transport protocol (2)
    ability to fix a few parameters

Controlled by app developer
Internet
Controlled by OS
7
Addressing
  • To receive messages, process must have
    identifier
  • Host device has unique 32-bit IP address
  • Question Does IP address of host on which
    process runs suffice for identifying the process?

8
Addressing
  • Identifier includes both IP address and port
    numbers (16-bit) associated with process on host
  • Example port numbers
  • HTTP server 80
  • SSH server 22
  • To send HTTP request to academic.csuohio.edu Web
    server
  • IP address 137.148.49.46
  • Port number 80

9
Application Layer Protocol Defines
  • Types of messages exchanged
  • e.g., request, response
  • Message syntax
  • what fields in messages how fields are
    delineated
  • Message semantics
  • meaning of information in fields
  • Rules for when and how processes send respond
    to messages
  • Public-domain protocols
  • defined in RFCs
  • allows for interoperability
  • e.g., HTTP, SMTP
  • Proprietary protocols
  • e.g., KaZaA

10
What Transport Service Does an Application Need?
  • Data loss
  • some apps (e.g., audio) can tolerate some loss
  • other apps (e.g., file transfer, telnet) require
    100 reliable data transfer
  • Bandwidth
  • some apps (e.g., multimedia) require minimum
    amount of bandwidth to be effective
  • other apps (elastic apps) make use of whatever
    bandwidth they get
  • Timing
  • some apps (e.g., Internet telephony, interactive
    games) require low delay to be effective

11
The World Wide Web
  • Creation of Tim Berners-Lee, in 1989 CERN nuclear
    physics research
  • Mosaic first graphical interface, creation of
    Marc Andersson (and others), precursor to
    Netscape
  • Uses a client-server architecture
  • Web server
  • Web browser
  • Runs on HTTP over TCP

12
Web and HTTP
  • Web page consists of objects
  • Object can be HTML file, JPEG image, Java applet,
    audio file,
  • Web page consists of base HTML-file which
    includes several referenced objects
  • Each object is addressable by a URL
  • The idea of having one page point to another is
    called hypertext
  • Invented by Vannevar Bush, a MIT EE professor, in
    1945

13
URL Uniform Resource Locater
  • Example URL
  • URL encodes three types of information
  • What is the page called local path name
    uniquely indicating the specific page
  • Where is the page located Host name of the
    server on which the page is located
  • How can the page be accessed protocol, e.g.,
    http, ftp

14
Some Common URLs
15
HTTP Overview
  • HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol
  • Webs application layer protocol
  • client/server model
  • HTTP 1.0 RFC 1945
  • HTTP 1.1 RFC 2068

HTTP request
PC running Explorer
HTTP response
HTTP request
Server running Apache Web server
HTTP response
Mac running Navigator
16
HTTP Overview
  • Uses TCP
  • Client initiates TCP connection (creates socket)
    to server, port 80
  • Server accepts TCP connection from client
  • HTTP messages (application-layer protocol
    messages) exchanged between browser (HTTP client)
    and Web server (HTTP server)
  • TCP connection closed

17
HTTP Overview
  • HTTP is stateless
  • Server maintains no information about past client
    requests
  • Protocols that maintain state are complex!
  • Past history (state) must be maintained
  • If server/client crashes, their views of state
    may be inconsistent, must be reconciled

18
HTTP Connections
  • Nonpersistent HTTP
  • At most one object is sent over a TCP connection
  • HTTP/1.0 uses nonpersistent HTTP
  • Persistent HTTP
  • Multiple objects can be sent over single TCP
    connection between client and server
  • HTTP/1.1 uses persistent connections in default
    mode

19
Nonpersistent HTTP
(contains text, references to 10 jpeg images)
  • Suppose user enters URL http//www.someSchool.edu/
    someDept/home.index
  • 1a. HTTP client initiates TCP connection to HTTP
    server at www.someSchool.edu on port 80

1b. HTTP server at host www.someSchool.edu
waiting for TCP connection at port 80. accepts
connection, notifying client
2. HTTP client sends HTTP request message
(containing URL) into TCP connection socket.
Message indicates that client wants object
someDept/home.index
3. HTTP server receives request message, forms
response message containing requested object, and
sends message into its socket
time
20
Nonpersistent HTTP
4. HTTP server closes TCP connection.
  • 5. HTTP client receives response message
    containing html file, displays html. Parsing
    html file, finds 10 referenced jpeg objects

time
6. Steps 1-5 repeated for each of 10 jpeg objects
21
Non-Persistent HTTP Response Time
  • Definition of RTT time to send a small packet to
    travel from client to server and back (Round Trip
    Time)

22
Non-Persistent HTTP Response Time
  • Response time
  • one RTT to initiate TCP connection
  • one RTT for HTTP request and first few bytes of
    HTTP response to return
  • file transmission time
  • Total 2RTTtransmit time

23
Non-Persistent HTTP Issues
  • Requires 2 RTTs per object
  • OS overhead for each TCP connection
  • Browsers often open parallel TCP connections to
    fetch referenced objects (to reduce response
    time)

24
Persistent HTTP
  • Server leaves connection open after sending
    response
  • Subsequent HTTP messages between same
    client/server sent over open connection

25
Persistent HTTP
  • Persistent without pipelining
  • Client issues new request only when previous
    response has been received
  • One RTT for each referenced object
  • Persistent with pipelining
  • Default in HTTP/1.1
  • Client sends requests as soon as it encounters a
    referenced object
  • As little as one RTT for all the referenced
    objects

26
HTTP Request Message
  • Two types of HTTP messages request, response
  • HTTP request message
  • ASCII (human-readable format)

27
HTTP Request Message General Format
28
Uploading Form Input
  • Post method
  • Web page often includes form input
  • Input is uploaded to server in entity body
  • URL method
  • Uses GET method
  • Input is uploaded in URL field of request line

http//www.somesite.com/animalsearch?monkeysbanan
a
29
Method types
  • HTTP/1.0
  • GET
  • POST
  • HEAD
  • Asks server to include only the header part in
    response
  • HTTP/1.1
  • GET, POST, HEAD
  • PUT
  • Uploads file in entity body to path specified in
    URL field
  • DELETE
  • Deletes file specified in the URL field

30
HTTP Response Message
status line (protocol status code status phrase)
HTTP/1.1 200 OK Connection close Date Thu, 06
Aug 1998 120015 GMT Server Apache/1.3.0
(Unix) Last-Modified Mon, 22 Jun 1998 ...
Content-Length 6821 Content-Type text/html
data data data data data ...
header lines
data, e.g., requested HTML file
31
HTTP Response Status Codes
Status code is in first line of the response
message
  • 200 OK
  • request succeeded, requested object later in this
    message
  • 301 Moved Permanently
  • requested object moved, new location specified
    later in this message (Location)
  • 400 Bad Request
  • request message not understood by server
  • 404 Not Found
  • requested document not found on this server
  • 505 HTTP Version Not Supported

32
Trying out HTTP
  • 1. Telnet to your favorite Web server

Opens TCP connection to port 80 (default HTTP
server port) at cis.poly.edu. Anything typed in
sent to port 80 at cis.poly.edu
telnet cis.poly.edu 80
2. Type in a GET HTTP request
By typing this in (hit carriage return twice),
you send this minimal (but complete) GET request
to HTTP server
GET /ross/ HTTP/1.1 Host cis.poly.edu
3. Look at response message sent by HTTP server!
33
Web Caching
Goal satisfy client request without involving
origin server
  • user sets browser Web accesses via proxy server
  • browser sends all HTTP requests to proxy server
  • object in cache returns cached object
  • else cache requests object from origin server,
    then returns object to client

origin server
Proxy server
HTTP request
HTTP request
client
HTTP response
HTTP response
HTTP request
HTTP response
client
origin server
34
More about Web Caching
  • Proxy server acts as both client and server
  • Typically proxy server is installed by ISP
    (university, company, residential ISP)
  • Why Web caching?
  • Reduce response time for client request
  • Reduce traffic on an institutions access link
  • Internet dense with caches enables poor
    content providers to effectively deliver content

35
Conditional GET
Origin Server
Proxy server
  • Goal dont send object if cache is up-to-date
  • Proxy server specify date of cached copy in HTTP
    request
  • If-modified-since ltdategt
  • Origin server response contains no object if
    cached copy is up-to-date
  • HTTP/1.0 304 Not Modified

HTTP request msg If-modified-since ltdategt
object not modified
HTTP request msg If-modified-since ltdategt
object modified
HTTP response HTTP/1.0 200 OK ltdatagt
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