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Addressing Student Achievement Problems Using Robert Marzanos The Art and Science of Teaching Publis

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Title: Addressing Student Achievement Problems Using Robert Marzanos The Art and Science of Teaching Publis


1
Addressing Student Achievement Problems Using
Robert Marzanos The Art and Science of
Teaching Published by the Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development
(ASCD)John L. Brown, Ph.D., Presenter
2
Essential Questions for The Art and Science of
Teaching
  • What does educational research tell us works best
    to promote high levels of achievement for all
    learners?
  • What instructional strategies promote both equity
    and excellence?
  • How can we engage and challenge all learners?
  • How can educators work with students to manage
    classrooms so that they become inviting
    communities of learning?
  • What are the elements of effective lesson and
    unit designs that promote high levels of student
    understanding and transfer?

3
Objectives for This Session
  • Participants will be able to
  • Describe research-based strategies to improve the
    teaching-learning process.
  • Address 10 universal student achievement issues
    and problems using action steps and strategies
    identified by Robert Marzano.
  • Develop action steps to implement workshop
    strategies and processes in their classroom,
    school, and/or district.

4
Factors Influencing Achievement
1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
2. Challenging Goals and Effective
Feedback 3. Parent and Community
Involvement 4. Safe and
Orderly Environment
5. Collegiality and Professionalism
6. Instructional Strategies 7. Classroom
Management 8. Classroom Curriculum Design
9. Home Environment 10. Learning Intelligence/
Background Knowledge 11 Motivation
5
Three Components of Effective Classroom Pedagogy
Effective Classroom Pedagogy
Use of effective instructional strategies
Use of effective management strategies
Use of effective classroom curriculum design strat
egies
6
Instructional Design Questions
  • What will I do to establish and communicate
    learning goals, track student progress, and
    celebrate success? (Instruction)
  • What will I do to help students effectively
    interact with new knowledge? (Instruction)
  • What will I do to help students practice and
    deepen their understanding of new knowledge?
    (Instruction)
  • What will I do to help students generate and test
    hypotheses about new knowledge? (Instruction)
  • What will I do to engage students? (Classroom
    Management)
  • What will I do to establish or maintain classroom
    rules or procedures? (Classroom Management)
  • What will I do to recognize and acknowledge
    adherence and lack of adherence to classroom
    rules and procedures? (Classroom Management)
  • What will I do to establish and maintain
    effective relationships with students? (Classroom
    Management)
  • What will I do to communicate high expectations
    for all students? (Classroom Management)
  • What will I do to develop effective lessons,
    organized into a cohesive unit? (Lesson and Unit
    Design)

7
Warm-Up Activities
  • As you begin this session, identify your personal
    learning objectives for this session. Then, share
    them with a partner.
  • With your partner, identify what you each
    consider to be the one or two most significant
    student achievement problems (from the list on
    Page 1).

8
Ten Universal Student Achievement Problems
  • Student apathy and disengagement
  • Students lack of efficacy and self-worth
  • The achievement gap data revealing a performance
    gap between low-expectancy and
    high-expectancy students
  • Discipline problems related to classroom
    management
  • Students lack of understanding of standards
  • Student inability to self-regulate and track
    progress
  • Student passivity Let the teacher do the work.
  • Lack of higher-order reasoning and critical
    thinking
  • Reading comprehension problems
  • Lack of mathematical reasoning and
    problem-solving competency, esp. in real-life,
    authentic situations, tasks, and applications

9
  • Student Achievement Problem 1
  • Student apathy and disengagement from the
    learning process

10
Signs of Problem 1
  • Low levels of energy during whole group, small
    group, and/or independent work
  • Lack of participation in the learning process
  • Students failure to see how what they are
    learning relates to them as individuals and to
    their world
  • Failure to find meaning, purpose, and/or
    connectedness to content and process

11
Instructional Design Question 5 What will I
do to engage students?
12
What Does Research Tell Us About Engaging
Students in the Learning Process? (Part I)
  • Engaging studentsi.e., capturing their attention
    and helping them to develop a sense of
    efficacygreatly enhances their knowledge of
    academic content.
  • Engagement can be a combination of behavioral,
    emotional, and cognitive factors.
  • According to Reeve (2006) When engagement is
    characterized by the full range of on-task
    behavior, positive emotions, invested cognition,
    and personal voice, if functions as the engine
    for learning and development.

13
What Are the Major Research-Based Factors That
Contribute to Student Engagement? (Part II)
  • High Energy periodic opportunities for physical
    activity, good pacing, and teacher enthusiasm and
    intensity.
  • Missing Information tapping into students
    curiosity and anticipation clozentropy
    (Broadhurst Darnell, 1965), i.e., the brains
    natural inclination to create wholes in the face
    of parts appealing to innate goal-seeking.

14
What Are the Major Research-Based Factors That
Contribute to Student Engagement? (Part III)
  • The Self-System Appealing to students enduring
    values and believes by distinguishing between the
    me self (i.e., specific to situations or
    context) vs. the I self (reflective of more
    enduring, higher-order, and value-driven
    principles that form the character in
    character education).
  • Mild Pressure Ensuring that pressure is at the
    right level of intensity and for the right
    duration of time (e.g., wait time, random
    calling).

15
What Are the Major Research-Based Factors That
Contribute to Student Engagement? (Part IV)
  • Mild Controversy and Competition Jensen (2005)
    calls this component engineered controversy.
    It can be engendered through such processes as
    (a) structured debate, (b) comparison
    and contrast of competing perspectives about a
    controversial issue or topic and (c) games and
    tournaments (e.g., Kagans STAD).

16
Research-Based Strategies for Engagement
  • Games
  • Inconsequential competition
  • Manage questions and response rates
  • Physical movement
  • Pacing
  • Friendly controversy
  • Opportunities for students to talk about
    themselves
  • Unusual information

17
5. What will I do to engage students?
  • Action Step 1 Use games that focus on academic
    content.
  • Action Step 2 Use inconsequential competition.
  • Action Step 3 Manage questions and response
    rates.
  • Action Step 4 Use physical movement.
  • Action Step 5 Use appropriate pacing.
  • Action Step 6 Demonstrate intensity and
    enthusiasm for content.
  • Action Step 7 Engage students in friendly
    controversy.
  • Action Step 8 Provide opportunities for students
    to talk about themselves.
  • Action Step 9 Provide unusual information.

18
  • Action Step 1
  • Use games that focus on academic content.

19
Marzanos Six-Step Process for Effective
Vocabulary Instruction
  • Teacher provides a description, explanation, or
    example of the new term.
  • Students restate the explanation of the new term
    in their own words.
  • Students create a non-linguistic representation
    of the term.
  • Periodically, students do activities that help
    them add to their knowledge of key vocabulary
    terms.
  • Periodically, students are asked to discuss the
    terms with one another.
  • Periodically, students are involved in games that
    allow them to play with the terms.

20
Sample Games Focused on Academic Content
  • What Is the Question? Based on Jeopardy! in this
    game the teacher reveals a term and students
    state a question for which the concept would be
    the answer.
  • Name That Category Based on The 100,00 Pyramid,
    this game helps students focus on attributes of a
    concept represented by or associated with terms
    as they determine what the terms in a list have
    in common.
  • Talk a Mile a Minute Students are given a list
    of terms that have been organized into
    categories. The designated talker talks a mile a
    minute to get team members to identify how a
    list of words all reflect a unifying concept or
    generalization.
  • Classroom Feud Based on Family Feud, the teacher
    functions as question asker and judge. One
    student from each team serves as responder with
    team members agreeing or disagreeing with the
    answer given.

21
Classroom Feud
22
Rules for Classroom Feud
  • Students form teams (on the spot or ongoing).
  • The number of questions should be even and based
    on how many students are in the class.
  • Questions are asked of each team in alternating
    patterns.
  • Teacher is questioner and judge of correctness.
  • One student from each team serves as responder,
    with students taking terms systematically.
  • Teacher presents a question to responder, who
    shares his or her answer with team members.
  • Team members decide if the answer is or is not
    correct. If they disagree with responder, they
    offer alternatives.
  • Responder has 15 seconds to decide which question
    to present.
  • If answer is correct, team receives a point. If
    incorrect, opposite team can give an alternative
    answer. (Most recent responder acts as team
    responder.)
  • When every student on both teams has served as
    responder, the team with the most points wins.

23
  • Action Step 2
  • Use inconsequential competition.

24
Inconsequential Competition
  • Students compete, but in the spirit of fun.
  • Teacher periodically organizes students into
    small groups, with membership changing regularly
    (e.g., high content mastery mixed with low
    mastery).
  • This competition blends nicely with games,
    puzzles, and tournaments.
  • Over time, winning teams can be singled out with
    minor rewards.

25
  • Action Step 3
  • Manage questions and
  • response rates.

26
Strategies for Managing Questions and Response
Rates (I)
  • Wait Time (a) Post-teacher-question wait time
    (b) within-student pause time (c)
    post-student-response wait time (d)
    teacher-pause time and (e) impact pause time.
  • Response Cards Students use small chalkboards or
    whiteboards for writing and erasing responses and
    comments. Responses can include (a)
    forced-choice (b) multiple-choice (c)
    fill-in-the-blanks and (d) class votes.

27
Strategies for Managing Questions and Response
Rates (II)
  • Choral Response Also called unison response,
    used to help students to help students review or
    correct responses and revisit misunderstandings.
  • Response Chaining Linking or chaining students
    responses by (a) asking a question to which a
    specific student responds (b) class as a whole
    votes on its accuracy (c) teacher selects a
    student who voted accurately to supply a correct
    or fuller response or answer a new question if
    the original response was accurate. (Foam ball
    variation)

28
  • Action Step 4
  • Use physical movement.

29
Strategies for Physical Movement
  • Stand up and stretch (the oxygen effect)
  • Body representations (acting out important
    content)
  • Give one, get one (standing, students compare
    notes and identify additions)
  • Vote with your feet (Correct? Partially correct?
    Incorrect?)

30
  • Action Step 5
  • Use appropriate pacing.

31
Maximizing Lesson Design
  • Pacing and flow of activity greatly complement
    the learning process.
  • Begin with well-established procedures for common
    administrative tasks (e.g., distributing
    materials).
  • Ensure smooth transitions from activity to
    activity.
  • Make certain students understand what they are
    doing, why they are doing it, and why transitions
    are occurring.
  • Help students to move from (a) initial knowledge
    acquisition toward (b) deepening understanding
    via practice and coaching toward (c) independent
    transfer.

32
  • Action Step 6
  • Demonstrate intensity and enthusiasm for content.

33
Intensity and Enthusiasm
  • Good and Brophy (2003) emphasize the importance
    of verbal and non-verbal behavior to communicate
    intensity and enthusiasm for content.
  • Use strategies to convey intensity and cue
    attention.
  • Emphasize key words, vocal modulations, and
    exaggerated gestures to stress key content.
  • Intensely scan the group to look for signs of
    understanding or confusion.
  • Use tone and manner to stress the importance and
    academic significance of what is being taught.
  • Use these strategies appropriately as necessary
    but not so often that they become predictable to
    students.

34
  • Action Step 7
  • Engage students in
  • friendly controversy.

35
Friendly Controversy
  • Engage students in dialogue regarding significant
    topics about which they have different opinions.
  • Carefully select the issues to avoid
    overheating.
  • Engage as many students as possible in the
    debate.
  • Use sides or corners to collect groups with
    similar perspectives, with students representing
    one position presenting their case.
  • Students in the middle can move to one side or
    corner, when they experience themselves
    convinced by the evidence of one group vs.
    another.

36
  • Action Step 8
  • Provide opportunities for students to talk
  • about themselves.

37
Revealing and Acknowledging the I Self
  • Create opportunities for students to talk about
    themselves and things that interest them.
  • Ask students to relate academic content to their
    personal interests and experiences.
  • Use opportunities for students to find analogies
    and connections between their prior experiences
    and strategies they are learning.
  • Through this process, find ways to incorporate
    student interests into task design.

38
  • Action Step 9
  • Provide unusual information.

39
The H (Hook) Concept
  • At the beginning of key juncture points in your
    teaching/unit, hook students imagination and
    motivation by engaging them in thought-provoking,
    interactive, and intriguing learning activities
    that anticipate or foreshadow key unit content.

40
FOR EXAMPLE, at the beginning of a life science
or biology unit on the human body
  • Babies are born with 300 bones. Adults have 206.
  • A sneeze can travel more than 100 miles per hour.
  • Every person has a unique tongue print.
  • A fingernail or toenail takes about six months to
    grow from base to tip.
  • The heart circulates the bodys blood supply
    about 1,000 times each day.
  • The average human scalp has 100,000 hairs.
  • If put end to end, all the blood vessels in the
    body would stretch 62,000 miles (or 2.5 times
    around the Earth).
  • If a man never trimmed his beard, it would, on
    average, grow to nearly 30 feet.
  • Every square inch of your body has about 3.2
    million bacteria on it.
  • (The Inside Story, The Washington Post, P. C12,
    May 7, 2007)

41
FOR EXAMPLE, at the beginning of a history unit
on the American presidency
  • Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860
    John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960.
  • Both were particularly concerned with civil
    rights.
  • Both had wives who lost children while living in
    the White House.
  • Both Presidents were shot on a Friday.
  • Both Presidents were shot in the head.
  • Lincolns secretary was named Kennedy, Kennedys
    Lincoln.
  • Both were assassinated by Southerners and were
    succeeded by Southerners named Johnson.
  • Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was born
    in 1839 Lee Harvey Oswald, Kennedys assassin,
    was born in 1939.
  • Both assassins were known by their three names
    both names are composed of fifteen letters.
  • Lincoln was shot at the theatre named Ford and
    Kennedy was shot in a car called Lincoln made
    by Ford.
  • Lincoln was shot in a theatre and his assassin
    ran and hid in a warehouse Kennedy was shot from
    a warehouse and his assassin ran and hid in a
    theatre.
  • Booth and Oswald were both assassinated before
    their trials.
  • A week before Lincoln was shot, he was in Monroe,
    Maryland A week before Kennedy was shot, he was
    with Marilyn Monroe.

42
FOR EXAMPLE, ask students what they conclude
about the following unusual information
  • Take your height and divide by eight. That is how
    tall your head is.
  • No piece of paper can be folded in half more than
    seven times.
  • The first product to have a bar code was
    Wrigleys gum.
  • Earth is the only planet not named after a pagan
    god.
  • A Boeing 747s wingspan is longer than the Wright
    brothers first flight.
  • Three percent of pet owners give Valentines Day
    gifts to their pets.
  • Thirty-one percent of employees skip lunch
    entirely.
  • According to research, Los Angeles highways are
    so congested that the average commuter sits in
    traffic for 82 hours a year.
  • The 1912 Olympics was the last Olympics that gave
    out gold medals made entirely out of gold.

43
What can you conclude about the following?
  • Falling is the most common nightmare.
  • Americans consume five tons of aspirin a day.
  • Most men part their hair to the left for no
    apparent reason.
  • Sixty-seven percent of Americans think they are
    overweight.
  • Americans throw away 27 percent of their food
    each year.
  • Twenty-five percent of all people snoop in
    friends medicine cabinets.
  • People typically spend a year of their lives
    looking for things they have lost.
  • One out of every 10 children sleepwalks.
  • Thirty-six percent of people choose pizza for the
    one food they would eat if they could only eat
    one food.

44
H Strategies
  • Odd facts, anomalies, counterintuitive examples
  • Provocative entry questions
  • Mysteries and engaging anecdotes or stories
  • Challenges
  • Student-friendly problems and issues
  • Experiments and predictions of outcomes
  • Role-plays and simulations activities
  • Sharing personal experiences
  • Allowing students choices and options
  • Establishing emotional connections
  • Humor

45
Self-Reflection One
  • As you conclude this section of the workshop,
    consider (a) How effectively do you engage
    student behaviors, cognition, and interests? (b)
    How often do you use the various strategies
    presented in this section to engage students and
    motivate their learning process?
  • Design an action step for this section What will
    you do with the strategies and ideas presented
    for this design question as you return to your
    school or district?

46
  • Student Achievement Problem 2
  • Students lack of
  • efficacy and self-worth, including a passive
    approach to learning

47
Signs of Problem 2
  • Students lack of self-direction and
    self-regulation
  • Students display of an I cant do this
    attitude and mentality
  • Inability of students to see connections between
    their actions and related consequences
  • Passivity Tell me what to doand Ill do it,
    but thats all

48
Instructional Design Question 8 What will I
do to establish and maintain effective
relationships with students?
49
What Does the Research Say? (I)
  • Two key components help teachers to establish and
    maintain positive relationships with students
    (a) the extent to which the teacher gives
    students the sense that he or she is providing
    guidance and control behaviorally and
    academically and (b) the extent to which the
    teacher provides a sense that the class is a team
    devoted to the well being of all participants.
  • In effect, the teacher communicates You can
    count on me to provide clear direction in terms
    of your learning and behavior, plus We are a
    team here and succeed or fail as a teamI have a
    stake in the success of each of you.

50
What Does the Research Say? (II)
  • Marzano confirms that many behavioral problems
    ultimately boil down to a breakdown in
    teacher-student relationships. Sheets and Gay
    (1996) state The causes of many classroom
    behaviors labeled and punished as rule
    infractions are, in fact, problems of students
    and teachers relating to one another
    interpersonally.
  • Two key research-based factors dominate the
    literature (Wubbels Levy, 1993) (a)
    appropriate amount of dominance (clarity of
    purpose and strong guidance) and (b) whether
    teacher shows an appropriate amount of
    cooperation.

51
What Does the Research Say? (III)
  • Cooperation involves demonstrating concern for
    each student and building a sense of community
    within the classroom. Wubbels (et al., 1999)
    emphasizes that teachers must be sensitive to how
    their actions are being interpretedor could
    potentially be misinterpretedby students.
  • Factors that contribute to a sense of cooperation
    include joking, smiling, and communicating
    enthusiasm.
  • Marzano also stresses the power of emotional
    objectivity in promoting healthy student-teacher
    relationships. Successful teachers avoid
    overreacting to student behaviors and do not take
    them personally.

52
8. What will I do to establish and maintain
effective relationships with students?
  • Action Step 1 Know something about each student.
  • Action Step 2 Engage in behaviors that indicate
    affection for each student.
  • Action Step 3 Bring student interests into the
    content and personalized learning activities.
  • Action Step 4 Engage in physical behaviors that
    communicate interest in students.
  • Action Step 5 Use humor when appropriate.
  • Action Step 6 Consistently enforce positive and
    negative consequences.
  • Action Step 7 Project a sense of emotional
    objectivity.
  • Action Step 8 Maintain a cool exterior.

53
Effective Classroom Management
iii. Maintaining effective teacher-student
relationships
High
Dominance High
Submission Clarity of purpose, Lack of clarity,
strong guidance purpose, or direction
High
Cooperation High
Opposition Concern for needs Active antagonism,
of others, team member thwart others goals
54
Strategies for Establishing and Maintaining
Effective Relationships with Students
  • Know something about each student
  • Engage in behaviors that indicate affection
  • Use student interests
  • Use appropriate physical behaviors
  • Use humor when appropriate
  • Consistently enforce positive and negative
    consequences
  • Project a sense of emotional objectivity
  • Maintain a cool exterior

55
Emotional Objectivity
  • Acting as if the following statements are true
  • I take nothing that occurs in this classroom
    personally.
  • Nothing can alter my calm demeanor.

or
56
Mastering the art of little discernable reaction.
57
Self-Reflection Two
  • As you conclude this section of the workshop,
    consider (a) What constitutes an effective
    teacher/student relationship, and why is it
    important to maintain effective relationships
    with students? (b) What behaviors should I use
    to communicate concern and cooperation?
    guidance and control?
  • Design an action step for this section What will
    you do with the strategies and ideas presented
    for this design question as you return to your
    school or district?

58
  • Student Achievement Problem 3
  • Evidence of an
  • Achievement Gap Between
  • Low-Expectancy v.
  • High-Expectancy Students

59
Signs of Problem 3
  • Disaggregated achievement data reveal that some
    individuals or sub-groups are under-performing
    (esp. in re. to standards mastery)
  • Some students demonstrate issues related to
    self-image, self-esteem, and ability to perform
    assigned learning and assessment tasks
  • Classroom management and disciplinary issues
    surface among individuals and/or subgroups of
    students

60
Instructional Design Question 9 What will I do
to communicate high expectations for all
students?
61
What Does Research Tell Us About High
Expectations?
  • An extensive body of research confirms the
    relationship between teacher expectations and
    student achievement and high v.
    under-achievement.
  • Changing teacher behavior that comes with low
    expectations can significantly improve
    achievement.
  • Two major categories stand out when analyzing how
    teachers communicate expectations (a) affective
    tone and (b) quality of interactions with
    students.

62
Research on Affective Tone
  • Brophy (1983) and others suggest that
  • Teachers praise lows less frequently than
    highs for success.
  • Teachers set lows farther away.
  • Teachers are less friendly with low-achieving
    students, including smiling less and using
    friendly non-verbal behaviors less.
  • Teachers give lows less eye contact and
    non-verbal communication of attention and
    responsiveness, such as learning forward and
    using positive head nodding.

63
Research on Quality Interactions with Students
  • Brophy (1983) and others suggest that
  • Teachers wait less time for lows to answer
    questions and call on lows less frequently to
    answer questions.
  • Teachers give lows answers or call on someone
    else to answer a question as opposed to trying to
    delve into the logic underlying the answer or
    improve on the answers of lows.
  • Teachers give lows briefer and less informative
    feedback on their responses.
  • Teachers fail to give lows feedback for public
    responses.
  • Teachers generally demand less from lows.
  • Teachers make less use of effective but
    time-consuming instructional methods with lows
    when instructional time is running out.

64
9. What will I do to communicate high
expectations for all students?
  • Action Step 1 Identify your expectation levels
    for students.
  • Action Step 2 Identify differential treatment of
    low-expectancy students.
  • Action Step 3 Make sure low-expectancy students
    receive verbal and non-verbal indications that
    they are valued and respected.
  • Action Step 4 Ask questions of low-expectancy
    students.
  • Action Step 5 When low-expectancy students do
    not answer a question correctly or completely,
    stay with them.

65
Action Step 1 Identify your expectation levels
for students.
66
Top Four Sources of Expectations About New
StudentsDusek Gail (1983)
  • Cumulative folder (previous info about students)
  • Social class
  • Physical attractiveness
  • Race

67
An Opportunity for Self-Reflection
  • Do you ensure that all students receive the same
    behavior in terms of affective tone and quality
    of interactions?
  • As you reflect on your students, do you have some
    for whom you have high v. medium v. low
    expectations?
  • To what extent do you react differently to low-
    expectancy students?
  • Are there negative thought patterns regarding
    some students you can identify?

68
Action Step 2 Identify differential treatment
of low-expectancy students.
69
Teacher Behaviors Associated with Low Expectancy
Students
  • Affective Tone
  • Making less eye contact.
  • Smiling less
  • Making less physical contact or maintaining less
    proximity
  • Engaging in less playful or light dialogue
  • Quality of Interactions
  • Calling on them less
  • Asking them less-challenging questions
  • Not delving into their questions as deeply
  • Rewarding them for less-rigorous responses

70
Action Step 3 Make sure low-expectancy
students receive verbal and non-verbal
indications that they are valued and respected.
71
Enhancing Verbal and Non-Verbal Indicators of
Value and Respect
  • Make eye contact with target students frequently.
  • Smile at the target students at appropriate
    times.
  • On occasion, make appropriate physical contact,
    such as putting a hand on the target students
    shoulder.
  • Maintain a proximity to target students that
    communicate interest but does not violate
    personal space.
  • When appropriate, engage in playful dialogue with
    the target students.

72
Action Step 4 Ask questions of
low-expectancy students.
73
Improving Questioning
  • When students ask their own questions, address
    each students question as much as possible.
  • Employ a system of calling on students who have
    not raised their hands.
  • Make a special note of low-expectancy students,
    checking off in the grade book every time they
    are asked and respond to a question.
  • Systematically ask low-expectancy students
    challenging questions, helping students develop
    confidence they can handle difficult questions.

74
Action Step 5 When low-expectancy students
dont answer a question correctly or completely,
stay with them.
75
Strategies for Staying With Students
  • Demonstrate gratitude for students responses.
  • Dont allow negative comments from other
    students.
  • Point out what is correct and incorrect about
    students responses.
  • Restate the question.
  • Provide ways to temporarily let students off the
    hook.

76
Self-Reflection Three
  • As you conclude this section of the workshop,
    consider (a) How do you communicate high
    expectations for all students? (b) How does
    your behavior communicate that you expect all
    students to succeed? (c) Are there any
    low-expectancy students in your class or school?
  • Design an action step for this section What will
    you do with the strategies and ideas presented
    for this design question as you return to your
    school or district?

77
  • Student Achievement Problem 4
  • Classroom Management and Disciplinary Problems

78
Signs of Problem 4
  • Disruptive and/or off-task behavior
  • Evidence of insubordination
  • Covert (or overt) power struggles (including
    teacher-student, student-student, and
    student-class)
  • Demonstration of the need for certain students to
    take control, draw attention to themselves, and
    receive negative psychological pay-offs

79
Instructional Design Question 6 What will I
do to establish or maintain classroom rules and
procedures?
80
What Does the Research Tell Us? (I)
  • Rules identify general expectations or standards
    regarding student behavior. (e.g., Students will
    behave in a manner that makes the classroom
    conducive to learning for all.)
  • Procedures and routines describe specific
    behaviors that will help students realize these
    rules. (e.g., Students will not talk at all or
    will talk very quietly when the class is involved
    in seatwork.)

81
What Does the Research Tell Us? (II)
  • The beginning of the school year is the most
    appropriate time to establish rules and
    procedures, with effective teachers spending a
    good deal of time modeling and reinforcing these
    as they begin the year with students.
  • It is essential that the teacher and students
    work together so that everyone practices
    procedures and routines enough to execute them
    routinely.
  • The utility of rules and procedures is enhanced
    when students have input into their design.
    Effective teachers make certain that students
    understand both the rules and procedures and the
    reasons behind them.

82
What Does the Research Tell Us? (III)
  • The physical environment of the classroom is
    essential in designing and implementing rules and
    procedures. Brophy (2006) cites the phenomenon of
    synomorphy, i.e., the relationship between
    setting and activities.
  • For example, rows accommodate frontal teaching
    but a circular seating pattern is better for
    discussion. Students need to understand what they
    are doing, why they are doing it, and how they
    are part of a learning environment and community
    of learning.

83
Typical Areas for Rules and Procedures
  • General classroom behavior
  • Beginning the day or period
  • Transitions and interruptions
  • Materials and equipment
  • Group work
  • Seatwork
  • Base group behavior

84
6. What will I do to establish or maintain
classroom rules and procedures?
  • Action Step 1 Organize the classroom for
    effective teaching and learning.
  • Action Step 2 Establish a small set of rules and
    procedures.
  • Action Step 3 Interact with students about
    classroom rules and procedures.
  • Action Step 4 Periodically review rules and
    procedures, making changes as necessary.
  • Action Step 5 Use classroom meetings.

85
Action Step 1 Organize the classroom for
effective teaching and learning.
86
Key Strategies for Organizing the Classroom for
Learning
  • Create physical conditions that support teaching
    and learning. (e.g., access to learning centers,
    technology, and equipment)
  • Decorate the room to reinforce key learning
    goals.
  • Prepare and organize materials in advance.
  • Arrange students desks, chairs, and teacher work
    area to support desired results.

87
Action Step 2 Establish a small set of rules
and procedures.
88
Establishing a Small Set of Rules and Procedures
  • Employ no more than five to eight rules and
    procedures (Emmer, Evertson, Worsham, 2003).
  • Within the set of five to eight, be sure to
    address (a) general classroom behavior (b)
    beginning and end of school day or period (c)
    dealing with transitions and interruptions (d)
    use of materials and equipment (e) logistics for
    group work and (f) logistics for seatwork and
    teacher-led activities.

89
Action Step 3 Interact with students about
classroom rules and procedures.
90
Interacting with Students About Rules and
Procedures
  • From the outset of the school year, enlist
    student input and involvement in design and
    implementation of rules and procedures.
  • As you explore general rules with students, ask
    them to identify specific procedures (and related
    behaviors) to follow them.

91
Action Step 4 Periodically review rules and
procedures, making changes as necessary.
92
Key Strategies for Periodic Review of Rules and
Procedures
  • Be certain to revisit rules and procedures to
    ensure sustained student understanding and
    ownership of them.
  • Monitor students to determine when someor
    allare becoming lax in following and owning
    rules and procedures.
  • Review specifics of problem-based rules and
    procedures, perhaps modeling the steps or having
    students practice them.
  • As students demonstrate growing independence and
    responsibility, revisit rules that are overly
    punitive or teacher-driven.

93
Action Step 5 Use classroom meetings.
94
Key Strategies for Using Classroom Meetings
  • Conduct regular (e.g., weekly) and short (e.g.,
    10 minutes) classroom meetings to assess how the
    classroom is functioning as a community of
    learning.
  • Use these meetings to bring up issues relative to
    classroom management, including rules and
    procedures.
  • Periodically, ask students to submit issues to
    you privately (via exit slips, in-class
    postcards, etc.).
  • Use meetings to reinforce for students that they
    are responsible for and can shape their own
    learning environment to produce a classroom that
    is respectful of individuals and accommodates the
    learning process.

95
Self-Reflection
  • As you conclude this section of the workshop,
    consider (a) How might you improve your approach
    to classroom rules and procedures? (b) To what
    extent do your students own the rules and
    procedures in your classroom and understand their
    purpose(s)?
  • Design an action step for this section What will
    you do with the strategies and ideas presented
    for this design question as you return to your
    school or district?

96
Instructional Design Question 7 What will I
do to recognize and acknowledge adherence and
lack of adherence to classroom rules and
procedures?
97
What Does the Research Say? (I)
  • Acknowledgment can take four forms (a)
    reinforcement, (b) punishment, (c) no immediate
    consequence, and (d) a combination of punishment
    and reinforcement.
  • A combination of positive and negative
    consequencesused appropriatelyseems to work
    best (Stage and Quiroz, 1997).
  • Tangible rewards can include tokens and direct
    teacher recognition.
  • Kounin (1983) cites withitness as an essential
    component, i.e., continually scanning the
    classroom to anticipate possible emergent
    problems.

98
What Does the Research Say? (II)
  • Direct cost focuses on interventions that
    involve a direct and concrete consequence for
    misbehavior (e.g., time out).
  • Consequences can also include overcorrection,
    (Drabman Spitalnik, 1973 Zabel, 1986) related
    to a students destruction of some physical
    aspect of the classroomwith parallel
    consequences (e.g., paying for a destroyed book).
  • Group contingency Providing some form of
    tangible recognition for appropriate or
    inappropriate behavior.
  • Home contingency Parent involvement in response
    to positive or negative student behavior(s).

99
7. What will I do to recognize and acknowledge
adherence and lack of adherence to classroom
rules and procedures?
  • Action Step 1 Use simple verbal and non-verbal
    acknowledgment.
  • Action Step 2 Use tangible recognition when
    appropriate.
  • Action Step 3 Involve the home in recognition of
    positive student behavior.
  • Action Step 4 Be with it.
  • Action Step 5 Use direct-cost consequences.
  • Action Step 6 Use group contingency.
  • Action Step 7 Use home contingency.
  • Action Step 8 Have a strategy for high-intensity
    situations.
  • Action Step 9 Design an overall plan for
    disciplinary problems.

100
Sample Strategies
  • Simple verbal and nonverbal acknowledgement
    (e.g., direct statements, recounting specific
    behaviors, thank-yous, thumbs up, catching a
    student being good, etc.)
  • Tangible recognition when appropriate
  • Involve the home
  • Be withit
  • Direct cost
  • Group contingency
  • Home contingency
  • Strategy for high intensity situations

101
Sample Strategies
  • Simple verbal and nonverbal acknowledgement
  • Tangible recognition when appropriate
  • Involve the home (e.g., phone calls, e-mails,
    notes, certificates of good behavior)
  • Be withit
  • Direct cost
  • Group contingency
  • Home contingency
  • Strategy for high intensity situations

102
Sample Strategies
  • Simple verbal and nonverbal acknowledgement
  • Tangible recognition when appropriate
  • Involve the home
  • Be withit (e.g., being proactive, occupying the
    entire room, noticing potential problems, using a
    series of graduated actions, looking at suspected
    students, moving in the direction of students,
    stopping and class and confronting the behavior)
  • Direct cost
  • Group contingency
  • Home contingency
  • Strategy for high intensity situations

103
FINAL FOLIOS SEEM TO RESULT FROM YEARS OF DUTIFUL
STUDY OF TEXTS ALONG WITH YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC
EXPERIENCE.
104
FINAL FOLIOS SEEM TO RESULT FROM YEARS OF DUTIFUL
STUDY OF TEXTS ALONG WITH YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC
EXPERIENCE.
105
Sample Strategies
  • Simple verbal and nonverbal acknowledgement
  • Tangible recognition when appropriate
  • Involve the home
  • Be withit
  • Direct cost
  • Group contingency
  • Home contingency
  • Strategy for high intensity situations (recognize
    the student is out of control step back and calm
    yourself listen actively to the student and plan
    action when student is calm, repeat simple
    verbal request)

106
Glassers Plan for Disciplinary Problems
  • According to Glasser (1986), people are
    responsible for their own goals, decisions, and
    personal happinessStudents can be helped to
    take control of their own lives by following
    these steps
  • List your typical reactions to student
    misbehavior.
  • Analyze the list, determining effective and
    ineffective behaviors.
  • Attempt to improve your relationship with
    disruptive students.
  • Meet with students, pointing out behaviors to be
    curtailed.
  • Make sure students understand and can describe
    behaviors.
  • Help students to make an explicit plan to curtail
    behaviors.
  • If behavior persists, isolate the student until a
    renewed commitment is made.
  • If previous steps dont work, in-school
    suspension, with student continually invited to
    develop and execute a plan.
  • If student remains out of control, parents are
    called and student goes home for a day.
  • Students who do not respond to previous steps are
    removed from school and referred to another
    agency.

107
Self-Reflection
  • As you conclude this section of the workshop,
    consider (a) How do you acknowledge positive and
    negative behavior? (b) What areas should you
    consider in designing an effective plan to
    maintain discipline in your classroom?
  • Design an action step for this section What
    will you do with the strategies and ideas
    presented for this design question as you return
    to your school or district?

108
  • Student Achievement Problem 5
  • Students lack of understanding of
  • curriculum standards

109
Signs of Problem 5
  • Students seem unclear about what they are
    learningor why they are learning it.
  • Evidence of insubordination
  • Covert (or overt) power struggles (including
    teacher-student, student-student, and
    student-class)
  • Demonstration of the need for certain students to
    take control, draw attention to themselves, and
    receive negative psychological pay-offs

110
  • Student Achievement Problem 6
  • Inability of students to
  • self-regulate and
  • track their own progress

111
Signs of Problem 6
  • Consistent questioning about grades Whatd I
    get? What did you give me? Does this count? Is
    this on the test?
  • Students demonstrate that they believe the
    teachernot themselvesdetermines how they are
    doing and progressing.
  • When questioned, students appear limited in their
    ability to assess their progress toward standards
    mastery.

112
Instructional Design Question 1 What will I do
to establish and communicate learning goals,
track student progress and celebrate success?
  • Each instructional design question is also
    accompanied by a set of action steps

113
1. What will I do to establish and communicate
learning goals, track student progress and
celebrate success?
  • Action Step 1 Make a distinction between
    learning goals and learning activities or
    assignments.
  • Action Step 2 Write a rubric or scale for each
    learning goal.
  • Action Step 3 Have students identify their own
    learning goals.
  • Action Step 4 Assess students using a formative
    approach.
  • Action Step 5 Have students chart their progress
    on each learning goal.

114
What Does Research Tell Us About Feedback, Goal
Setting, Assessment, and Recognition? (Part I)
  • Clear goals establish an initial target.
  • Feedback provides students with information
    regarding their progress toward that target.
  • The frequency of formative assessments (and
    related feedback to students) is directly related
    to student achievement.
  • Learners must play an active role in observing
    and assessing their own progress over time,
    seeing a direct relationship between how hard
    they work and how much they learn.

115
Action Step 1Distinguish between between
learning goals and learning activities.
116
Activities/Assignments
Today Read Chapter 2 in .. Finish Adverb
assignment Work on myth..
3
117
Learning Goals
As a result of what we do today, you will
be able to demonstrate that you
Understand the technique of foreshadowing in
mysteries. Can revise writing to improve use of
descriptive adverbs.
118
Learning Goals vs. Activities
119
Activities/Assignments or
Learning Goals?????
  • Add and subtract fractions.
  • Understand the various components of culture.
  • Make a travel brochure for a region.
  • Make a simple machine.
  • Understand the relationship between fractions and
    decimals.
  • Write a report on Charles Dickens.
  • Design a menu that includes a balance of foods
    from the food pyramid.
  • Know states and their capitals.

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Action Step 2Use rubrics and scoring scales
to provide students with appropriate feedback in
relationship to the learning goal.
123
How effective am I when I set objectives? When I
set objectives, to what extent can I confirm that
my students
  • can describe what they are learning, not just
    describe what they are doing?
  • focus more on learning goals than on completing
    assignments?
  • personalize the learning goals?

Not at all To a great
extent 1 2 3 4
124
Aligning How You Set Objectives and Provide
Feedback
Generalizations from Research on Providing
Feedback
  • Feedback should be corrective in nature.
  • Feedback should be timely.
  • Feedback should be specific to a criterion.
  • Students should be actively involved in providing
    their own feedback.

125
Based on the characteristics of effective
feedback, how would you rate each of the
following examples?
126
Why should we have rubrics for each learning goal?
127
  • How do you provide feedback in a way that
    students
  • Know what they are learning and how well they are
    progressing.
  • Can explain what they need to do to get better.

Rubrics
128
This is not a Rubric
129
Rubrics
  • How can they help students learn?

Feedback should be corrective. Feedback should be
specific to a criterion.
What is the focus of the criteria?
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Making Standards-Based Assessment and Grading Work
  • 20 or fewer elements per subject, per grade
    level, per year
  • a residual category for teacher supplemental
    content
  • a uniform way of scoring assessments and
    assignments that is RIGOROUS

137
Standard
Measurement TOPIC
Measurement TOPIC
Benchmark
Benchmark
Benchmark
Benchmark
138
Language Arts Reporting Topics
  • Reading
  • Comprehension
  • Word analysis
  • Genre and literary devices
  • The research process
  • Information gathering and organization
  • Technical material

139
Language Arts Reporting Topics
  • Writing
  • The writing process
  • Overall logic and complexity of thought
  • Adaptation to audience and purpose
  • Conventions
  • Use of writing formats

140
Language Arts Reporting Topics
  • Speaking and Listening
  • Structure and logic of presentations
  • Delivery techniques
  • Listening comprehension
  • Group discussion

141
Mathematics Reporting Topics
  • Number Operations and Concepts
  • Basic number concepts and operations
  • Fractions, proportions, decimals, percents
  • Exponents, roots, factors
  • Problem solving mathematical reasoning

142
Mathematics Reporting Topics
  • Geometry
  • Lines and angles
  • Shapes and figures
  • Motion geometry, transformations, congruence,
    similarity

143
Mathematics Reporting Topics
  • Measurement
  • Units and systems of measurement
  • Area, perimeter, circumference, angles
  • Capacity, weight, mass, volume
  • Time

144
Mathematics Reporting Topics
  • Algebra
  • Expressions, equations, functions
  • Graphs and graphing systems

145
Mathematics Reporting Topics
  • Data Analysis and Probability
  • Data organization and display
  • Central tendency dispersion
  • Probability and hypothesis testing

146
Topic Grade 8 Atmospheric Processes Water Cycle
147
Topic Grade 8 Atmospheric Processes Water Cycle
148
Topic Grade 8 Atmospheric Processes Water Cycle
149
Measurement Topic Different Operating Systems
and Applications
150
Measurement Topic Different Operating Systems
and Applications
151
Measurement Topic Different Operating Systems
and Applications
152
Measurement Topic Thinks Critically and Solves
Problems
153
Measurement Topic Thinks Critically and Solves
Problems
154
Measurement Topic Thinks Critically and Solves
Problems
155
Action Step 3Help students to establish
their own learning goals.
156
Students and Learning Goals
  • Ask students to identify something that interests
    them beyond teacher-identified learning goals.
  • Once they have identified their personal learning
    goals for a unit or lesson, have students write
    them in a format similar to the one used by the
    teacher
  • When this unit is completed, I will better
    understand _________________.
  • When this unit is completed, I will be able to
    ___________________.

157
A Sample Student Scale
  • 4 I did better than I thought I would do.
  • 3 I accomplished my goal.
  • 2 I didnt accomplish everything I want to, but
    I learned quite a lot.
  • 1 I tried but didnt really learn much.
  • 0 I didnt really try to accomplish my goal.

158
Helping students to clarify their learning goals
and purpose
Assignment Notebook
Assignment Due Learning Goal As a result of
doing this assignment, I should Know more
about? Understand better? Be
more skilled at?
159
On this writing task, I will be working
on____________________, and would like to receive
feedback on_______________________________.
In my next writing assignment, I need to work
on_____________________.
160
Action Step 4Assess students using a
formative approach.
161
The Power of Formative Assessment
  • Formative assessment is both a powerful
    measurement tool and a powerful instructional
    tool because it allows students to observe their
    own progress.
  • It is used when students are learning new
    content, providing feedback, guidance, and
    coaching to help students progress upward
    according to the criteria in your measurement
    scale or rubric.
  • For a particular learning goal, you need to
    ensure your assessment contains items or tasks
    that apply to levels 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 on your
    scale or rubric.

162
Creating a Standards-Based Assessment System
  • Identify no more than four grade-level (or
    course) learning goals per quarter (grading
    period) for each of the following subject areas
    mathematic, reading, writing, science, and social
    studies.
  • Construct a rubric, or other type of common
    scale, for each learning goal.
  • Have teachers formally and informally assess each
    learning goal at least once every two weeks
    keeping track of each students score on each
    learning goal.
  • Have students keep track of their progress on
    each goal and use the data as the basis for
    teacher/student interactions about student
    progress.
  • At least once per quarter) aggregate the data by
    grade level. Have teachers meet to discuss
    student progress and how it might be improved.

163
Scoring Scale
164
Three Types of Assessment Items
  • Level 2 items Simpler details and processes that
    have been explicitly taught.
  • Level 3 items Complex ideas and processes that
    have been explicitly taught.
  • Level 4 items Inferences and applications that
    go beyond what was taught

165
The Relationship Between Curricular Priorities
and Assessment Methods
Worth Being Familiar With...
  • Traditional quizzes
  • and tests (selected response).
  • Quizzes and tests
  • (constructed response).
  • Performance tasks and projects
  • Performance tasks and projects
  • (complex, open-ended, authentic)...

All Students Should Know and Be Able to Do...
Enduring Understandings
166
Level 2 items Simpler details that have been
explicitly taught.
  • Focus on basic information (declarative
    knowledge) (a) facts, (b) vocabulary terms, and
    (d) time sequences.
  • Does not require students to create something new
    or generate new ideas.
  • Assessments often focus on recognition and recall
    items For example
  • Put an X next to the names of people who fought
    in the Battle of the Alamo.
  • Define each of the following key terms from this
    unit.

167
Level 2 items Simpler skills and procedures that
have been explicitly taught.
  • Focus on basic skills and procedures (procedural
    knowledge) (a) skills and (b) procedures with
    little or no variation.
  • Require mental procedures that include single
    rules, algorithms, and tactics.
  • Assessments often require formulaic actions on
    the part of students For example
  • Complete the following multi-column
    multiplication activities.
  • Correctly capitalize the proper nouns in these
    sentences.

168
Examples of Level 2 Assessment Tasks Identified
in the Academy of Information Technology
Principles of Information Technology Course
  • Assessment of Basic Information
  • Definition of Terms What Is an Operating System?
    Have students draw the Defining Format in their
    workbooks using a double-page spread. Fold the
    left side in half for the first two columns of
    the Defining Format (Question Category) and the
    entire right hand side for the third column
    (Characteristics).
  • For example Question What is an operating
    system? Category and Characteristics An
    operating system is a computer tool that 1.
    ____________ 2. ___________ 3. _____________.
  • Students work in pairs to analyze the icons found
    on a computer desktop. On paper, they draw the
    desktop, labeling the function of each icon or
    the task that it performs.
  • Assessment of Basic Skills and Procedures
  • Students correctly use a step-by-step procedure
    for opening and re-naming a Windows file.
  • Students correctly use major tool-bar icons to
    modify a text in response to teacher directions.

169
Level 3 items Complex ideas that have been
explicitly taught.
  • Focus on generalizations and principles that
    require students to go beyond memorized
    information to generate new ideas.
  • Assessments involving generalizations ask
    students to generate examples assessments of
    principles ask students to generate predictions.
    For example
  • Using your understanding of how a cell membrane
    is selectively permeable, provide specific
    examples of what the cell membrane will allow to
    pass through and what it will keep out.
  • Use the Bernoulli principle to predict accurately
    which of the following airplane designs will
    likely produce the most lift.

170
Level 3 items Complex processes that have been
explicitly taught.
  • Focus on more complex mental procedures, i.e.,
    macroprocedures involving multiple components
    or embedded elements, e.g., the writing process,
    the reading process, problem-solving,
    decision-making.
  • These assessment items are often more open ended,
    but emphasize skills and procedures the teacher
    has taught explicitly.
  • Assessments are always performance based and
    often require some independent reasoning on the
    part of the student For example
  • You are putting on the play Our Town, but you
    have no money to build a set. In fact, you can
    use only boxes as your staging materials. Draw a
    sketch of how you would stage
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