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Water, water, everywhere, but not a drop a drink The possibilities of pointofuse water treatment

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Approximately 1.1 billion people lacked access to an 'improved source' of drinking water ... Keeping drinking water clean. Keeping hands clean ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Water, water, everywhere, but not a drop a drink The possibilities of pointofuse water treatment


1
Water, water, everywhere, but not a drop a
drink?The possibilities of point-of-use water
treatment
  • BGH Mini-University
  • Washington DC
  • May 10, 2004

2
Objectives
  • To understand the ways water quality affects
    (effects?) health outcomes of concern to USAID
  • To discuss the possibilities of point-of-use
    water treatment options
  • To examine the advantages and disadvantages of
    two approaches currently being applied by USAID

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4
  • Halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of
    people without access to safe drinking water
    (reaffirmation of Millennium Development Goal).
  • Halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of
    people who do not have access to basic
    sanitation.

5
Environment Burden of Disease by Regiontotal
DALYs lost and (per 1000 population)based on
Smith et al., 1999
(197) (86) (58) (77) (33) (39) (14) (23)
6
Leading Infectious Killers, all ages, 1998
estimate Eyles and Sharma, 2001
7
Annual Child Deaths From Pneumonia, Malaria,
Diarrhea By WHO Region (2000)
8
Burden of disease due to selected risk factors
(World Health Report, 2002)
9
Fraction () of Burden of Disease in High
Mortality Developing Countries(WHO, 2002)
10
Wat/san access in 2000
  • Approximately 1.1 billion people lacked access to
    an improved source of drinking water
  • Approximately 2.4 billion people lack access to a
    means of hygienic disposal for human feces

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13
(WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program)
14
(WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program)
15
(WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program)
16
(WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program)
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18
Access in 2000
  • Approximately 1.1 billion people lacked access to
    an improved source of drinking water
  • Approximately 2.4 billion people lack access to a
    means of hygienic disposal for human feces
  • BUT does improved mean safe???

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21
Safe?
  • For whom?
  • Vulnerable populations
  • Young children
  • Immunocompromised (esp. HIV)

22
Safe where?
  • At the source?

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25
Safe where?
  • At the source?
  • At the point of use?
  • Different because
  • Contamination during collection and transport
    (e.g. vessels)
  • Contamination during handling (e.g. transfer to
    household containers)
  • Contamination while stored in the home (e.g. by
    hands, utensils)

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28
Reality Check USAID FY03 Water Supply,
Sanitation, and Hygiene Obligations
  • Total 275 million
  • Minus 189 million for Egypt, Jordan, WB/G
  • Yielding
  • 26.0 million for central programs (24.8 OFDA)
  • 27.0 million for LAC
  • 15.8 million for ANE
  • 9.7 million for EE
  • 8.2 million for AFR

29
Source Wagner and Lanois, 1958
30
Source Wagner and Lanois, 1958
31
Source Wagner and Lanois, 1958
32
Source Wagner and Lanois, 1958
33
Source Wagner and Lanois, 1958
34
Hygiene What is it? (WHO, 1992)
  • Keeping drinking water clean
  • Keeping hands clean
  • Keeping the environment clean (sanitation
    perspective)
  • Keeping food clean

35
Hygiene Promotion
Access to Hardware
  • Improved water supply
  • Improved sanitation
  • Household Technologies
  • Soap
  • Water containers
  • Chlorine solution

Communication methods Social mobilization Communit
y participation Social marketing
Hygiene Improvement for Diarrheal Disease
Prevention
HYGIENE IMPROVEMENT FRAMEWORK
Enabling Environment
Policy improvement Institutional strengthening
Community organization Financing and
cost-recovery Cross-sector PP partnerships
36
Hygiene Improvement What can we do?
  • POU water treatment safe storage
    approximately 30-50 reduction in DD prevalence
  • Promote optimal handwashing (recent meta-analysis
    showed 43 reduction in diarrhea prevalence,
    April 2003, Lancet)
  • Sanitation promotion basic, low-cost systems
    can reduce DD by 30 or more

37
POU water disinfection options
  • Physical methods
  • Filtration
  • Cloth (e.g. sari)
  • Ceramic candles
  • Silver-impregnated ceramics
  • Boiling (1 minute)
  • UV disinfection (electric)
  • Solar disinfection (SODIS) UV pasteurization
  • Chemical methods
  • Flocculation/sedimentation
  • Chlorination
  • Other disinfection agents (e.g. iodine)
  • Biological methods
  • Biosand filtration
  • Combined methods
  • Flocculation/sedimentation/chlorination

38
Two Systems Shown to Decrease DD Prevalence
  • Safe Water System
  • Chlorine disinfectant (dilute hypochlorite
    solution)
  • Safe storage
  • Hygiene education (esp. around water handling)
  • PuR (Procter Gamble)
  • Water treatment in a packet (powder)
  • Flocculant (iron sulfate)
  • Chlorine disinfectant (calcium hypochlorite)

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43
Safe Water System
  • Proven at scale using social marketing approaches
    (e.g. for USAID Zambia, Madagascar)
  • Behavior viable one container
  • Low cost for disinfectant (25 U.S. cents per
    month per household)
  • Local storage improvements possible
  • Not effective in all situations (e.g. turbid
    water)
  • Dont know if were effectively reaching the
    target populations

44
PuR (PG)
  • Current focus of a USAID GDA activity test in
    commercial, social, and emergency/humanitarian
    settings
  • Effective against bacteria, viruses, heavy metals
  • Lightweight
  • More expensive (as much as 10 U.S. cents/day/hh)
  • Behavior more complex than other approaches, but
    apparently viable (and with a visual cue)
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