Paraprofessional Overview of Connecticut Accountability for Learning Initiative CALI Basic Training - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Paraprofessional Overview of Connecticut Accountability for Learning Initiative CALI Basic Training PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 1a06a-MDU0N


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Paraprofessional Overview of Connecticut Accountability for Learning Initiative CALI Basic Training


Iris White. Associate Education Consultant. Connecticut State Department of Education ... The ultimate responsibility for the design, implementation and evaluation of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:511
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 131
Provided by: CSD56
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Paraprofessional Overview of Connecticut Accountability for Learning Initiative CALI Basic Training

Paraprofessional Overview of Connecticut
Accountability for Learning Initiative (CALI)
Basic Training
  • Iris White
  • Associate Education Consultant
  • Connecticut State Department of Education
  • Bureau of Accountability and Improvement
  • 860-713-6564

Norms for Professional Meetings
  • Courtesy toward others and presenter
  • Cell phones and pagers in off position
  • Active listening and participation
  • Collaboration

  • Name
  • District
  • Position
  • Number of Years in Position
  • Question You Have Regarding Paraprofessionals and

  • Participants will
  • Learn the current legislation regarding
  • Become familiar with the Connecticut Guidelines
    for Training and Support of Paraprofessionals
  • Learn about the Connecticut Accountability for
    Learning Initiative (CALI) and why it is a
    priority of the Connecticut State Department of
    Education (CSDE)

  • Explore how paraprofessionals can assist teachers
    with maintaining environments that create a
    physically, emotionally, and intellectually safe
    environment for all learners
  • Understand how and why teachers use data to make
    instructional decisions and
  • Understand the ten Effective Teaching Strategies
    and how paraprofessionals can reinforce these
    strategies during individual or small group

Paraprofessional Study
  • The Legislative Program Review and Investigations
    Committee authorized a study of paraprofessionals
    in April 2006. The study focused on whether
    Connecticut should establish minimum standards
    for public school paraprofessionals who perform
    instructional tasks for students in kindergarten
    through twelfth grade (K-12) . Findings and
    recommendations were made in several areas
    affecting paraprofessionals with instructional
  • The full report can be downloaded at

Legislative Program Review and Investigations
Committee Recommendations
  • The State Department of Education should
    encourage all local public school districts to
    provide training to teachers, particularly new
    teachers at the beginning of each school year, on
    the role and effective use of instructional
    paraprofessionals. The department should also
    encourage school districts to develop
    intradistrict methods and strategies whereby
    paraprofessionals, teachers, and administrators
    periodically discuss issues or concerns involving
    the use of paraprofessionals in providing
    effective student instruction.

Connecticut Paraprofessional Legislation
  • Sec. 10-155j. Development of paraprofessionals.
    The Department of Education, through the State
    Education Resource Center and within available
    appropriations for such purposes, shall promote
    and encourage professional development activities
    for school paraprofessionals with instructional
    responsibilities. Such activities may include,
    but shall not be limited to, providing local and
    regional boards of education with training
    modules and curricula for professional
    development for paraprofessionals and assisting
    boards of education in the effective use of
    paraprofessionals and the development of
    strategies to improve communication between
    teachers and paraprofessionals in the provision
    of effective student instruction.

Connecticut Paraprofessional Legislation
  • Sec. 10-155k. School Paraprofessional Advisory
    Council. The Commissioner of Education shall
    establish a School Paraprofessional Advisory
    Council consisting of one representative from
    each statewide bargaining representative
    organization that represents school
    paraprofessionals with instructional
    responsibilities. The council, shall advise, at
    least quarterly, the Commissioner of Education,
    or the commissioners designee, of the needs for
    the training of such paraprofessionals. The
    council shall report, at least quarterly, in
    accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a,
    on the recommendations given to the commissioner,
    of the commissioners designee, pursuant to the
    provisions of this section, to the joint standing
    committee of the General Assembly having
    cognizance of matters relating to education.

Connecticut Paraprofessional Legislation
  • Sec. 2008. Not later than December 1, 2008, the
    department shall report and make recommendations
    to the joint standing committee of the General
    Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to
    education concerning professional development for
    paraprofessionals and the status and future of
    school paraprofessionals with instructional

Autism Training
  • Public Act 08-169 An Act Concerning the Teaching
    of Children with Autism and Other Developmental
  • The Commissioners of Education, Higher Education
    and Developmental Services and the President of
    Southern Connecticut State University shall
    define autism and developmental disabilities and
    develop recommendations for a comprehensive
    statewide plan to incorporate methods of teaching
    children with autism and other developmental
    disabilities into training provided to school
    paraprofessionals pursuant to section 10-155j of
    the 2008 supplement to the general statutes,
    related service professionals, early childhood
    certificate holders, administrators and parents.

NCLB Requirements for Paraprofessionals
  • All paraprofessionals working in Title I-funded
    programs must have met the higher standards of
    qualification required in the No Child Left
    Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001.
  • The requirements apply to paraprofessionals paid
    with Title I funds who provide instructional
    support in Title I targeted assistance schools
    and to all paraprofessionals with instructional
    duties in Title I school wide program schools,
    regardless of funding source. These include Title
    I instructional paraprofessionals who provide
    services to private school children and to
    preschool children.

NCLB Requirements for Paraprofessionals
  • All Title I paraprofessionals must have a high
    school diploma or its recognized equivalent (GED)
  • Have two years of college credit OR
  • Hold an associates degree (or higher) degree OR
  • Pass a State Board of Education adopted
    paraprofessional assessment which assesses
    content knowledge in mathematics, reading and
    writing and an understanding of how to assist in
    the instruction of these topics (ParaPro

ParaPro Assessment
  • Educational Testing Services (ETS) administers
    the exam
  • Paper and pencil assessment given 4 times a year
    at various locations.
  • Cost 45
  • Internet Based Version at LEARN.

Paraprofessional PD Survey Results
  • Total number of respondents 259
  • Breakdown
  • 2 Assistant Principals
  • 10 Assistant Superintendents
  • 4 Consultants
  • 2 Coordinator of Special Services
  • 2 Directors of Human Resources
  • 2 Directors of Professional Development
  • 9 Directors of Pupil Personnel Services
  • 159 Paraprofessionals
  • 5 Principals
  • 3 Program Administrators
  • 3 Superintendents of Schools
  • 35 Teachers
  • 1 School Psychologists

Paraprofessional PD Survey Results
  • Participants were asked to identify their 6 top
    choices for paraprofessional professional
  • Positive behavior supports and implementation of
    behavior management plans (179)
  • Knowledge of and skills to assist in
    reading/reading readiness (138)
  • Knowledge of and skills to assist in
    mathematics/mathematics readiness (128)
  • Facilitating inclusion in general education (127)
  • Knowledge of specific disabilities (125)
  • Knowledge of and skills to assist in
    writing/writing readiness (122)
  • Reinforcing Teacher Planned instruction (121)
  • Assistive Technology (69)
  • Collaboration with the teacher (60)
  • Communication skills (oral and written) (59)
  • Confidentiality/Ethics (49)
  • Knowledge of Federal, State, and District
    Regulations (43)
  • Health and Safety (Communicable Diseases, Blood
    borne Pathogens, Ergonomics) (25)
  • Time Management (21)
  • ParaPro Assessment Preparation (24)
  • Other train teachers on the role of the
    paraprofessional, DCF mandated reporting,
    specific interventions on Autism, how to meet the
    needs of a special education student, Autism,
    Professionalism, computer skills-power point,
    technology, participants in meetings related to
    PPTs, how paraprofessionals can stand up for
    themselves, mental health knowledge, classes
    offered to continue education.

CREC Professional Development Curriculum for
  • Basic and Advanced Training Modules
  • Paraprofessional Newsletter
  • Paraprofessional webpage

CSDE Paraprofessional Webpage
  • Paraprofessional Information and Resources, part
    of the CALI website
  • Contains paraprofessional regulations and
    legislation, professional development
    opportunities, resources, and research on

SERC Paraprofessionals as Partners Initiative
  • The goal of the Paraprofessionals as Partners
    Initiative is to enhance the skills of
    paraprofessionals providing instructional support
    to students in various educational settings
    including students with disabilities.

District Paraprofessional Contact Each district
in Connecticut has identified a central office
employee as a district contact person for
paraprofessional issues. This persons role is
to act as a liaison between the district and SDE,
disseminate information of importance to
paraprofessionals, such as personnel development
opportunities, policy updates, resource
availability, information exchange, data
gathering regarding best practices and networking
across districts on effective practices for
(No Transcript)
Guidelines for Training and Support of
  • The Connecticut State Department of Education
    (CSDE) has endorsed and published this guideline
    document to inform and guide district personnel
    in the many important factors to consider in the
    use of paraprofessionals, specifically their
    training and effective use. It also clarifies the
    role of the paraprofessional as it is related to

National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals
(NRCP) Model Framework
  • Connecticut adopted a modified version of the
    NRCP model framework to articulate key
    competencies for Connecticut paraprofessionals

National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals
Model (1999) Connecticut Guidelines for Training
and Supervision of Paraprofessionals, pp. 28-36

The model defines six primary areas of
responsibilities for paraprofessionals
  • 1. Assisting teachers/providers with building and
    maintaining effective instructional teams.
  • 2. Assisting teachers/providers with maintaining
    learner-centered supportive environments.
  • 3. Supporting teachers/providers with planning
    and organizing learning experiences.
  • 4. Assisting teachers/providers with engaging
    students in learning and assisting in
  • 5. Assisting teachers/providers with assessing
    learner needs, progress and achievement.
  • 6. Meeting standards of professional or ethical
  • for each of these responsibilities (the model
    describes the scope).

According to these guidelines, paraprofessionals
have the instructional responsibility to do the
1. Assist professionals with building and
maintaining effective instructional teams. 2.
Assist professionals with maintaining
learner-centered supportive environments. 3.
Support professionals with planning and
organizing learning experiences. 4. Assist
professionals with engaging students in
learning. 5. Assist professionals in
instruction. 6. Assist professionals with
assessing learner needs, progress and
Three Levels of Responsibilities
  • Level 1 This individual is an entry-level
    paraprofessional, with a high school diploma or
    equivalent, but has little or no experience. This
    individual requires a high level of direct
  • Level 2 This individual has multiple years of
    experience and training, typically on the job,
    and has the knowledge and skills to work more
    independently in the same setting as the
  • Level 3 This individual has participated in
    some type of postsecondary training, usually with
    a focus on a specialized set of skills. This
    person may work more independently, such as in
    the community or a students home.

Where am I?
  • What level do you think you are on?

The CT State Department of Education defines a
paraprofessional as
  • An employee who assists teachers and/or other
    professional educators or therapists in the
    delivery of instructional and related services to
    students. The paraprofessional works under the
    direct supervision of the teacher or other
    certified or licensed professional. The ultimate
    responsibility for the design, implementation and
    evaluation of instructional programs, including
    assessment of student progress, is a
    collaborative effort of certified and licensed
  • (-Connecticut Guidelines for the Training and
    Support of Paraprofessionals, page 7).

Connecticut Regulations 10-145d-401
  • Requires anyone who is not certified be under the
    direct supervision of state certified personnel.
    This means that all paraprofessionals must not
    provide initial instruction to students and must
    be under the direct supervision of certified
    personnel when carrying out their

Roles of Teachers in the Instructional Process
  • Teachers are responsible for the following
  • Developing lesson plans to meet curriculum
    requirements and education objectives for all
  • Adapting lessons, instructional methods, and
    curricula to meet the learning needs of
    individual students
  • Developing behavior management and disciplinary

Roles of Teachers in the Instructional Process,
  • Creating learner-centered, inclusive environments
    that respect the cultures, religions, lifestyles,
    and human rights of children, youth, parents, and
  • Involving parents in all aspects of their childs
  • Analyzing, with the assistance of other licensed
    (credentialed) professional personnel, results of
    standardized tests for assessing learner needs
  • Developing functional (informal) assessment tools
    to document and evaluate learner progress and
    instructional needs.
  • Adapted from Strengthening and Supporting Teacher
    and Para educator Teams Guidelines for
    Paraeducator Roles, Supervision, and Preparation
    by A.L. Pickett, 1999, New York National
    Resource Center for Paraprofessionals in
    Education, Center for Advanced Study in
    Education, Graduate Center, City University of
    New York.

Teachers provide instructional support
  • Provide regular feedback regarding
    paraprofessionals work performance, support
    paraprofessionals in providing instruction to
    students, and provide support and direction to
    paraprofessionals who work in independent

The following are 10 examples of appropriate and
effective utilization of paraprofessionals, taken
from the model of roles, responsibilities and
training of paraprofessionals identified in the
Connecticut Guideline document.
1. Participation in regularly scheduled meetings
and sharing relevant information. 2.
Implementation of proactive behavior and learning
strategies. 3. Use of strategies that provide
learner independence and positive self-esteem. 4.
Assistance in accommodating and modifying
learning strategies based on learning styles,
ability levels and other individual
differences. 5. Review and reinforcement of
learning activities. 6. Assistance in engaging
learners through an awareness of cognitive,
physical, social, emotional and language
development. 7. Use of developmentally and
age-appropriate reinforcement and other learning
activities. 8. Collection of data on learner
activity. 9. Carry out functional (informal)
assessment activities. 10. Participation in
continuing professional development. (-Connecticut
Guidelines for the Training and Support of
Paraprofessionals, pg. 37)
How do paraprofessionals help students achieve?
  • In the case of paraprofessionals whose support
    includes students with disabilities, it is
    necessary for them to have an understanding of
    the IEP information that is pertinent to their
    role as an implementer.
  • (-Connecticut Guidelines for Training and Support
    of Paraprofessionals, pg. 58.)

Paraprofessionals at the IEP Team Meeting
  • Paraprofessional attendance at Pupil Placement
    team (PPT) meetings is an individual district and
    school-based decision. It is important that
    district or school personnel explain their policy
    on the attendance of paraprofessionals at PPTs to
    both parents and school staff. If a
    paraprofessional is required in the IEP and is
    not attending a students PPT meeting, it is the
    responsibility of the students teacher and the
    paraprofessionals supervisor to communicate in
    detail with the paraprofessional about the
    student, before the PPT.
  • (-Connecticut Guidelines for the Training and
    Support of Paraprofessionals, pg. 42).

Connecticut Accountability Legislation
  • Legislation adopted in the 2007 Special Session
    (P.A. 07-3, Section 32) identifies school
    districts with the greatest need for improvement
    and gives new authority and responsibility to the
    State Education Department to support improvement
    activities in each district.

Connecticut Accountability Legislation
  • Under the legislation, the Commissioner and State
    Board of Education are given the authority to
    evaluate each districts strengths and
    weaknesses, work with each district to develop a
    focused and prioritized plan for improved student
    performance, approve certain expenditures for
    reform, and monitor progress.

  • The CSDE implemented a comprehensive
    accountability initiative to accelerate the
    learning of all students, with special emphasis
    placed on districts with Title I Schools that
    have been identified as in need of improvement
    according to NCLB.

(No Transcript)
  • The goal of CALI is to develop and offer a model
    of state support to districts and schools to
    support the process of continuous school
    improvement and to accelerate the closing of
    Connecticuts achievement gaps.

CSDE Partnerships
  • Advisory Committee for Accountability and School
    and District Improvement
  • CAS Executive Coaching
  • CABE Assist local boards of education
  • The Leadership and Learning Center
  • RESC-SERC alliance CALI and data team
  • DSAC
  • CEA AFT New partnership

CALI Districts
  • Ansonia

  • Bridgeport
  • Bristol
  • Danbury
  • E. Hartford
  • Hamden
  • Hartford
  • Manchester
  • Meriden
  • Middletown
  • Naugatuck
  • New Britain
  • New Haven
  • New London
  • Norwalk
  • Norwich
  • Stamford
  • Waterbury

  • CALI is a model based on the research findings of
    Reeves, Marzano, McNulty, Pickering, Freiberg,
    Pollock, Waters, Elmore, Simpson and others.
  • Their work provides evidence that schools with
    student populations including high rates of
    poverty and high percentages of ethnic minorities
    can achieve high academic performance.

Common characteristics of high achieving schools
  • Clear focus on achievement
  • Standards-based curriculum that emphasizes the
    core subject areas of reading, math and writing
  • Frequent assessment of student progress and
    multiple opportunities for student improvement
  • An emphasis on non-fiction writing and
  • Collaborative scoring of student work

CALI is offered to
  • Title I Schools identified as being in need of
    improvement (determined by Adequate Yearly
    Progress measured by CMT/CAPT Performance)
  • Schools in Priority School Districts

CALI Professional Development Includes
  • Best Practices in Educating our English Language
    Learners (ELLs) Basic and Advanced Training
  • Data-Driven Decision Making/Data Teams
  • (DDDM/DT)
  • Making Standards Work
  • (MSW)
  • Effective Teaching Strategies
  • (ETS)
  • Common Formative Assessments
  • (CFA)
  • Improving School Climate
  • (ISC)
  • Scientific Research Based
  • Interventions (SRBI, also known as
  • Response to Intervention)
  • Coaching Instructional Data Teams
  • Coaching Effective Teaching Strategies
  • Leading Change and Getting Everyone on Board
  • Classroom Data Feedback, Follow Up Follow
  • School Climate for Leaders
  • School Improvement Planning No Child Left
  • CALI Overview

Levels of Training
  • Basic training provides foundational information
  • Certification training allows participants to
    turnkey basic training in a trainer of trainers
    model (completing basic training is a
  • Certification is offered in DDDM/DT, MSW, ETS,
    CFA, ISC, Paraprofessional Overview, and SRBI.

Connecticut Accountability for Learning Initiative
  • Until you have data as a backup, youre just
    another person with an opinion.
  • Dr. Perry Gluckman

Data-Driven Decision Making/Data Teams
  • In this two-day basic training module, cause data
    (adult actions) and effect data (student
    achievement outcomes) are reviewed by district
    leaders, building leaders, teachers and parents
    to determine strengths so success can be
    replicated, and areas in need of improvement so
    assistance can be provided.

What Are Data Teams?
  • Small grade-level or department teams that
    examine individual student work generated from
    common formative assessments
  • Collaborative, structured, scheduled meetings
    that focus on the effectiveness of teaching and

Data Teams
  • Data Teams occur on district, school, grade
    levels and/or in content areas.
  • School and District Data Teams are used to
    develop and monitor improvement plans.
  • Developed by The Leadership and Learning Center
  • (866) 399-6019

Data Team Action
  • Data Teams adhere to continuous improvement
    cycles, examine patterns and trends, and
    establish specific timelines, roles, and
    responsibilities to facilitate analysis that
    results in action.
  • (S. White, Beyond the Numbers, 2005, p. 18)

Data-Driven Decision Making/Data Teams
  • State, District, and School Data Teams are used
    to monitor improvement plan implementation and
  • In Instructional Data Teams, teachers
    collaboratively analyze data from common
    formative assessments, identify strengths and
    weaknesses in student learning and determine
    which instructional strategies will best address
    students and learning objectives. Teachers
    reconvene to analyze the effectiveness of the
    instructional strategies selected and implemented
    at the previous data team meeting.

Great Educators
  • use assessment data to make real-time decisions
    and to restructure their teaching accordingly.

D. B. Reeves, Accountability for Learning How
Teachers and School Leaders Can Take Charge,
2004, p. 71
The Data Team Process
  • Step 1-Collect and chart data
  • Step 2-Analyze strengths and obstacles
  • Step 3-Establish goals set, review, revise
  • Step 4-Select instructional strategies
  • Step 5-Determine results indicators

Two Types of Data
  • Effect Data Student achievement results from
    various measurements
  • Cause Data Information based on actions of the
    adults in the system

Data Worth Collecting Have a Purpose
  • How do you use data to inform instruction and
    improve student achievement?
  • How do you determine which data are the most
    important to use, analyze, or review?
  • In the absence of data, what is used as a basis
    for instructional decisions?

See page 15
Data Teams The Mechanism For Measuring Progress
  • Collect and chart data and results.
  • Analyze strengths and obstacles.
  • Set S.M.A.R.T. goal for student improvement.
  • Select effective teaching strategies.
  • Determine results indicators.

Results Indicators
  • Adults Actions Are these students doing what
    they said they would do?
  • Student Outcomes Are the students getting any
    better at the critical skills identified

Results Indicators Examples
  • Adults
  • Number of data team meetings held. The quality of
    the data team meetings.
  • Student Outcomes
  • of students proficient or better on weekly
  • of students proficient or better on district
    benchmark assessments

S.M.A.R.T. Goal
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Achievable
  • Realistic
  • Time-bound

Are these goals SMART???
  • The percentage of Grade 5 students scoring
    proficient and higher in algebraic concepts will
    increase from 45 percent to 55 percent by the end
    of a two-week period as measured by common
    assessment administered on November 28, 2006.
  • Reading proficiency will increase proficiency by
    a minimum of 15 as measured by CAPT by 2011.

Teacher Directed
  • Paraprofessionals may be asked by their
    supervisors to keep a record of behaviors or
    demonstrations of skills for an individual

  • As a paraprofessional, what type of data do you
  • How do you collect this data?
  • How can this data help teachers in their data
    team meetings?

Ways of Keeping Data
  • Checklists
  • Anecdotal records
  • Interviewing
  • Other data collection
  • Frequency or duration notes

Making Standards Work
  • Teachers and administrators collaboratively
    decide on Priority Standards that endure, give
    students leverage in other areas and prepare them
    for the next grade.
  • Priority Standards can be thought of as the posts
    in a fence. Other standards are still needed to
    keep the fence standing, but may not be as
  • Developed by The Leadership and Learning Center
  • (866) 399-6019

Making Standards Work, cont.
  • Priority Standards are unwrapped by teachers to
    deepen their understanding and to identify what
    students need to know and be able to do.
  • Performance-based tasks are developed to enhance
    instruction and assess student learning.
  • Rubrics to accompany tasks are created by
    teachers to ensure that all teachers are using
    the same measure of proficiency.

Developed by The Leadership and Learning
Center (866) 399-6019
Consider These Facts
  • 5.6 instructional hours per day X 180 days 1008
    hours per year X 13 years 13,104 total hours of
    K-12 instruction
  • McREL identified 200 standards and 3093
    benchmarks (indicators) in national-and
    state-level documents across 14 different subject
  • Classroom teachers estimated a need for 15,465
    hours to adequately teach them all

Marzano, R. (September 2001). Educational
More Years in School?
  • To cover all this content, you would have to
    change schooling from K-12 to K-22. The sheer
    number of standards is the biggest impediment to
    implementing standards.
  • By my reckoning, we would have to cut content by
    about two-thirds.

Marzano, R. (September 2001). Educational
Connecticut Standards Terminology
  • CONTENT Standardsfew in number broad statements
    of K-12 learner outcomes
  • PERFORMANCE Standardsgrade-specific or
    course-specific learner outcomes
    course-specific learner outcomes but with greater
    prioritize and later unwrap

Priority Standards
  • All grade-level or course-specific standards are
    not equal in importance!
  • Narrow those standards by distinguishing those
    that are essential from those that are supporting
  • Teach the supporting standards in the context of
    the essentials!
  • Prioritization, not elimination!

The Priority StandardsFence Metaphor
  • Fence posts and supporting rails Without both,
    there is no fence!

Priority Standards and Supporting Standards
  • Like fence posts, Priority Standards provide
    curricular focus in which teachers need to dig
    deeper and assure student competency
  • Like fence rails, Supporting Standards are
    curricular standards that connect to and support
    Priority Standards

But the State Tests All Standards!
  • Good set of Priority Standards will address about
    88 percent of the items on the state test, but
    not 100 percent
  • If you go after that extra 12 percent, you will
    have to cover many more standards and have less
    time to teach the truly essential ones.
  • Rationale Better to have all students
    proficient at 88 percent of what will probably be
    on state test versus exposure to 100 percent of
    what could be on test without corresponding
    degree of proficiency

Douglas B. Reeves, 2003
Guiding Questions for Identifying Priority
  • Which standards (GLEs) are critical for our
    students to know and understand to be prepared
    for the next level of learning?
  • Which standards (GLEs)based on our CMT and CAPT
    datado we especially need to emphasize?
  • Which standards (GLEs) represent necessary life

Why do we assess students?
The Power Of COMMON Assessments
  • Schools with the greatest improvements in
    student achievement consistently used
    common assessments.

D.B. Reeves, Accountability In Action, 2004
What Are Common Assessments?
  • Not standardized tests, but rather
    teacher-created, teacher-owned assessments that
    are collaboratively scored and that provide
    immediate feedback to students and teachers.

D.B. Reeves, CEO, The Leadership and Learning
Common Formative Assessments
  • Common formative assessments are used as
    assessments FOR learning, as opposed to summative
    assessments OF learning.
  • Common formative assessments are aligned to large
    scale assessments collaboratively designed by
    grade level and/or content area teachers are
    administered prior to beginning a unit to inform
  • Results of common formative assessments are
    analyzed in data teams.

Purposes of assessments
  • Identify if students have mastered particular
    concepts or skills in the standard(s)
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of instructional
  • Motivate students to be more engaged in learning
  • Help students learn content through application
    and other reasoning skills
  • Help students develop positive attitudes towards
    a subject

Purposes of assessment, cont.
  • Communicate expectations to students
  • Give students feedback about what they know and
    can do
  • Show students what they need to focus on to
    improve their understanding
  • Encourage student self-evaluation
  • Determine report card grades
  • Communicate to parents what students presently
    know and can do

Functional assessment
  • While both standardized tests and behavioral
    checklists probably will remain as integral parts
    of the assessment data that is gathered for each
    child or youth with disabilities, the most
    important assessment data that is gathered for
    children, are usually done informally and relate
    to the functional skills of the individual.

Functional Assessment
  • Assessment carried out that is directly useful in
    planning for the student.

  • Lets look at some Priority Standards

How Powerful Practices Work Together
  • Teachers and administrators collaboratively
    analyze data from common assessments and identify
    strengths and weaknesses in student learning.
  • Identify Power Standards that address skills and
    content that endures, gives leverage to other
    disciplines and make students ready for the next
    grade level.
  • Unwrap those standards to identify concepts and
    skills students need to know and be able to do,
    determine Big Ideas and develop performance-based
    tasks and rubrics.

How Powerful Practices Work Together, cont.
  • Select effective teaching strategies to achieve
  • Teach those unwrapped concepts and skills
    through performance assessment guided by
    Essential Questions.
  • Evaluate student work with rubrics to assess
  • Give common assessments to see improvements
    within grade, department, school, and district.
  • Analyze data and repeat cycle.

Improving School Climate to Support Academic
  • In this two-day basic training module,
    participants learn that the quality of school
    climate is all about relationships, which are
    determined by how well the people within the
    school treat each other physically, emotionally,
    and intellectually.
  • This module offers practical strategies including
    data gathering on how to improve school climate
    to support student achievement.
  • Developed by CSDE RESC/SERC Alliance

  • If we are to reach real peace in the world, we
    shall have to begin with the children.
  • -Mahatma Gandhi

What is Bullying
  • Bullying is a public activity needing a stage
    on which to performwhen the audience is not
    there, the show closes
  • Power imbalance
  • Its about power and not about conflict
  • Conflict resolution and peer mediation are not
    appropriate as means of addressing bullying

  • Juvonen, Graham, Schuster (2003) found that 22
    of students experience bullying. Specifically
  • 7 reported being a perpetrator
  • 9 reported being a victim
  • 6 reported being both a perpetrator and a

Differences between Males and Females
  • Males often use physical aggression.
  • Females that bully are more likely to engage in
    verbal means of bullying such as ostracizing an
    individual from a group, teasing, or gossiping.
  • Female bullying is typically more insidious,
    cunning, and difficult to spot than male
    bullying. (Garrity et al., 1994)

Two Types of Victims
  • Passive victims generally do not defend
    themselves and can be characterized by
  • Being isolated during the school day
  • Lacking social skills
  • Being physically weak
  • Crying or yielding easily to bullies
  • Suffering from past traumatization
  • Having learning difficulties

Provocative Victims
  • Provocative victims generally tease and provoke
    bullies but do not have the social or physical
    skills necessary to defend themselves.
    Provocative victims are characterized by
  • Being easy to arouse emotionally
  • Maintaining the conflict
  • Likely having attention deficit hyperactivity
    disorder (AD/HD)

Current Connecticut Bullying Legislation
Local Accountability
  • Requires Boards of Education to develop and
    implement a policy on bullying by February 1,
    2003 Amended in July 2006 and July 2008
  • Policy must enable anonymous reporting from
    students or written reports from
  • Requires school personnel to inform students
    yearly on procedures for reporting bullying
  • Requires school personnel to notify
    administrators in writing when they witness or
    receive reports
  • Requires administrators to investigate all
    written reports

Current Connecticut Bullying Legislation
Local Accountability, cont.
  • Maintain a public list of number of verified acts
    of bullying without specific names
  • Create case-by-case intervention strategies for
    dealing with bullying including language in the
    student code of conduct
  • Require notification of parents/guardians of all
    student involved in school response and
    consequences including invitations to meet

Adults Often Ignore Bullying Behavior
  • Adults in school do relatively little to stop
    bullying behavior at school
  • Adults overlook or wait to intervene when initial
    instances of mean behaviors or language occur
  • Adults in school who are physically present
    during acts of meanness
  • Uninvolved or ignored 71 of observed incidences

Modeling Behavior
  • The role of adults as moral agents and exemplars
  • Parents
  • Teachers
  • Administrators
  • Support Staff
  • Other School Personnel
  • Community

Adults Mentors, Not Friends
  • Must be friendly and compassionate
  • Students have friends
  • Students want and need adults to be
  • Adults
  • Mentors
  • Guides
  • Parents
  • Teachers

Using EVERY Adult to Foster Positive Connections
  • Who Are the Adults?
  • Parents
  • Administrators
  • Teachers
  • Pupil Support Staff
  • Office Workers
  • Nurses
  • Paraprofessionals
  • Community Volunteers
  • Maintenance Staff
  • Cafeteria Workers
  • After-School Care Workers
  • Bus Drivers

  • Watch Video

What You Can Do to Prevent Bullying
  • Be vigilant
  • Monitor Hot Spots
  • Identify patterns
  • Encourage bystanders to report incidents of
  • Keep a watchful eye on isolated students.
  • Provide activities for students during recess.
  • Make available alternate activities to at-risk

What to Do When Bullying Happens
  • Make sure you understand your schools bullying
    policies and procedures.
  • Respond quickly to all reports of bullying.
  • Support the victim.
  • Discipline the student but avoid harsh measures.
  • Connect with the bully.
  • Monitor the students.

  • Think of a time when you participated, witnessed,
    or were the victim of a bullying incident.
  • Discuss what the bullying looked like, what it
    felt like, and what possible interventions might
    be appropriate for the situation.

Discussion Questions
  • Can you identify a situation in your school or
    classroom in which bullying occurred? How did
    you react?
  • Knowing what you know now, would you have reacted
    any differently? Explain.

What Does Effective Mean?
  • The reflective process is at the very heart of
    accountability. It is through reflection that we
    distinguish between the popularity of teaching
    techniques and their effectiveness. The question
    is not Did I like it?, but rather Was it
  • (Reeves, D. B., Accountability for Learning,
    2004, p. 52)

Most Effective Teaching Strategies?
  • Effective actions of the teacher that elevate
    or lift cognition of learners
  • The simple question is, Is it working for the
  • What teaching strategies are most commonly used
    in your schools that DO WORK?

If you think that teachers and leaders influence
student achievement, you are right!
Student Causes Teacher Causes
Source Leadership for Learning, 2005, Center
for Performance Assessment, www.MakingStandardsWor
Nine effective strategies
  • Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock examined decades
    of research findings to identify nine broad
    teaching strategies that have positive effects on
    student learning

Ten effective strategies
  • Identifying similarities and differences.
  • Summarizing and note taking.
  • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition.
  • Homework and practice.
  • Nonlinguistic representations.
  • Cooperative learning
  • Setting objectives and providing feedback.
  • Generating and testing hypotheses.
  • Questions, cues, and advance organizers
  • Non fiction writing (added based on Reeves)

Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition,
  • Key Premises
  • Effort can be taught and learned
  • Increased effort greater success
  • Recognize accomplishments that go above and
    beyond what is expected
  • Techniques
  • Effort/Motivation
  • Providing Recognition

Strategy Reinforcing Effort
  • Reinforcing Effort/Motivation 5 Key Aspects
    from Mendler
  • Emphasizing effort
  • Creating hope
  • Respecting power
  • Build relationships
  • Expressing enthusiasm

Strategy-Providing Recognition
  • Providing recognition
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
  • Monitor effort
  • The more abstract and symbolic the rewards, the
    more powerful they are

  • Does not necessarily have negative impact on
    intrinsic motivation
  • Most effective when linked to a performance
  • More effective when abstract
  • The Nintendo Effect

Key Ideas from Motivating Students Who Dont
  • Effort-Chapter 4
  • Ask for small things first
  • Encourage each student to improve one thing each
  • Show simple courtesy
  • Separate effort from achievement when grading
  • Build on mistakes
  • Allow for 3-Rs-re-do, retake, revise
  • Give a reason for effort

Application in Context
  • Take what you have learned about reinforcing
    effort and providing recognition and the
    techniques along with the concepts and skills you
    have identified as learner outcomes.
  • Identify a plan or application of how you will
    use the techniniques in context. Be prepared to

Providing Feedback
  • Feedback must be accurate-we have a moral
    obligation to tell the truth
  • Feedback should be corrective in nature
  • Feedback should be timely
  • Feedback should be specific to criterion
  • Students should also engage in self-reflection/fee
  • Students should use anonymous student work peer
    reflection and feedback

Strategy-Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Key Premises
  • Many names visual tools, graphic organizers,
    thinking maps
  • Dual-coding (linguistic and imagery form)
  • The more both forms are used simultaneously, the
    better students think about knowledge and recall
  • Techniques
  • Many types of visual tools

Strategy-visual Tools
  • Three types of visual tools
  • Brainstorming webs mind mapping, webbing,
    clustering for personal knowledge
  • Task-specific organizers life cycles, text
    structures, decision trees for isolated context
  • Thinking process maps concept mapping, systems
    thinking for transfer across disciplines

Feedback gives information that a student can that they can understand where they are
in their learning and what to do next. The goal
is to give students the feeling that they have
control over their own learning.

Brookhart, 2008

The Bottom Line..
  • Focus on the work, process or students self
  • Compare to criteria (work), other students
    (processes or effort), or past performance
    (especially struggling learners).
  • Describe, dont judge.
  • Use positive comments accompany negative
    comments with positive suggestions for
  • Be clear to the student.
  • Tailor the specificity to the student.
  • Be respectful of the student and the work.

Math Examples
  • I know you worked this out with your group.
    Good strategy.
  • You could have expressed these (decimals) as
    13/100, 72/100 and 4/5. Sometimes you cant
    reduce and it is easier to say out of one
    hundred. The more you rounded, the less accurate
    your fractions were.
  • These arent as accurate. I think rounding and
    reducing worked better.

More math examples
  • You didnt answer the second part of the
  • Your explanation was the shortest one in class.
    Can you write more next time?
  • Put these fractions in order and they will make
    more sense.
  • Multiple errors in spelling on the explanation.
    Please correct and resubmit.

Feedback for Struggling Students
  • Focus feedback on the process. This will help
    them determine what actions can lead to further
    success. They will be learning to learn.
  • I noted that you reread your paper three times
    and made changes. Going back and checking helps
    you catch problems, doesnt it?

Feedback for Struggling Students
  • Use self-referenced feedback (formatively) which
    addresses improvement.
  • This paragraph had a lot more vivid verbs than
    the one you did last week. It is much more
    exciting to read.
  • Note For grading, use standards- or
    criterion-based feedback.

Feedback for Struggling Students
  • Limit important points.
  • Focus on small steps for improvement.
  • Use simple vocabulary, explaining words as you
  • Check for understanding by asking
    questions.What is one thing that we talked
    about that you are going to do for the next

  • Questions
  • Waiting briefly before accepting responses from
    students has the effect of increasing the depth
    of students answers
  • Questions are effective learning tools even when
    asked before a learning experience.

Need Additional Information
  • Iris White, Associate Education Consultant
  • CSDE, Bureau of Accountability and Improvement
  • (860) 713-6564
  • General Information
  • Registration http//