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Collaborative Expedition Workshop


... Subcommittees were on different pages and the White Paper I went nowhere like DRM 1.0! ... abstraction and is the ultimate abstraction tool for information. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Collaborative Expedition Workshop

Collaborative Expedition Workshop 47, Tuesday,
January 24, 2006, at the National Science
  • Advancing Credible Agreements Across Networked
    Improvement Communities Bootstrapping
    Service-Oriented Architecture and Semantic
    Interoperability Toward Transformative Practice
  • Brand Niemann (US EPA), Chair,
  • Semantic Interoperability Community of Practice
  • January 23, 2006

  • 1. Some History
  • Architecture and Infrastructure Committee (AIC)
    and Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA)
  • 2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • Ontology and Flow
  • 3. Some Resources
  • Previous Work
  • 4. Chief Architects Forum Comments
  • See http//

1. Some History
  • In the reorganization of the AIC there was the
  • Governance Subcommittee
  • Government Enterprise Architecture Framework.
  • Components Subcommittee
  • Definition (1) and White Paper I (2).
  • Core.Gov Phase I - CollabNet (see next slide).
  • Emerging Technology Subcommittee
  • XML Working Group XML Vocabularies, XML Schema
    Registry, and Vendor Demonstrations.
  • Web Services Working Group Pilots, Components,
    and Registries and Repositories
  • E-Forms and Business Gateway for OMB and SBA, and (six quarterly
    conferences for the AIC).

(1) A self contained business process or service
with predetermined functionality that may be
exposed through a business or technology
interface (2) The three Subcommittees were on
different pages and the White Paper I went
nowhere like DRM 1.0!
1. Some History
  • The Web Services Working Group was an outgrowth
    of an award winning SOA with Web Service (see
    slides 28-36) and was tasked to provided
    successful pilots and components to the Business
    Gateway, namely
  • Collaborative XML Schema Development The XML
    Collaborator from Blue Oxide
  • Pursued by the Intelligence Community Metadata
    Working Group.
  • E-Forms The Bureau of Census Fenestra Open
    Source Tool.
  • Fenestra is now a subcontractor on the six year
    contract to Lockheed Martin to build the
    Electronic Records Archives (ERA) system for
  • Collaborative Development Environment
    Registry/Repository CollabNet.
  • Adopted for Core.Gov I
  • Native XML Data Storage Tamino XML Server from
  • The leading native XML storage data base in the

1. Some History
  • In the current phase of the AIC
  • Governance Subcommittee
  • Value of Enterprise Architecture and Reference
    Model Maintenance Process.
  • SOA Governance (January 19, 2006).
  • Components Subcommittee
  • Service Component Based Architecture FEA
    Version of SOA and White Paper II.
  • Core.Gov Phase II Tomoye (see next slide).
  • Emerging Technology Subcommittee
  • XML CoP ET.Gov component registration, XML
    Vocabularies (e.g. StratML), and Naming and
    Design Rules and Guidelines.
  • SICoP Pilots, DRM 2.0 Implementation
    Components, Collaboration Workshops and Cross-CoP
    Meetings, and Semantic SOAs.

1. Some History
  • Core.Gov Phase II
  • Register E-Gov Initiatives Components.
  • Done as SOAs?
  • Offer Component Development Environment.
  • Using Tomoye?.
  • Discuss how to include components from
  • Open Source, Componenttechnology.Org, XML CoP,
    SICoP, etc.

1. Some History
DHS MCOE Vendor Proof of Concept for
Metadata Repository Selection.

See next slide.
Note For 2005 Computer Associates is removed
from the Leader Quadrant.
Source Gartner, June 30, 2005, Magic Quadrant
for Metadata Repositories, 2H05 to 1H06, Michael
J. Blechar, ID Number G00129274.
1. Some History
  • CIO Councils Web Services WG and SICoP Pilots
  • MetaMatrix Visionaries Quadrant.
  • Flashline Flashline has been at the leadership
    front in terms of promoting market interest in
    areas such as software asset portfolio
    management, governance, compliancy and Web
  • See http//
  • Unicorn - Visionaries Quadrant.
  • Also Improving Rapid First Response Event
    Ontology Pilot and Water Data Harmonization
  • LogicLibrary LogicLibrary has helped drive
    market interest in service and component reuse,
    SOA governance and integration with leading
    service-oriented development products.
  • See http//
  • Demo http//

1. Some History
  • The FEA Has Used the Term Component Based
    Architecture for Linking the Five Reference
    Models Together.
  • But This Has been Difficult to Understand and
    Implement Because the First Four FEA Reference
    Models Are Taxonomies.
  • This Has Been Dealt With in DRM 2.0 Where
    Implementation Testing Has Paralleled Development
    and Used SOA.
  • Registries and Repositories are Being Built Into
    Operating Systems (e.g. Sun OS ebXML and
    mapping to UDDU) and as SOA Platforms (e.g.
    Digital Harbor - PIES)!

1. Some History
  • Gartner characterizes the Federal Enterprise
    Architecture as a set of Reference Models backed
    by law and administrative rule and not a
    roadmap, but a guide to getting there.
  • A 2004 GAO report said the FEA is more akin to a
    classification scheme (taxonomy) for government
    operations than a true enterprise architecture,
    questioned (since the terms are not well-defined)
    if the expected relationship between the FEA and
    agencies architectures were clear enough for
    agencies to map and align their architectures
    with the FEA, and if the agencies enterprise
    architectures would provide sufficient content
    for driving implementation of systems.

1. Some History
  • The Industry Advisory Council EA SIG recently
    said The FEA Reference Models do not constitute
    a comprehensive EA methodology or approach by
    themselves. These FEA Reference Models, as
    populated, specifically serve mainly as
    mechanisms for identifying and coding initiatives
    via a common taxonomy and as checklists for
    coverage in an EA.
  • OMB Chief Architect, Dick Burk, said recently the
    FEA is not a real architecture only four
    Reference Models that are taxonomies, but we are
    evolving it to a real and target architecture
    (Chief Architect Forum, October 6, 2005).

1. Some History
Convergence in the FEA Paradigm Shifts
Evolving to Service Oriented Architecture
Evolving to a Data-Driven Approach for the DRM
Semantic Interoperability Architecture
The problem is not that there are no semantics,
the problem is that the semantics is hidden in
software components, Stefan Decker, quoted by
Christopher Welty in Towards a Semantics for the
1. Some History
Paradigm Shifts
  • FEA Reference Model Ontology
  • FEA Semantic Model
  • DRM 2.0 by open, collaborative process
  • Implementation though iteration and testing
    during development.
  • FEA Reference Model Taxonomies
  • FEA Common Language
  • DRM 1.0 by committee
  • Implementation after development.

1. Some History
Source Expanding E-Government, Improved Service
Delivery for the American People Using
Information Technology, December 2005, pages
2-3. http//
1. Some History
  • Essentially, SICoP and others have evolved the
    FEA Taxonomy/Component Based Architecture over
    the past year to a Ontology-Based/Semantic
    Interoperability Architecture (SIA) or Semantic
    SOA (SSOA) following the same process as DRM 2.0,
    namely testing while developing to demonstrate it
    works in pilots and real-world implementations,
    instead of the Components Subcommittee approach
    of developing White Papers and providing
    without that open collaborative process and
    iteration and testing during development, and
    having essentially no uptake.

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • Ontology and Flow
  • What is Abstraction and Indirection?
  • What is the SOA Abstraction and Indirection?
  • Why is Publish the First and Most Important
  • What is a SOA With Web Services?
  • Why is Semantic Interoperability Important for
  • What Are Some Best Practices of SOA, Composite
    Applications, SSOA, and Their Platforms?
  • What are Some SOA Governance Approaches?

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
Information Model Two Connected Layers Knowledge
Map and the Information Resources
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • Information Model
  • Introduce a concept in the form of a question.
  • Answer that question with a definition and an
    instance that illustrates the relationship we
    mean between the concept and the instance.
  • Provide a flow of concepts and instances that
    supports logic and reasoning.
  • This illustrates the Knowledge Reference Model we
    are working towards!

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • What is Abstraction and Indirection?
  • Definition Architects of both software and
    physical structures routinely use the principle
    of abstraction to isolate complex components and
    reduce the scope of a problem to be solved (see
    the forest for the trees). By definition,
    ontology is abstraction and is the ultimate
    abstraction tool for information.
  • Example Imagine a scenario of using a pivot data
    model without abstraction it would require the
    aggregation of all of the data elements in a
    particular community the result could be the a
    community of 500 applications, each application
    with approximately 100 data elements, requiring a
    pivot model with about 50,000 data elements an
    abstracted model could conceivably be capable of
    representing this information in far fewer than
    about 100 date elements!
  • Pilot Demonstrations of SICoP Pilot Projects for
    EPA Managers, August 16, 2004, Semantic
    Information Management (Unicorn) Integrating
    Health and Environmental Information to Protect
    American Children, at http//

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • What is Abstraction and Indirection?
  • Definition Indirection is a concept that is use
    to plan for future uncertainty. Simply put,
    indirection is when two things need to be
    coupled, but instead of coupling them directly, a
    third thing is used to mediate direct, brittle
    connections between them. By leveraging
    indirection in the fundamental aspects of the
    technology, semantic interoperability is built
    for change, and this built-in flexibility
    differentiates semantic technologies from other
    information-driven approaches.
  • Example Model-View-Controller (see next two
  • Pilot E-Forms for E-Gov, see http//www.fenestra.

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
Source http//
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • Model-View-Controller (MVC) is a classic design
    pattern often used by applications that need the
    ability to maintain multiple views of the same
    data. The MVC pattern hinges on a clean
    separation of objects into one of three
    categories models for maintaining data, views
    for displaying all or a portion of the data, and
    controllers for handling events that affect the
    model or view(s).
  • Because of this separation, multiple views and
    controllers can interface with the same model.
    Even new types of views and controllers that
    never existed before can interface with a model
    without forcing a change in the model design.

Source http//
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • What is the SOA Abstraction and Indirection?
  • IBM created a model to depict Web services
    interactions which is referred to as a
    service-oriented architecture comprising
    relationships among three entities (see next
  • A Web service provider
  • A Web service requestor and a
  • A Web service broker.
  • Note IBMs service-oriented architecture is a
    generic model describing service collaboration,
    not specific to Web services.
  • See http//

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
Service provider
Service requestor
Service broker
Service-oriented architecture representation
(Courtesy of IBM Corporation)
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
Service requestors
Service providers
Web Services Network Security Reliability QoS Bil
Web services networks act as intermediaries in
Web services interactions.
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • ZapThinks ZapForum (2005)
  • May 4th - The Great Debate Enterprise Service
    Bus (ESBs), SOA Fabrics, or Something Else?
  • June 8th End-to-End Metadata Management
    Registries, Repositories and Governance.
  • July 13th Building Composite Applications with
    Legacy Systems.
  • September 7th Transformation and Semantics.
  • October 5th Improving Performance of SOA
  • November 2nd Implementing Reliable
    Service-Oriented Architectures.
  • December 1st Policies and Governance.

The Garner for SOA at http//
See SOA Roadmap.
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • Why is Publish the First and Most Important
  • These need to be done in order or there will be
    needless infrastructure and cost.
  • Publish is to expose the data in an
    interoperable format (XML) otherwise there is
    nothing to find and bind to
  • Rule 1 Every new application or system
    modernization should be a state-of-the-art web
  • Find requires a registry and/or repository
    which has been very difficult and expensive
    historically (e.g. XML.Gov,, DoD, etc.)
    with very limited ROI
  • Rule 2. Dont put the registry/repository cart
    before the horse or that will become the focus.
  • Bind requires tools and expertise to write and
    test WSDL files like XML Spy and others.

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • What is a SOA With Web Services?
  • Definition XML for the data and XML for the
    messages linking two or more services together.
  • Example The Award Winning Emergency Response
    Web-to-VoiceXML Application and Distributed
    Content Network (see next slide).
  • Features Data made visible and exchangeable and
    reusable and many network nodes (county, state,
    agency, subject matter, etc.)

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
XML Message for Voice
XML Data
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
Source Expanding E-Government, Improved Service
Delivery for the American People Using
Information Technology, December 2005, pages
2-3. http//
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
Relationships and associations
  • Metamodel Precise definitions of constructs and
    rules needed for abstraction, generalization, and
    semantic models.
  • Model Relationships between the data and its
  • Metadata Data about the data.
  • Data Facts or figures from which conclusions can
    be inferred.

Source Professor Andreas Tolk, August 16, 2005
The purpose of this schematic is to show that we
need to describe information model relationships
and associations in a way that can be accessed
and searched.
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
This Data Architecture Provides the Three Ss
Structure, Searchability, and Semantics.
See http// and Dynamic Knowledge
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
Data Story
Note Can Highlight Table and Copy and Paste to
Spreadsheet Because of XML Markup.
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
Separation of the Data Presentation from the Data
Data Metadata (see next slide)
Data Presentation/ Visualization
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
The Data Metadata Travel Together in XML Format!
Data Metadata in XML
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • Why is Semantic Interoperability Important for
  • Dimensions of Interoperability
  • Evolution of the SOA Platform
  • Line of Sight
  • Example 1 - Web Services for E-Government
  • Example 2 - Development of the FEA Data and
    Information Reference Model

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • Dimensions of Interoperability
  • Organizational Interoperability is about
    streamlining administrative processes and
    information architecture top the institutional
    goals we want to achieve and to facilitate the
    interplay of technical and organizational
    concerns. It requires the identification of
    business interfaces, and coordination
    throughout MS and EU.
  • Technical Interoperability is about knitting
    together IT-systems and software, defining and
    using open inter-faces, standards, and protocols.
    It relies on cooperation as well as on technical
  • Semantic Interoperability is about ensuring that
    the meaning of the information we exchange is
    contained and understood by the involved people,
    applications, and institutions. It needs the
    know-how of sector institutions and publication
    of specifications.

Source Barbara Held, The European
Interoperability Framework for pan-European
eGovernment Services, IDABC, Enterprise
Industry Directorate-General, European
Commission, February 17-18, 2005
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • Evolution of the SOA Platform
  • Simple Web Services exposing data and actions
  • Composite Applications business processes
    consumed by portals
  • Service Infrastructure

Sources (1) David Chappell, Business Process
Management in a Service-Oriented World, Federal
Architect Forum, May 11, 2005, (2) Bruce Graham,
Taking SOA from Pilot to Production with Service
Infrastructure, May 12, 2005 and (3) David
Martin, Semantic Web Services Promise, Progress,
and Challenges, SWANS Conference Tutorial, April
8, 2005.
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
Dimensions of Interoperability
Line of Sight
Evolution of the SOA Platform
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • Example 1 - Web Services for E-Government
  • 1. Organizational-Simple
  • Led CIO Council award winning VoiceXML Web
    Service for EPA Emergency Response pilot that has
    subsequently been commercialized and implemented
    as Infrastructure.
  • 2. Technical-Composite
  • Lead the CIO Councils E-Forms for E-Gov Pilot
    that saw 13 E-forms vendors each build an XML Web
    Service using a common XML Schema for E-Grants to
    increase their collective technical
    interoperability with one another.
  • 3. Semantic-Infrastructure
  • Our recent Semantic Web for Military Applications
    Conference featured 40 vendors implementing
    RDF/OWL including the Putting Context to Work
    Semantic Keys to Improve Rapid First Response
    that used an event ontology to achieve semantic
    interoperability across five vendors.

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
Event Type Ontology in Context Application in
Unicorn Workbench http//
Source Putting Context to Work Semantic Keys to
Improve Rapid First Response, Semantic Web
Applications for National Security Conference,
April 8, 2005, Trade Show, Broadstrokes,
ImageMatters, MyStateUSA, Starbourne, and
2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • Example 2 - Development of the FEA Data and
    Information Reference Model
  • 1. Organizational-Simple
  • A Wiki is being used to support a Community of
    Practice in the publish, find, and bind of SOA
    in their development of the basic documents and
    items 2 and 3 below.
  • 2. Technical-Composite
  • A Wiki is also being used as a registry of the
    taxonomy of XML Schemas to organize the
    governments data and information for sharing
    within the context of the taxonomy.
  • 3. Semantic-Infrastructure
  • A Wiki is also being used for coordination of
    taxonomy and ontology development, sharing, and
    reuse across the government and non-government

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • What Are Some Best Practices of SOA, Composite
    Applications, SSOA, and Their Platforms?
  • N2 problem, need if N is large, otherwise do
    direct connections (Tolk)
  • Semantic Interoperability at Work Improving
    Rapid First Response
  • See Collaborative Expedition Workshops and SICoP
    Public Meetings.
  • Digital Harbor, Composite Applications Platform,
    SICoP Pilots Four Use Cases
  • SICoP Fact Sheet at http//
  • See Leaderboard, page 70, in InfoWorld, May 2,
    2005, Issue 18
  • NSA (Chance and Kendall), Semantic Service
    Oriented Architecture and Standards for
    Model-Driven Semantics
  • 4th Semantic Interoperability for E-Government
    Conference, February 9-10, 2006, MITRE, McLean,

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • What are some SOA Governance Approaches?
  • Opportunistic Make every new application and
    system modernization a state-of-the-art Web
  • EPAs Award Winning Web Services.
  • Kim Nelson I wish we had created more Web
    Services than data warehouses.
  • Mandated from on high The Joint Chiefs of Staff
    said we will have a medical readiness information
    system to go to war in Iraq.
  • Medical Operational Data System (MODIS).
  • Incremental bootstrapping approach. July 22,
    2003, see http//

2. Service-Oriented Architecture
  • What are some SOA Governance Approaches
  • Specified in Collaborative Software Component
    Development and Reuse
  • Dr. Jeffrey Poulin, Measuring Software Reuse
    Principles, Practices, and Economic Models,
    Addison-Wesley, May 14, 2004, Workshop (next
  • Fostered in Communities of Interest
  • DoD CoI Forum Propose pilot to expose and share
    data with Web Services, get sign-off by 1-2 star
    general, complete the pilot, and expose to
    acquisition (January 19, 2006, meeting).
  • Visionary Agencies and Organizations
  • NSA SSOA - Participation in standards
    organizations and piloting of state-of-the art
    emerging technologies.

3. Some Resources
  • Emerging Technology Innovations in Software
    Components Development, Reuse, and Management
    Applications to Government Enterprise
    Architecture, May 14, 2004
  • See http//
  • Suggested Roadmap from the FEA to SOA/SIA,
    Management of Change Conference, May 25, 2005
  • See http//
  • High Performance Government SOA Led Organization
    Transformation Racing Towards Business
    Improvement, SOA Executive Event, May 12, 2005
  • See http//

3. Some Resources
  • Tutorial 3 Understanding Service-Oriented
    Architectures and Government Applications
  • What Attendees Will Learn
  • Real-world examples of government agencies that
    have implemented SOAs
  • How SOAs can streamline government IT and
    facilitate broad-scale interoperability
  • How to build a SOA using and Enterprise Service
    Bus (ESB)
  • Why ESB technology is emerging as the foundation
    for successful SOA deployments
  • How the ESB supports the specific requirements of
    a distributed, federal government application
  • Correlations between benefits of web services,
    SOA, and ESBs in the public and private sectors
  • How ESBs differ from traditional integration
  • How to select the right ESB for your agencys
    integration needs

3. Some Resources
  • David Chappell, Vice President and Chief
    Technology Evangelist Sonic Software, and Author
  • Enterprise Service Bus (ESB), OReilly Media,
    June 2004.
  • Eric Newcomer, Chief Technology Officer, IONA
    Technologies and Author
  • Understanding SOA with Web Services, with Greg
    Lomow, Addison Wesley, December, 2004.

3. Some Resources
My review
For example
  • E-Government needs a comprehensive guide to SOA
    with Web Services standards and best practices
    for implementation to get from the current "as
    is" to the future "to be" architecture. This book
    meets that need superbly.
  • Brand Niemann, Ph.D., Co-Chair, SICoP, U.S.
    Federal CIO Council

3. Some Resources
  • Caution Be Prepared to Slow Down Road Work
  • David Chappell, Federal Architect Forum, April 8,
    2004 The "Big Bet" - Has anyone ever tried to
    create a complete, multi-vendor security
    framework before? Will this work? Keep an eye on
    the progress of WS-Security implementations - The
    success of SOA may depend on this technology.
  • David Martin, SRI International, April 8, 2005
    Sociological (crossing the chasm) getting to
    where the payoff exceeds the overhead (for
    significant numbers).
  • Russ Reopell, MITRE, Intelligence Community
    Metadata Working Group Meeting, May 4-5, 2005
    The SOA Threat
  • Greg Lomow, Bearing Point Work on a Multi-vendor
    Security SOA Framework for DHS (Source JP
    Morgenthal, May 26, 2005).
  • SOA Leaders, Building the Business Case for SOA,
    June 9, 2005.
  • SecurE-Biz CXO Summit Conference, SOA/ Web
    Services Track, June 29-30, 2005.

(No Transcript)
3. Some Resources
  • W3C Workshop on Rule Languages for
    Interoperability, 27-28 April 2005, Washington,
    D.C., USA.
  • Ontology and Rules on the same level, connected,
    and both treated as data.
  • W3C Workshop on Frameworks for Semantics in Web
    Services, June 9-10, 2005, Digital Enterprise
    Research Institute (DERI), Innsbruck, Austria.

3. Some Resources
  • Enterprise Architecture and Service-Oriented
    Architecture Fad or Foundation?
  • The goal of this series was to provide a clear
    path (J2EE/.NET for building Web
    services/SOA-based applications) in complex
    environments using open-standards to improve
    interoperability across all Governmental
    Agencies. It is far from perfect, but we gave it
    an honest effort
  • Part One http//
  • Part Two http//
  • Part Three http//
  • Part Four http//
  • Semantic Technologies and Ontology Engineering
    for Enterprise Architecture, Ralph Hodgson,
  • EA Summit 2005, May 22-24, Miami, Florida.
  • Composite Applications with Multiple Ontologies
  • For example, Digital Harbor (http//www.digitalhar at the SWANS Conference Trade Show.
  • See Leaderboard, page 70, in InfoWorld, May 2,
    2005, Issue 18.

4. Chief Architects Forum Comments
  • Service Component Based Architecture (SCBA) and
    Core.Gov for Enterprise Architecture (January 26,
  • Did not want to throw component away in SCBA
    V3.4, but you should drop components and
    component registration since it causes confusion
    and implementation problems because the FEA does
    not couple EA to SD (software development) and
    manage SD across the enterprise
  • Services are things that you publish, find, and
    bind to like in a SOA, while
  • Components implies physical things you move
    around put in a - and try to get
    reused in some way.

4. Chief Architects Forum Comments
  • Service Component Based Architecture (SCBA) and
    Core.Gov for Enterprise Architecture (January 26,
    2006) (continued)
  • Three lessons learned
  • We are not using industry best practices of
    governance for ROI in software component
    development and reuse. (See May 14, 2004,
    Expedition Workshop).
  • The E-Gov Initiatives (e.g. E-Grants) were
    generally not architected with open source,
    reusable components (See January 26, 2006,
    Expedition Workshop).
  • The use of services in SOA is a more general and
    useful architectural pattern than is components
    in the FEA (See January 26, 2006, Expedition