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Building Our Way Out of Crime:

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Title: Building Our Way Out of Crime:


1
Building Our Way Out of Crime Community
Development and its Role in Crime
Reduction October 21, 2005 16th Annual
Problem-Oriented Policing Conference Charlotte,
North Carolina
2
Agenda
  • Exploring the link between public safety and
    community development
  • Evidence of success from community-police
    alliances
  • Community developers who they are, how they work
  • Terms of engagement
  • Closer look at a Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police
    Department experience
  • Questions

3
Link between public safety and community
development
Blight other Community Decline
?
Crime
Revitalization other Community Development
?
Public Safety
4
Link between public safety and community
development
  • Research underscores the importance of
    activities that fall under the broad umbrella of
    community building. …. The message for social
    policy is clear Building strong communities
    from the ground up… will contribute to the
    reduction in violence and fear, and will create a
    sense of safety.
  • - Jeremy Travis (2004)
  • Source Building from the Ground Up Strategies
    for Creating Safe and Just Communities, in
    Journal of Social Thought Religion
    Spirituality in Social Work (2004)

5
Limits of many efforts to eradicate crime hot
spots
Board up bad building without replacing it
6
Creating productive institutional alliances
Police Department
Community Developers
Full-time paid Coordinator
Technical Assistance Providers (LISC)
7
What have been the outcomes of community developer
-police alliances?
  • Elimination of persistent hot spots
  • Significant drops in crime
  • Brick-and-mortar development, including high
    quality affordable housing and attractive retail
    space
  • New businesses and jobs
  • Greater resident engagement, eyes on the
    street, social capital, and collective efficacy

8
Replacing nuisance properties Revitalization of
Payne Avenue in St. Paul
  • Notorious strip club redeveloped into
    a restaurant and community meeting space

9
Crime reduction Graffiti Free Zone in South
Los Angeles
  • Gang activity targeted by LAPD, Neighborhood
    Prosecutor and a CDC
  • Resulted in the removal of 150,000 square feet of
    graffiti and a 50 drop in new graffiti tags
  • LAPD recognized the program as a major
    contributor to a 16 drop in gang crime

10
Crime reduction Revitalization of Payne Avenue
in St. Paul
  • Police anti-crime efforts combined with CDC
    development contributed to a 26 drop in Part 1
    crime reports and a 25 drop in Quality of Life
    Calls for Service (QLC) on Payne Ave.
  • Changes in the target area were much better than
    those in comparable neighborhoods

-25
24
11
10
-26
-8
-2
-23
TARGET AREA COMPARISON AREAS
11
Real Estate Development Transformation of Blue
Parkway in Kansas City, MO
  • CDC cleans up an area that is hazardous to
    residents due to illegal dumping and stray
    animals to clear the way for development of a
    major retail center

12
Kansas Citys Blue Parkway (continued)
  • Police help secure tenants for a 160,000 square
    foot commercial center on the site
  • Center includes a police substation and workout
    facility

13
Real Estate Development Community Safety Center
in Minneapolis
  • American Indian Neighborhood Development Corp.
    develops a commercial plaza, including a police
    substation, in a spot where open air drug sales
    previously deterred merchants

14
New business development Redevelopment of
Columbia Plaza in Seattle
  • Commercial area transformed from a violent crime
    hotspot to a thriving multi-cultural business
    center
  • Part I crime declined 18 in the target area
    compared to 8 citywide

15
New Business Development Uphams Corner
Revitalization in Dorchester, MA
  • CDC purchases and renovates properties in a
    blighted, crime ridden commercial intersection
  • New businesses open with help from CDC loan funds

Before After
16
Job Creation Violent Crime Reduction
Blackberry Jungle to Pacific Rim Plaza in
Seattle
  • Dangerous transient camp…

Next to Blackberry Jungle
Blackberry Jungle
17
Job Creation Violent Crime Reduction
Blackberry Jungle to Pacific Rim Plaza in
Seattle
… replaced by a multi-million dollar
commercial and residential property that created
100 new jobs
New development in place of Blackberry Jungle
18
Job Creation Swope Parkway Redevelopment in
Kansas City, MO
  • HR Block Service Technology Center developed,
    with help of police captain, on a site formerly
    known for illegal dumping and criminal activity
  • Created 300 jobs and brought a 14.2 million
    payroll to an underserved minority community

19
What is a community development corporation?
  • Non-profit corporation governed by local
    residents
  • Mission To revitalize a specific neighborhood or
    geographic area (usually low-income)
  • Comprehensive agenda includes
  • - Residential and commercial real estate
    development
  • - Social services, such as job training and
    placement or youth programs
  • - Community organizing

20
What are community development intermediaries?
  • Major national intermediaries
  • Purpose To help local community developers
    transform troubled neighborhoods by mobilizing
    corporate, government and philanthropic support
    for neighborhood revitalization

21
What is the role for national intermediaries?
  • Make loans, grants and equity investments to
    advance community development goals
  • Promote supportive policies at the local, state
    and national level
  • Provide technical and management assistance to
    CDCs
  • In 2004, LISC activities included…

110 million in loans for CDC projects 584
million in equity invested 30 million in grants
to CDCs
22
What are CDC assets and what do they mean for you?
  • Access to capital markets
  • Bricks and mortar development
  • Property management
  • Job creation and job training/placement
  • Social services or partnerships with service
    providers
  • Youth programs
  • Advocacy and political action
  • Community and merchant organizing

23
Terms of engagement
  • Collaboration in planning and problem-solving
  • Information sharing
  • Power sharing
  • Resource sharing
  • Non-traditional roles

24
The Grier Heights
  • Neighborhood Action Team

FULL TIME TEAM APPROACH IMPLEMENTED IN LATE
1999. PILOT PROGRAMS OPERATED THROUGHOUT 2000.
25
  • Enter into interactive collaborative
    partnerships…
  • Action Teams consist of
  • SPONSOR
  • FACILITATOR
  • COMMUNITY RESIDENTS
  • COMMUNITY POLICE OFFICER(S)
  • COMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT INSPECTOR
  • HOUSING INSPECTOR
  • NEIGHBORHOOD SERVICES SPECIALIST

26
Interactive collaborative partnerships…
TEAM MEMBERS ATTENDED 32 HOURS OF LEADERSHIP AND
TEAM BUILDING TRAINING AT PFEIFFER UNIVERSITY IN
DECEMBER 1999. MISSION STATEMENT AND VISION
STATEMENT WERE WRITTEN. CITY EMPLOYEES MOVED TO
OFFICE SPACE AT THE CHARLOTTE-MECKLENBURG POLICE
DEPARTMENTS BAKER SERVICE CENTER. ALL CITY
EMPLOYEES WORK FROM SAME BUILDING, INCREASING
OPPORTUNITY TO INTERACT AND COMMUNICATE.
27
IDENTIFY COMMUNITY PROBLEMS…
28
Identify community problems…
  • OPEN COMMUNITY MEETING FOR VISIONING
    SESSION. THE RESIDENTS SAID WHAT THEY WANTED TO
    SEE FOR THEIR COMMUNITY.
  • TEAM MEMBERS SPOKE AT MONTHLY COMMUNITY
    MEETINGS.
  • TEAM MEMBERS MET WITH PRESIDENT OF
    COMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATION.
  • TEAM MEMBERS MET WITH NEIGHBORHOOD
    LANDLORDS.

29
Establish priorities…
  • MUST CARRY OVER UNFINISHED ITEMS FROM PREVIOUS
    PLAN.
  • TOOK COMMUNITY SUGGESTIONS FROM VISIONING
    SESSION AND ADDED TEAM MEMBER SUGGESTED
    ITEMS.
  • ITEMS WERE CATEGORIZED AND PRIORITIZED.
  • EVALUATED ITEMS SOME WERE ADDED, OTHERS
    DELETED DUE TO TIME CONSTRAINTS, PRACTICALITY,
    ETC.

30
Integrated approach to the delivery of needed
services…
ACTION PLAN AREAS OF FOCUS
  • CRIME AND PUBLIC SAFETY
  • THE HOUSING STOCK
  • COMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT
  • EDUCATION AND TRAINING
  • STRENGTHENING THE COMMUNITY
  • ORGANIZATION
  • YOUTH AND CHILD PROGRAMS
  • ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
  • INFRASTRUCTURE
  • TRANSPORTATION

31
CRIME AND PUBLIC SAFETY
TOTAL OFFENSES 1996 1040 1997 890 1998
847 1999 829
20 Decrease in overall crime rate over four
years
32
Develop innovative responses to problems…
CRIME AND PUBLIC SAFETY
  • REDUCE DRUG ACTIVITY
  • REDUCE THE OVERALL CRIME RATE
  • REDUCE REPEAT CALLS FOR SERVICE
  • ELIMINATE INADEQUATE LIGHTING AND REDUCE FEAR OF
    CRIME

33
IMPROVE THE HOUSING STOCK
34
IMPROVE THE HOUSING STOCK
35
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36
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37
IMPROVE THE HOUSING STOCK
38
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39
DEBRIS FILLED VACANT LOTS
40
ABANDONED SHOPPING CARTS
41
Develop innovative responses to problems…
COMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT
  • CONCERNS ABOUT BULK ITEMS AND CITY CODE
    VIOLATIONS
  • TRASH AND LITTER ON VACANT LOTS
  • ABANDONED SHOPPING CARTS

42
EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Develop innovative responses to problems…
  • ORGANIZE AND TRAIN BLOCK CAPTAINS
  • COMPUTER TRAINING
  • WORK TO ESTABLISH A TRAINING AND RECREATIONAL
    FACILITY
  • JOB TRAINING AND PLACEMENT
  • REACH OUT TO GROWING ETHNIC POPULATION
  • FIRST AID TRAINING
  • HOUSE KEEPING, MAINTENANCE, AND BASIC HOME REPAIR

43
STRENGTHENING THE COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION
44
STRENGTHENING THE COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION
Develop innovative responses to problems…
  • IMPROVE INFORMATON DISTRIBUTION
  • RECRUIT NEW MEMBERS FOR COMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT
    ORGANIZATION
  • ESTABLISH A RECREATION COMMITTEE
  • COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP AND SELF-ESTEEM TRAINING

45
YOUTH PROGRAMS
46
YOUTH AND CHILD PROGRAMS
Develop innovative responses to problems…
  • COORDINATE YOUTH PROGRAMS
  • CHILD DAY CARE AND HEALTH CARE

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
  • DEVELOPMENT OF VACANT LOTS
  • RESEARCH OPTION OF DINING TRAIN

TRANSPORTATION
  • E-Z RIDER PROGRAM

47
THE COOPERATION BETWEEN VARIOUS CITY, COUNTY, AND
PRIVATE DEPARTMENTS AND ORGANIZATIONS WILL ALLOW
THE GRIER HEIGHTS ACTION TEAM TO TAKE A CREATIVE
APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING THAT WILL ENSURE
SUCCESS.
48
GRIER HEIGHTS NEIGHBORHOOD ACTION TEAM MISSION
STATEMENT
THE GRIER HEIGHTS ACTION TEAM IS COMMITTED TO
IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE AND BRING STABILITY
TO THE COMMUNITY THROUGH ? BUILDING
PROBLEM-SOLVING PARTNERSHIPS ? PROVIDING TRAINING
AND EDUCATION ? IMPROVED DELIVERY OF CITY
SERVICES ? FACILITATING ACCESS TO RESOURCES ?
CREATING A SAFE ENVIRONMENT ? IMPROVING
INFRASTRUCTURE RESULTING IN A SELF-SUFFICIENT,
HEALTHY COMMUNITY. WE VALUE OUR YOUTH, OUR
PARTNERS, ACCOUNTABILITY, INTEGRITY, RESIDENTS OF
GRIER HEIGHTS, CUSTOMER SERVICE, RESPECT, OPEN
COMMUNICATIONS, TEAM MEMBERS, AND POSITIVE CHANGE.
49
QUESTIONS???
50
  • Police-CDC partnerships are not simply another
    version of the police-resident partnerships that
    have become popular in community policing. They
    are a specific type of relationship that commands
    the distinct resources of an important
    institution… It seems especially important to
    recognize the breadth of strategies that police
    and CDCs can pursue together."
  • - David Thacher, Program in Criminal Justice
    Policy and Management, Harvard University
  • Source The Community Safety Initiative Lessons
    Learned. Harvard University Working Paper
    00-05-17

51
Building Partnerships for Safer Communities
Lisa Belsky, Senior Program Director,
LISC lbelsky_at_lisc.org Bill Geller, Director,
Geller Associates Senior Public Safety
Consultant to CSI wageller_at_aol.com Brian
Cunningham, Sergeant Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police
Dept. bcunningham_at_cmpd.org
US Department of Justice Community Capacity
Development Office
52
The Problem Analysis Triangle
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