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International Terrorism


The word terror comes from the Latin word 'terrere ' meaning 'to frighten' The term terrorism was first used during the FRENCH REVOLUTION ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: International Terrorism

International Terrorism
History of Terrorism
  • Terrorism has been used since the days of the
    Roman Empire
  • Jews response to the destruction of Jerusalem and
    their expulsion from Judea in the 1st century CE
  • The word terror comes from the Latin word
    terrere meaning to frighten
  • The term terrorism was first used during the
  • During the Reign of Terror in 1793-94 by the
    Jacobins they called themselves terrorists

Defining Terrorism
  • The US State Departments definition
  • . activities that involve violent or
    life-threatening acts that are a violation of the
    criminal laws of the United States or of any
    State and appear to be intended to
  • intimidate or coerce a civilian population
  • influence the policy of a government by
    intimidation or coercion
  • affect the conduct of a government by mass
    destruction, assassination, or kidnapping
  • There is no agreed upon definition by UN member

Reasons for Terror
  • Revolution/Subversion
  • replace with a friendly regime
  • National liberation/separation
  • gain independence
  • Anti-imperialism
  • get rid of colonial power or any state that may
    have political or economic influences in the
  • Repressing political opponents
  • Use intimidation to get rid of opposition or
    dissidents regime terrorism

Reasons for Terror cont.
  • Radical Reform or Revolution
  • Remove or change policies of hated domestic
    political authority
  • Ethnic Rights
  • Protect/establish rights of specific ethnic
    groups often over-looked/oppressed by a
  • Territorial expansion
  • Imperialism

Ways to Reduce Terrorism
  • Avoid wars avoid making enemies
  • Free colonies/end imperialism political or
  • Dont oppress your own people
  • Avoid creating hated governments and destroying
    popular governments
  • Avoid using extreme measures to solve problems
    excessive use of force will cause more terror

US Counterterrorism Policy
  • Make no concessions to terrorists and strike no
    deals (This changed under the Bush Admin)
  • Bring terrorists to justice for their crimes
  • Isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor
    terrorism to force them to change their behavior
  • Bolster the counterterrorism capabilities of
    those countries that work with the U.S. and
    require assistance (what the US is focusing on)

States that sponsor terror(according to the US
Dept. of State)
  • Iran (since 1984)
  • Sudan (since 1993)
  • Syria (since 1979)
  • Cuba (since 1982)
  • North Korea taken of list in 08
  • Libya taken of list in 06
  • Iraq taken of list in 03

Main weapon against terrorists?
  • Isolation (political economic) of states that
    sponsor them
  • If they are not sponsored by a state, then
    freezing assets of those who are connected

Identify the following FBI CIA NSA
  • What are sanctions?
  • Why are sanctions not effective tool in the fight
    against terrorism?
  • Sanctions can only be applied to states not to
    terrorist organizations
  • Sanctions that are put on states
  • very rarely have the desired outcome weaken the
    terror sponsoring government
  • often result in worse conditions for the civilians

Why is there so little terrorism in the US?
  • Open political system (courts) reduces injustices
  • Intelligence agencies (FBI, NSA, CIA) are very
  • Difficult for identified terrorist to enter or
    leave our country
  • Targets (nuke facilities, govt buildings, dams)
    are well protected target hardening
  • Lack of sanctuary given by friendly ethnic or
    religious groups
  • Public opinion strongly opposes use of terrorism
    as a political instrument

Why the recent decline in international terror?
  • Growing world democratization
  • Stronger, interdependent international economic
  • End of Cold War countries no longer have Soviet
    or US aid/funding to carry out terror\
  • Increased collaboration of world governments

How terrorism is carried out
  • Conventional
  • Bombs
  • Vehicles/transportation
  • Suicide
  • Buildings/markets/schools
  • Armed Combat
  • Shootings/assassinations
  • Stabbings
  • Kidnappings
  • torture
  • Unconventional
  • Biological
  • smallpox
  • Chemical
  • anthrax
  • Nuclear
  • Missiles tractor trailers
  • Cyber
  • ID theft
  • Shut down power grids

Terrorism the Nuclear Threat
  • US Govt identifies Al Qaeda as the biggest
    terrorist threat to the modern world
  • Biggest fear is that they will acquire nuclear
    weapons either from a rogue state or on the black
  • How can the world prevent this from happening?
  • See reading Countering the Proliferation of
    Weapons of Mass Destruction and summary