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International Terrorism

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The word terror comes from the Latin word 'terrere ' meaning 'to frighten' The term terrorism was first used during the FRENCH REVOLUTION ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: International Terrorism


1
International Terrorism
2
History of Terrorism
  • Terrorism has been used since the days of the
    Roman Empire
  • Jews response to the destruction of Jerusalem and
    their expulsion from Judea in the 1st century CE
  • The word terror comes from the Latin word
    terrere meaning to frighten
  • The term terrorism was first used during the
    FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • During the Reign of Terror in 1793-94 by the
    Jacobins they called themselves terrorists

3
Defining Terrorism
  • The US State Departments definition
  • . activities that involve violent or
    life-threatening acts that are a violation of the
    criminal laws of the United States or of any
    State and appear to be intended to
  • intimidate or coerce a civilian population
  • influence the policy of a government by
    intimidation or coercion
  • affect the conduct of a government by mass
    destruction, assassination, or kidnapping
  • There is no agreed upon definition by UN member
    states

4
Reasons for Terror
  • Revolution/Subversion
  • replace with a friendly regime
  • National liberation/separation
  • gain independence
  • Anti-imperialism
  • get rid of colonial power or any state that may
    have political or economic influences in the
    region
  • Repressing political opponents
  • Use intimidation to get rid of opposition or
    dissidents regime terrorism

5
Reasons for Terror cont.
  • Radical Reform or Revolution
  • Remove or change policies of hated domestic
    political authority
  • Ethnic Rights
  • Protect/establish rights of specific ethnic
    groups often over-looked/oppressed by a
    government
  • Territorial expansion
  • Imperialism

6
Ways to Reduce Terrorism
  • Avoid wars avoid making enemies
  • Free colonies/end imperialism political or
    economic
  • Dont oppress your own people
  • Avoid creating hated governments and destroying
    popular governments
  • Avoid using extreme measures to solve problems
    excessive use of force will cause more terror

7
US Counterterrorism Policy
  • Make no concessions to terrorists and strike no
    deals (This changed under the Bush Admin)
  • Bring terrorists to justice for their crimes
  • Isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor
    terrorism to force them to change their behavior
  • Bolster the counterterrorism capabilities of
    those countries that work with the U.S. and
    require assistance (what the US is focusing on)

8
States that sponsor terror(according to the US
Dept. of State)
  • Iran (since 1984)
  • Sudan (since 1993)
  • Syria (since 1979)
  • Cuba (since 1982)
  • North Korea taken of list in 08
  • Libya taken of list in 06
  • Iraq taken of list in 03

9
Main weapon against terrorists?
  • INTELLIGENCE
  • Isolation (political economic) of states that
    sponsor them
  • If they are not sponsored by a state, then
    freezing assets of those who are connected

Identify the following FBI CIA NSA
10
Sanctions
  • What are sanctions?
  • Why are sanctions not effective tool in the fight
    against terrorism?
  • Sanctions can only be applied to states not to
    terrorist organizations
  • Sanctions that are put on states
  • very rarely have the desired outcome weaken the
    terror sponsoring government
  • often result in worse conditions for the civilians

11
Why is there so little terrorism in the US?
  • Open political system (courts) reduces injustices
  • Intelligence agencies (FBI, NSA, CIA) are very
    active
  • Difficult for identified terrorist to enter or
    leave our country
  • Targets (nuke facilities, govt buildings, dams)
    are well protected target hardening
  • Lack of sanctuary given by friendly ethnic or
    religious groups
  • Public opinion strongly opposes use of terrorism
    as a political instrument

12
Why the recent decline in international terror?
  • Growing world democratization
  • Stronger, interdependent international economic
    system
  • End of Cold War countries no longer have Soviet
    or US aid/funding to carry out terror\
  • Increased collaboration of world governments
    (IGOs)

13
How terrorism is carried out
  • Conventional
  • Bombs
  • Vehicles/transportation
  • Suicide
  • Buildings/markets/schools
  • Armed Combat
  • Shootings/assassinations
  • Stabbings
  • Kidnappings
  • torture
  • Unconventional
  • Biological
  • smallpox
  • Chemical
  • anthrax
  • Nuclear
  • Missiles tractor trailers
  • Cyber
  • ID theft
  • Shut down power grids

14
Terrorism the Nuclear Threat
  • US Govt identifies Al Qaeda as the biggest
    terrorist threat to the modern world
  • Biggest fear is that they will acquire nuclear
    weapons either from a rogue state or on the black
    market
  • How can the world prevent this from happening?
  • See reading Countering the Proliferation of
    Weapons of Mass Destruction and summary
    questions.
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