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Animal Research

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Research in the biological or medical sciences that uses ... Decibel level. Strobe lights. Animal Facilities - Plumbing. Hot and cold water. Adequate drains ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Research


1
Animal Research
  • Who
  • What
  • Where
  • When
  • Why

2
WHAT is Animal Research?
  • Research in the biological or medical sciences
    that uses animals as test subjects.
  • The animal studied could be the actual subject of
    the research
  • e.g., zoological research in a native habitat
  • The animal studied could be serving as a model
    for its own species
  • e.g., testing heartworm medications in dogs

3
WHAT is Animal Research?
  • The animal studied could be serving as a model
    for humans
  • e.g., testing medications for safety, and to see
    if they work (efficacy)
  • The animal studied could be serving as a model
    for animals in general (including humans)
  • e.g., how blood clots, how the brain works

4
WHO does Animal Research?
  • At UM, all projects must be directed by a faculty
    member, who has either an advanced graduate level
    degree (Ph.D.) or a professional degree (M.D.,
    D.V.M.)
  • Usually, research assistants, post-doctoral
    fellows, graduate students, professional
    students, and/or undergraduate students are
    actually performing the experiments.

5
WHY do Animal Research?
  • Because animals are often the best (or only)
    means available to study a biological process in
    the context of a whole organism. Other systems
    cannot simulate the complex interrelationships
    between organ systems and/or cannot predict those
    relationships that are, as yet, unknown.

6
WHY do Animal Research?
  • Many people support alternatives to animals for
    biomedical research
  • Cell cultures can mimic some aspects of biology,
    but they arent as complex.
  • Computers can mimic some aspects of biology, but
    they cant analyze beyond that for which they are
    programmed.

7
Where is Animal Research done?
  • Universities, colleges, private and government
    institutes, pharmaceutical companies, and
    government and military installations.
  • At UM there are 31 animal facilities in 23
    different buildings on campus.

8
University of Michigan
9
WHEN is Animal Research done?
  • 24 Hours per day!
  • The animals stay all night
  • Several projects actually involve after-hours
    work
  • Very important fact to remember if your facility
    houses animals
  • Nighttime work (when employees are gone) does not
    help with animal facilities

10
WHAT is ULAM?
  • A campus division that
  • Provides veterinary care to all university-owned
    animals
  • Ensures that all federal and state regulations
    are followed
  • Operates a service that provides daily care to
    animals upon request
  • Can provide technical assistance to researchers
    for their animal studies

11
WHAT is ULAM?
  • ULAM is also a department within the medical
    school
  • It is considered a basic science department, even
    though the faculty perform clinical services for
    the animal patients
  • It has research and teaching functions
  • It has faculty members, most of whom are
    veterinarians

12
WHO am I?
  • Robert C. Dysko, D.V.M.
  • Associate Director of ULAM
  • Clinical Associate Professor of Laboratory Animal
    Medicine
  • A veterinary specialist, board certified by the
    American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine
  • ULAMs faculty liaison for animal facility design
    and renovation issues
  • Vice-Chairman of UCUCA

13
WHAT is UCUCA?
  • University Committee on Use and Care of Animals
  • It is mandated by two government regulations
  • It reviews all applications to use animals at UM
  • It inspects UM animal facilities twice per year
  • Sometimes called the Institutional Animal Care
    and Use Committee (IACUC)

14
WHAT is UCUCA?
  • UCUCA is advisory to the Vice-President for
    Research
  • Funding for UCUCA is through the Office of the
    Vice-President for Research
  • Operation of the program and staff supervision is
    through ULAM

15
WHAT are the LAWS?
  • Animal Welfare Act
  • Oversight by the USDA
  • Covers all mammals except rats and mice
  • Health Research Extension Act
  • Oversight by the Public Health Service (PHS)
  • Covers all vertebrates
  • Applies because UM gets funds from PHS agencies
    (like NIH and CDC)

16
Animal Welfare Act
  • We must follow laws written by the USDA regarding
    care and housing of animals.
  • Not following these rules is breaking the law,
    punishable by fine or suspension.
  • USDA inspectors visit unannounced.
  • Violations can be seen by the public using the
    Freedom of Information Act.

17
Public Health Service Policy
  • Requires institutions to follow a handbook known
    as the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory
    Animals.
  • The Guide gives recommendations for animal care
    and facility management.
  • Encourages animal research facilities to be
    accredited by AAALAC.

18
WHAT is AAALAC?
  • Association for the Assessment and Accreditation
    of Laboratory Animal Care
  • AAALAC is a review body that assesses the animal
    facility once every 3 years.
  • AAALAC site visitors are professionals from other
    institutions.
  • AAALAC results are confidential.

19
Animal Facilities
  • Specialized areas of research buildings with
    unique needs and requirements
  • HVAC
  • Lighting
  • Surfaces
  • Fire alarms
  • Plumbing
  • Waste Management
  • Security

20
Animal Facilities - HVAC
  • 10-15 air changes per hour
  • 100 fresh air in and out
  • Control of air flow relative to corridor
  • Individual room re-heats
  • NEW - ventilation directly into the cage
  • Plant Dept. (Building Automation Services)
    getting more involved with monitoring and
    controlling animal room HVAC

21
Animal Facilities - Lighting
  • Day / night cycles
  • Adjustable
  • Override cannot have a hold feature
  • Use of red light during night cycles
  • Intensity
  • Albino animals require lower intensity
  • Most animal rooms have two-level lighting

22
Animal Facilities - Surfaces
  • In general, must be smooth, moisture resistant,
    free of imperfections, and easily cleanable
  • Flooring
  • Wall surfaces and paint
  • Ceiling types
  • Solid
  • Suspended panels

23
Animal Facilities - Fire Alarms
  • Becoming an interesting issue
  • Must balance needs of personnel safety against
    needs of research project to be free from
    undesirable noise and light
  • Factors to consider
  • Frequency (pitch) of alarm sound
  • Decibel level
  • Strobe lights

24
Animal Facilities - Plumbing
  • Hot and cold water
  • Adequate drains
  • Steam for cage washing equipment and room re-heat
    coils
  • Automatic watering systems
  • Tap water vs. deionized vs. reverse osmosis vs.
    well water
  • Aquatic animals

25
Animal Facilities - Waste Mgmt.
  • Carcasses
  • landfill vs. incineration vs. alkaline hydrolysis
  • Bedding and stuff
  • landfill
  • Biohazards
  • incineration vs. alkaline hydrolysis
  • Recycling?

26
Animal Facilities - Security
  • New issue since late 1980s
  • Problem Keep intruders out while letting
    research continue with minimal obstruction
  • Does help ensure proper training of new research
    staff and reduce zoo use by UM employees
  • ID card swipe replaces voice access system
  • Intrusions report to Dept. of Public Safety

27
WHO are we keeping out?
  • The violent arm of the animal rights movement
  • Individuals who feel that vandalism and
    law-breaking are acceptable actions in defense of
    their cause
  • People who may be looking for information
    without permission
  • People who simply have no reason to be in the
    animal facility

28
WHY are they against Animal Research?
  • Feel that research torture of animals
  • Feel that research results have actually impeded
    medical progress
  • Feel that animals are sentient beings and deserve
    rights equivalent to humans

29
Benefits of Animal Research
  • Product safety
  • Medications
  • Vaccines
  • Surgical procedures
  • Organ transplants
  • Artificial joints and organs
  • Heart-lung bypass
  • Understanding of infectious diseases
  • Understanding of metabolic diseases
  • Understanding of genetic diseases
  • Understanding of multifactorial diseases

30
Benefits of Animal Research
  • Artificial Heart
  • Implanted in Louisville, used calves as model
  • Artificial Lung
  • Being developed here, uses sheep as model
  • Gene Therapy
  • Typically uses mice, sometimes monkeys
  • Combating Biological Warfare
  • Anthrax, smallpox

31
More Alphabet Soup
  • AALAS - American Association of Laboratory Animal
    Science
  • Encompasses all aspects of laboratory animal care
    - vets, technicians, vendors, scientists
  • Is the organization that sponsors our largest
    annual convention

32
More Alphabet Soup
  • ASLAP - American Society of Laboratory Animal
    Practitioners
  • Composed of veterinarians only
  • Is our political arm within the American
    Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)

33
More Alphabet Soup
  • ACLAM - American College of Laboratory Animal
    Medicine
  • Composed of veterinarians only
  • Is the specialty board - one must have
    credentials and pass an examination to be a
    member
  • Publishes many texts on laboratory animal science
    and medicine
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