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The teaching of reading and writing using cooperative learning structures

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Title: The teaching of reading and writing using cooperative learning structures


1
The teaching of reading and writing using
cooperative learning structures
School-based Curriculum Development (Primary)
Section 28 February 2009
2
  • Shap Pat Heung Rural Committee
  • Kung Yik She Primary School
  • Miss Kelsey Tong
  • P.2 Reading lessons
  • Miss Kinki Tang
  • P.3 reading writing lessons

3
Setting the scene to cooperative learning in
English language teaching
  • School located in Tin Shui Wai
  • Has joined small class teaching since 2006
  • Small Class Teaching in English in P.1 to P.4
    classes
  • Split English classes for P.5 and P.6

4
About our students
  • Mainly immigrants from mainland China
  • Parental support not strong
  • Exposure to English mainly in school
  • Low motivation level in learning English
  • Low self esteem
  • Individualistic
  • Relationships among students in English lessons
    aloof

5
What we want
  • Enhance students self esteem
  • Enhance student satisfaction
  • Promote mastery
  • Reduce classroom anxiety
  • Develop positive student-teacher attitudes
  • Establish inclusion
  • Develop students social interaction skills

6
How Small Class Teaching helps?
Fewer students, more chance
7
Our SCT experiences
  • Has joined Small Class Teaching Learning
    Circles since 2006
  • Development focuses
  • - 2006 2007 Question Techniques
  • - 2007 2008 Cooperative Learning
  • - 2008-2009 Using CL structures in
  • P.2 P.3 classes (reading and writing)
  • ? to develop a platform to use CL across key
    stages in language teaching and learning at the
    school

8
How Cooperative Learning helps
  • Our Beliefs
  • We need to provide students with an environment
    in which an integrated approach is used to
    facilitate all areas in language development
    (Foyle, Lyman Thies)

9
  • We need to create an environment conducive to
    learning which allows children to feel secure,
    take challenges, explore and solve problems so as
    to investigate their world and develop positive
    self-concepts and self-confidence (Foyle, Lyman
    Thies)

10
  • Cooperative learning provides maximum
    opportunities for meaningful classroom
    interaction in a supportive environment that may
    lead to greater learner achievement, motivation
    to learn, and overall psychosocial adjustment
    (Shaaban, 2006)

11
Key elements in cooperative learning
  • Positive Interdependence
  • Individual Accountability
  • Group Processing
  • Group Skills
  • Face-to Face Interaction

12
Cooperative Learning structures
  • Over 200 strategies
  • Involve different schools of thought (Kagan,
    Slavin, Johnson)
  • Promote student participation and interaction,
    interdependent individual accountability

13
Common cooperative learning structures in our
language classrooms
  • Roundrobin/Roundtable
  • Think-Pair-Share
  • Numbered Heads Together
  • Gallery Tour
  • Blackboard Share
  • Sequencing
  • Team Word-Webbing
  • Think-Pad Brainstorming
  • Fan-N-Pick
  • Three Stars and One Win

14
Applying cooperative learning at classroom level
  • Key features for consideration
  • flexible use of various strategies
  • optimal opportunities for student interactions
  • effective time and group management
  • informative/corrective teacher and peer feedback
  • focused self evaluation based on shared learning
    goal

15
What was in my mind when I planned my lesson?
  • To provide more opportunities for peer
    interactions
  • To inform students of learning intentions
  • To motivate learning and promote social skills
  • To use time effectively
  • To manage group routines and the lesson
    efficiently

16
On student participation
  • Is seating of students arranged in such a way
    that enables pupils to receive the maximum
    possible teacher attention and facilitate
    interaction among students?
  • heterogeneous learning groups are small (groups
    of three to four members of different abilities)
  • group members are knee to knee and eye to eye
    arranged but they all can see the teacher at the
    front of the room

17
The P.2 Reading Lessons
  • Reader The mean giant
  • Level P.2
  • No. of students 25
  • Teaching targets
  • To sequence simple given information
  • To respond to characters and events in simple
    imaginative texts through making predictions
  • To develop collaboration skills be open and
    responsive to others ideas

18
  • Learning objectives
  • Use the interrogative pronouns what to find out
    specific information
  • Use adjectives to describe people (concept
    learning - what kind of person do you want to be)
  • Recycle correct use of punctuation marks

19
The lesson procedures using CL structures
  • Pre-reading
  • Revisit high frequency words
  • Teach core vocabulary colour Roundtable
  • Pedagogical purposes
  • students share prior experiences among teammates
    and colour their own rainbow (WS)
  • team building
  • develop mastery of the core vocabulary content

20
  • (iii) Teach core vocabulary adjectives to
    describe people Think-Pair-Share
  • Pedagogical purposes
  • students think of and share adjectives with
    partners
  • students are then invited to share their
    responses with the whole class
  • students get actively involved in vocabulary
    building for later application

21
  • iv) Focus on familiar topics and themes things
    at home Team Word-Webbing, Blackboard Share and
    Gallery Tour
  • Pedagogical purposes
  • students generate as many ideas as they can on WS
  • on completion, teams share word-webs with other
    teams to exchange information and build concept
  • galley tour enables reflection on learning

22
  • Focus on familiar topics and themes animals
    Think-pad Brainstorming, Blackboard Share and
    Gallery Tour ?
  • Pedagogical purposes
  • students generate as many ideas as they can on
    separate think-pad slips
  • stronger students can help slower teammates
    generate ideas once they use up their own slips

23
  • While-reading
  • Storytelling by teacher ?
  • Pedagogical purposes
  • teach book concept
  • use illustrations on cover to predict story
  • read the story to students and teach the
    guessing skills through pictorial clues

24
  • (ii) Guided reading
  • Pedagogical purposes
  • train reading skills
  • teach pronunciation and intonation in reading
  • develop predicting skills
  • check for understanding

25
  • Shared reading
  • Students pair up to share the reading
  • responsibility (interactive reading)
  • Invite a pair of students to role play ?
  • Pedagogical purposes
  • make reading content accessible to all
  • allow less confident students the chance to read
    in a non-threatening situation
  • praise students on efforts using specific criteria

26
  • Post-reading
  • Check for understanding
  • Students write a new ending
  • Pedagogical purposes
  • strengthen creative abilities and imagination
  • introduce concept-based learning on what kind
    of person students want to be

27
P.3 From reading to writing
  • Reader Well done, Max!
  • Level P.3
  • No. of students 20 in 5 groups
  • Teaching targets
  • To learn reading skills on inferring and
    responding to the text
  • To learn different kinds of foods and sports
  • To learn how to lead a healthy life

28
What was in my mind when I planned my lesson?
  • How can I provide more opportunities for
    student-to-student interaction?
  • How can my students strengthen their
    interpersonal and small group skills?
  • How to monitor the groups and give feedback
    effectively?
  • How to ensure individual accountability?

29
The reading lesson procedures using CL structures
  • Pre-reading
  • Stimulation
  • To activate students background knowledge of
    different kinds of food
  • (Whole class teaching Questioning)

30
  • (ii) Brainstorming (Roundtable)
  • - To use nouns to identify food items
  • Pedagogical purposes
  • Be certain that students give as many responses
    as they can
  • Be certain that every student understands how to
    describe different kinds of food
  • Monitor students responses

31
  • Pre-reading
  • (iii) Answer sharing (Gallery Tour)
  • Pedagogical purposes
  • students vocabulary bank can further be enriched
  • students can check their mastery of word
    spelling
  • Recycling book concepts and prediction skills
    (Whole class teaching Questioning)
  • Develop prediction skill as an aid to reading
    comprehension ?

32
  • While-reading
  • To teach the pronunciation and meaning of the
    words (Guided reading Shared reading) ?
  • (ii) To teach and recycle inferring and
    predicting through interacting with the text
    picture clues (Think-Pair-Share)Pedagogical
    purposes of CL structures
  • students are provided some think time
  • students can rehearse a response with a partner
  • students participate in the whole-class sharing
  • to better motivate students in reading the text

33
  • While-reading
  • (iii) To respond to the text check for
    understanding (Fan-N-Pick) ?
  • Pedagogical purposes of CL structures
  • Read out the questions
  • speaking skills training
  • Think of an answer
  • reading and speaking training
  • to rehearse a response with a partner
  • learn from each other, equal opportunity to
    share ideas, high degree of interaction

34
  • Post-reading/ Pre-writingTo build up the bridge
    from reading to writing
  • (i) Stimulation- To activate students prior
    knowledge of ways to lose weight (Whole class
    teaching Questioning)

35
The read-write lesson procedures with CL
structures
  • Post-reading/ Pre-writing
  • (ii) Brainstorming and organizing of ideas
    (Word-Webbing)
  • Pedagogical purposes of CL structures
  • self reflection upon personal experiences
  • group discussion about topic
  • list out vocabulary to be used in writing
    later on
  • build up the connection on writing
  • (iii) Sharing of ideas (Blackboard Display)- to
    learn from others work

36
  • During-writing
  • (i) Drafting with the help of teacher
    (Whole-class teaching Questioning)
  • To learn the writing frame
  • To gain greater confidence in developing a piece
    of writing in groups

37
  • During-writing
  • (ii) Group Writing of ideas (Jigsaw) ?
  • Pedagogical purposes of CL structures
  • each team member becomes responsible for specific
    lines of sentences
  • shares their writing lines
  • discusses the writing materials
  • checks for the completion of writing

38
  • Post-writing
  • Proofreading and Editing I ? (Gallery Tour, 3
    Stars and 1 Share) - To give and get peer
    feedback
  • Pedagogical purposes of CL structures
  • to read the others work
  • to be encouraged to check punctuation, spelling
    and grammar
  • to discuss and think critically during
    proofreading
  • to give positive peer feedback

39
(No Transcript)
40
  • Post-writing
  • (ii) Proofreading and editing II ?
  • (Whole-class teaching)
  • - Teacher gives corrective informative
    feedback
  • appreciation on others good ideas
  • a better understanding on the use of language
  • improve the content of writing such as adding
    details, combining ideas, rearranging ideas,
    substituting words or phrases with more
    appropriate ones

41
  • Post-writing
  • (iii) Independent writing
  • - To complete a writing task on ones own
  • Some examples of students work

42
Student works
Ways to lose weight First, I can go running. I
can go running in the playground. It is
wonderful. Second, I can go swimming. I can go
swimming in the swimming pool. Third, I should
eat more fruits, vegetable, mangoes and
apples. Next, I shouldnt eat too many sweets,
pizzas, chocolates, french fries, pasta and
hamburgers. I can eat more vegetables at home and
restaurant. I can buy more fruits in the
market. I am happy. Then I can lose weight.
43
Ways to lose weight First, I can go hiking. I can
go hiking in the park. Second. I can go swimming.
I can go swimming in the swimming pool. Third, I
should eat more pears, and, salad, and
sandwiches. Next, I shouldnt eat too much
chocolate, beefsteak and pancakes. Then I can
lose weight.
44
Ways to lose weight First, I can go swimming. I
can go swimming in the swimming pool. It is fun.
Second, I can go hiking. I can go hiking in the
hill. Third, I should eat more mangoes, apples
and pears. Next, I shouldnt eat too much sweets,
chips and pizza. Then I can loes weight.
45
Ways to lose weight First, I can go running. I
can go running in the park. Its worderful
Second, I can ________ Third, I should eat more
vegetables and good food Next, I should eat too
much pizzas. Then I can lose giant weight.
46
Ways to lose weight First, I can go swimming. I
can go swimming in the swimming pool. It is
worderful. Second, I can play badminton. I play
badminton in the badminton courts. I am
happy. Third, I should eat more apple and
vegetables. Next, I shouldnt eat too much chese
cakes, salad and French fries. Then I can lose
weight.
47
Ways to lose weight First, I can go swimming I
can go swimming in the swimming pool. It is
wontoful, second I can ________ Third, I should
eat mlik and apple. Next, I shouldnt eat too
many hamburgers and pizzas. Then I can lese wight.
48
Focus questions for reflection
  • Did we make instruction relevant and students
    responsible?
  • Did students work in groups / pairs to accomplish
    particular learning objectives and are
    interdependent for successful completion of the
    objective?

49
  • Did we emphasize intrinsic motivation as a key
    element in teaching and learning?
  • Did we create a learning atmosphere in which
    students feel respected and connected to one
    another?

50
  • Did our teaching enhance students self esteem?
  • Did students help each other?
  • Did we provide enough time for reflection and
    discussion of students errors or misconceptions?

51
Teachers Reflections
  • How is cooperative learning different from group
    learning?
  • promote learning and social skills
  • maximize interaction among students
    (face-to-face interaction, interacting with other
    students writing)
  • encourage individual accountability

52
  • How far do we think the strategy is effective in
    promoting student learning?
  • by observation
  • students work
  • own reflections

53
The finale
  • Cooperative Learning structures are but one of
    the many strategies in language teaching and
    learning. Attention must be paid to key concepts
    in the English language curriculum development

54
  • balance in the curriculum (reading workshop, GE,
    intervention and enrichment programmes)
  • task-based learning
  • integration of language skills
  • meaningful recycling and spiral learning
  • teaching of functional grammar in context
  • varieties in learning materials (both objective
    and authentic) and teaching and learning
    approaches

55
  • Thank You
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