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WRITING SKILLS

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What communication problems might arise in a culturally diverse workplace, and ... work and to have the communication skills to develop confidence and self-esteem ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WRITING SKILLS


1
WRITING SKILLS
  • Dr. T.Jayanthy
  • Dept. of Extension, Career Guidance and Students
    Welfare
  • Bharathiar University
  • Coimbatore

2
BASICS OF WRITING
  • Decide on your topic.
  • Prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas.
  • Write your thesis statement.
  • Write the body.

3
WRITING
Definition-The process of writing can be defined
as the arrangement of letters ,symbols or
sequences to express defined and expressed
meanings Formalism Generating ideas Mapping the
argument Suspend judgement Composing a draft
Problematize Contextualize Revision
4
WRITING PARAGRAPH
  • WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH?
  • WHY USE PARAGRAPHS?
  • HOW IS A PARAGRAPH STRUCTURED?
  • HOW DO YOU WRITE A PARAGRAPH?
  • HOW DO YOU MAKE YOUR PARAGRAPHS FLOW?

5
HOW IS A PARAGRAPH STRUCTURED?
  • Topic Sentence    This is the first sentence and
    it expresses the main idea.
  • Supporting Sentences details that expand your
    main idea.
  • Concluding Sentence a rounding off, possibly by
    summarizing what has been said or drawing a
    logical conclusion from it.

6
EXAMPLE OF A PARAGRAPH
  •        My hometown is famous for several amazing
    natural features.  First, it is noted for the
    Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful.
    Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton
    Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep.
    The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree.
    This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is
    probably about six hundred years old. These three
    landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown
    a famous place.

7
HOW DO YOU MAKE A PARAGRAPH?
  • 1. Using linking words and phrases such as also,
    as well as, firstly, next, then, finally, so
    thus, as a result, because, therefore, for
    example, for instance, in contrast, on the other
    hand.
  • 2. Using pronouns Once mentioned, Jack Smith can
    become he, Dr. Susan Brown can be she, and the
    community can be called it, - as long as the
    meaning is clear.
  • 3. Starting sentences in different ways. For
    example Draft sentence"In Australia, there are
    three levels of government" Instead, you could
    write... "Government in Australia is on three
    different levels"  or..."There are three
    different levels of government in Australia."

8
MAIN COMPONENTS OF ESSAY WRITING
  • Write the introduction.
  • Write the conclusion.
  • Add the finishing touches.

9
WRITING AN INTRODUCTION
  • What should an introduction do?
  • The content of the introduction
  • The structure of the introduction
  • Making it interesting
  • How long is an introduction?

10
A TYPICAL INTRODUCTION
  • Question Workplace diversity is now recognised
    as an important feature in organisations,
    especially in multicultural nations like
    Australia. What communication problems might
    arise in a culturally diverse workplace, and how
    can managers best deal with them?
  • Over the past twenty five years, since Australia
    embraced multiculturalism as a policy, issues of
    intercultural communication have become more and
    more prominent in the workplace. Most of the
    workplaces are staffed by people of diverse
    cultures. Particular problem areas include the
    difficulties that some non-English speakers have
    in understanding safety instructions (figures
    produced by the ABS in 1997 show that migrant
    workers have a higher incidence of accidents at
    the workplace) an ignorance of the different
    forms of non-verbal communication used by other
    cultures which can lead to misunderstandings and
    unpleasantness and the lack of knowledge about
    differing expectations. Based on interviews with
    managers and staff in six organisations (public
    and commercial), this report examines these three
    problem areas, and shows that many of the
    difficulties faced by both natives and migrants
    in the workforce are caused by a lack of
    awareness of, and training in, intercultural
    communication.

11
WRITING A CONCLUSION
  • Purpose of conclusion
  • Content of conclusion
  • Analysis of conclusion

12
A TYPICAL CONCLUSION






  • Managers must ensure that effective in-house
    training programs are provided for migrant
    workers, so that they become more familiar with
    the English language, Australian communication
    norms and the Australian work culture. In
    addition, Australian native English speakers need
    to be made aware of the differing cultural values
    of their workmates particularly the different
    forms of non-verbal communication used by other
    cultures. Furthermore, all employees must be
    provided with clear and detailed guidelines about
    company expectations. The interviews with
    managers and staff reveal that a majority of
    managers must also have training in cross
    cultural communication and in managing a
    culturally diverse workplace. Above all, in order
    to minimise communication problems and to
    maintain an atmosphere of tolerance,
    understanding and cooperation in the
    multicultural workplace, managers need to have an
    effective knowledge about their employees, to
    understand how their social conditioning affects
    their beliefs about work and to have the
    communication skills to develop confidence and
    self-esteem among diverse work groups.



13
SEVEN STAGES OF WRITING ASSIGNMENTS
  • Develop your topic
  • Identify your audience
  • Research
  • Organize and pre -write
  • Draft/write
  • Revise
  • Proofread

14
STRUCTURE
  • A development of the idea
  • An explanation or analogy
  • An illustration
  • Support with evidence
  • Contextual links to reinforce the structure

15
REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD WRITER
  • Establish the AIM
  • Consider the READER
  • Devise the STRUCTURE
  • DRAFT the text
  • EDIT and REVISE

16
PRE REQUISITES OF GOOD WRITING
  • Self awareness
  • Target audience
  • Theme
  • Subject

17
LAY OUT
  • Informative titles
  • White space
  • Variety

18
STYLE OF WRITING
  • Avoid the use of slang words
  • Try not to use abbreviations (unless
    appropriately defined)
  • Steer away from the use of symbols (such as
    ampersands )
  • Cliches?should be avoided, or at the very least,
    used with caution
  • Brackets are used to play down words or phrases
  • Dashes are generally used for emphasis

19
THREE GRAMMAR POINTS
  • Subject-verb agreement
  • Correct word class
  • Verb tense consistency

20
EXAMPLES
  • Subject -verb Agreement

The Prime Minister is meeting the President of
the United States at the White House. (singular
subject Prime Minister singular verb is
meeting)
Correct word class These managers differ1 one
difference2 between these different3 managers is
that they manage differently4.
1 differ is the verb in this part of the
sentence 2. difference is being used as a subje
ct, so it is noun form 3 different describes th
e managers, so it is in adjective form
4 differently tells us how the managers manage,
so it is in adverb form Verb tense consistency
The shop assistant is telling the customer that
the shop has not yet received the goods she needs
urgently he says he is going to send them as
soon as they arrive. The shop assistant was telli
ng the customer that the shop had not yet
received goods she needed urgently he said he
was going to send them as soon as they arrived.
21
CRITICAL THINKING
  • Critical thinking differ between disciplines
  • Critical thinking and its application in writing
  • Critical thinking as a generic skill for life

22
IMPORTANCE OF A GOOD VOCABULARY IN WRITING
  • Don't need long words
  • Industry-specific words
  • Improving your vocabulary
  • Summary


23
WRITING EXERCISES
  • What is writing?
  • Mechanics
  • Shape
  • Size
  • Convention
  • Speed of writing
  • Pragmatics
  • Selection of appropriate words
  • Appropriate context

24
COMPREHENSION
  • Definition-comprehension can be defined as a
    process of reading a passage thereby deriving an
    intended meaning to reproduce it in your own
    language.
  • Knowledge of language
  • Vocabulary skills
  • Sentence construction

25
READING COMPREHENSION
  • Be a voluntary reader
  • Be an active reader
  • Read analytically
  • Reading speed

26
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
  • How to take notes.

Recognising lecture structure
Deducing the meaning of unfamiliar words

Understanding intonation
27
WRITING SPEED
  • Knowledge is power
  • Calibre
  • Drafting the content
  • Make use of time

28
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