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Architecture of ECommerce


Starbucks analyzed their business requirements and development needs, including ... Once accomplished, Starbucks was able to plan for future growth by implementing ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Architecture of ECommerce

Architecture of E-Commerce
  • Group 5
  • June 20, 2000

  • Architecture is the arrangement of hardware and
    software elements that fit together to deliver an

Increase in E-Business
  • Rethink IT systems
  • More support
  • Older investments
  • Compatible hardware software

Starbucks Coffee
Amazing things happen when you dream over a cup
of coffee.
  • launched in 1998
  • From 1998 to 1999, hits per day grew
  • from 300,000 to 2 million
  • Consumers can purchase coffee, CDs,
  • learn how to brew the perfect cup, or
  • chat with other coffee lovers
  • Increased traffic demanded a major
  • architectural overhaul to allow for growth
  • and increased functionality

  • Starbucks old site consisted of
  • Windows DNA platform (Distributed InterNet
  • Applications Architecture)
  • NT Server 4.0
  • Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS)
  • Microsoft SQL Server 7
  • Microsoft Site Server 3.0 Commerce Edition

  • Starbucks New Site
  • IT personnel needed ease of remote management
    and simplified site configuration
  • Starbucks analyzed their business requirements
    and development needs, including scalability
    issues, functional requirements and user
  • IT personnel also went over the website for
    potential bottlenecks
  • Once accomplished, Starbucks was able to plan
    for future growth by implementing a three tier

  • Starbucks Three Tier Architecture
  • Presentation Layer. Consists of the user
    interface written using Active Server Pages and
    Dynamic HTML.
  • Business Logic Layer. Consists of the components
    and scripts for business rules that determine how
    the site handles user input and database access.
  • Database Layer. Consists of 2 SQL Server 7.0

  • The Presentation Layer
  • Developers knew VB and VBScript, which lent to
    an easy transition to Active Server Pages.
  • Existing Components that handled online
    currency (Flooz) were moved to Windows DNA
    Platform without changing a line of code.
  • The ASP control the shopping basket and data
    such as credit card and address information.
  • Active Server Pages serve as templates to
    generate the HTML pages that the shopper sees.

  • The Business Logic Layer
  • DNA 2000 platform allows a wide variety of
    third party web applications such as
  • tax and shipping packages
  • gift certificate services
  • credit card verification software
  • Also includes encryption code to encrypt
    passwords and credit card numbers for storage in
    databases and decryption when on display on a

  • Database Layer
  • Main database was split into two
  • 1) catalog database 2) shopper database
  • Catalog database consists of product
    information Read only.
  • Shopper database contains shoppers information
    (address, credit card ) Read-Write.
  • Shoppers are separated into browsers and
  • Because most shoppers are browsing, additional
    database servers can be added to house catalog

  • The Database Layer cont.
  • Runs on 2 4-way Compaq ProLiant 5500 R Servers
    each containing four 500 MHz Pentium III Xeon
    Processors with 1 GB MB memory
  • Windows DNA 2000 platform lets IT department
    update database schema without changing any of
    the business logic in middle tier
  • ASP pages on web servers communicate with SQL
    server databases via TCP/IP using ADO (ActiveX
    Data Objects)
  • The SQL server has a full text search which
    allows searches on words and phrases instead of
    only character patterns. Results can also be
    ranked to show relevance to original search term

  • How it Works
  • When a user visits the site, database stored
    procedures query the login status (signed in,
    signed out or anonymous)
  • If the user chooses to accept cookies then a
    greeting pops up
  • As the user navigates the site, product
    information is gotten from the catalog database
    via stored procedures
  • When user clicks add to cart, product
    information is stored in basket tables in the
    shopper database.

  • How it Works cont.
  • When purchase is completed, order data is
    stored in receipt tables and removed from basket
  • Order confirmation is then emailed to shopper
  • A scheduled job queries the Database and
    generates order files from Receipt tables. These
    files are moved to an FTP Resource share and
    picked up on a regular basis for order
  • Orders that are verified are shipped and an
    order shipment confirmation file is sent back to
    the website
  • Email messages are generated from this file and
    sent to customers

How works End to End Process Flow
  • Benefits to using Windows DNA 2000
  • ASP/Com Architecture allows developers to
    reuse code across pages or projects
  • Provides interoperability so that Starbucks can
    use other applications within the platform. This
    provides flexibility in choosing solutions
  • The three tier architecture allows IT personnel
    to make changes to presentation and business
    logic layers without touching the database layer
  • Streamlining the design created efficiency (It
    took two developers to revamp the entire site)

Architecture of E-Commerce
  • Sun Microsystems

  • Launches a storefront in 1996.
  • First architectural design is a modularized,
    distributed system.
  • Redesigns configuration in 1998.

Centralized vs. Distributed
  • High costs of maintaining a centralized design.
  • Performance Problems During Heavy Demand.
  • Solutions.

Centralized vs. Distributed
  • Suns initial architecture had divided front
    office functionality on the site from the back
    office functionality.
  • Future enhancements to Sun's commerce sites will
    include a tightly integrated multiple-storefront

New Configuration
  • Sun migrates to their top-of-the-line Enterprise
    450 Workgroup Servers (Surprise!)
  • performance scalable to 4 UltraSparc II 300MHz
  • hot swappable storage up to 8.4 GB internally
    (with optional external storage extending to 6
  • support for up to 4 GB of main memory

New Configuration
  • Suns final configuration three Enterprise 450
    Workgroup Servers for front and back office
    applications and a database server.
  • All systems are running Solaris 2.6 Operating

New Configuration
New Configuration
  • Front Office Configuration
  • E450 with 1 GB of memory
  • four 300 MHz UltraSPARC processors
  • eight 4.2 GB UltraSCSI disk drives

New Configuration
  • Front Office Configuration
  • over five SCSI controllers (good for performance
    and redundancy. All disks are hot swappable and
    everything is mirrored)
  • 14 GB 8mm tape drive for backups

New Configuration
  • Back Office Configuration
  • E450 with 512 MB of memory
  • two 300 MHz UltraSPARC processors
  • eight 4.2 GB UltraSCSI disk drives

New Configuration
  • Back Office Configuration
  • over five SCSI controllers (good for performance
    and redundancy. All disks are hot swappable and
    everything is mirrored)
  • 14 GB 8mm tape drive for backups

New Configuration
  • Database Server Configuration
  • E450 with 512 MB of memory
  • two 300 MHz UltraSPARC processors
  • twelve 4.2 GB UltraSCSI disk drives

New Configuration
  • Database Server Configuration
  • over five SCSI controllers (good for performance
    and redundancy. All disks are hot swappable and
    everything is mirrored)
  • 14 GB 8mm tape drive for backups

Performance Benchmarks
Configuration Comparison
  • Former Configuration
  • US
  • Front Office (SPARCTM 20)
  • Back Office (SPARCTM 20)
  • DB Server (UltraTM 1)
  • ESD Server (UltraTM 1)
  • Proxy Server for Front Office (SPARCTM 20)
  • Proxy Server for Back Office (SPARCTM 20)

Configuration Comparison
  • Former Configuration
  • Europe
  • Front Office (SPARCTM 20)
  • Back Office (SPARCTM 20)
  • DB Server (UltraTM 1)
  • ESD Server (UltraTM 1)
  • Proxy Server for Front Office (SPARCTM 20)
  • Proxy Server for Back Office (SPARCTM 20)

Configuration Comparison
  • Former Configuration
  • Japan
  • Front Office (SPARCTM 20)
  • Proxy Server for Front Office (SPARCTM 20)

Configuration Comparison
  • New Configuration
  • Worldwide
  • Front Office (EnterpriseTM 450)
  • Back Office (EnterpriseTM 450)
  • DB Server (EnterpriseTM 450)
  • ESD Server (UltraTM 1)

  • Reduced servers from 14 to 4
  • Reduced maintenance of three international data
    centers into one centralized data center
  • Increased performance by 80 for European
    customers with a US-based consolidated data
  • Simplified application development environments
  • Delivered a scaleable infrastructure

  • Sun Microsystem built an infrastructure that can
    scale to their most demanding traffic patterns
    and support them as they service increasing
    numbers of customers and businesses.

  • Moreover, the improvements in consolidation--maint
    enance, serviceability and productivity gains,
    have helped Sun reduce overall delivery cost and
    increase customer satisfaction.

Business-To-Business (B2B) Architectures
  • B2B Website Solutions account for billions of
    dollars in trade per year
  • E-Business Is Business We are convinced that
    the name for E-business in the year 2000 will
    simply be Business. Thats because the power of
    E-Business can only be fully realized when its
    integrated into a total business strategy. A
    strategy designed to transform your entire
    company. PricewaterhouseCoopers

Benefits of B2B Web Solutions
  • For Buyers
  • optimize, manage and leverage all aspects of
    strategic buying
  • replace inefficient, paper-based procurement
    processes with Internet-enabled buying systems
  • gain dramatic competitive and financial advantage
  • For Suppliers
  • increased revenue, lowered costs
  • new customer relationships, innovative branding
  • create new types of customer service

For Market Makers
  • Market makers power the B2B economy by bringing
    buyers and suppliers together for efficient
    online trade
  • Can customize virtually every aspect of their
  • user interface, catalog management, transaction
  • user administration, and supported business rules

B2B Solutions
  • Market Site Portal Solution 3.0
  • Allows Internet market makers to build open
    marketplaces and link them to the Commerce One
    Global Trading Web
  • Enables transactions and communication among
    global trading partners
  • Commerce Ones MarketSite Global Trading Portal
    uses this software
  • The initial solution customers includes British
    Telecom, Nippon Telephone and Telegraph,, Cable Wireless Optus and General

XML or eXtensible Markup Language
  • Allows functionality not available with HTML
  • Supports links that point to multiple documents
  • XML allows structured exchanges of data between
    Web servers
  • Companies value XMLs ability for B2B solutions
  • Manufacturers and merchants can quickly swap
  • pricing, stock-keeping numbers
  • transaction terms, product descriptions

Commerce One's Common Business Library (xCBL) 2.0
  • The first open XML specification for the
    cross-industry exchange of business documents
    such as
  • product descriptions, purchase orders, invoices,
  • shipping schedules. Software is free!
  • xCBL 2.0 is a set of XML building blocks and a
    document framework for E-commerce.
  • Based on a broad range of Internet and
    commerce-related industry standards and
  • Endorsed by industry leaders including
    Microsoft's BizTalk initiative, OASIS, the
    UN/CEFACT Techniques and Methodologies Working
    Group http//

Linking Buyers and Suppliers
WebServers communicate directly through the
MarketSite using xCBL The need for expensive,
custom point-to-point
integration is eliminated
B2B E-Commerce in DoD
  • Federal Electronic Commerce Coalition working
    with DoD on mission of change
  • Formed in 1999 to provide consolidated voice from
    industry to government in e-business
  • Working groups include industry and DoD subject
    matter experts
  • DoD and industry have the ability and need to
    learn from each other, partner for change

Architecture of Government E-Commerce
  • XML puts it all together
  • Federal Office of Electronic Commerce at the
    forefront of e-commerce efforts
  • Deputy Associate Administrator, Mary Mitchell
  • Leading the way in establishing on-line,
    networked partnerships
  • B2B within government
  • Traditional B2B with government - industry
  • XML proposed as standard model to support
    syndication in data delivery

XML Background
  • Open standard for describing data
  • HTML uses predefined tags, but XML allows tags to
    be defined by page developer
  • Virtually any data item, like products or amounts
    due, can be identified, allowing Web pages to
    function like database records
  • XML is descended from HTML and SGML, but is less
  • HTML will open any ugly web page, but if the
    page is not properly formatted, XML wont

  • Nearly every major software company supports XML,
    including Microsoft
  • Becoming standard for data exchange
  • Uses http to move data across networks
  • Saves in distributing data, real time
    inventory and manufacturing functions
  • IBM created Xeena, a visual interface for
    creating XML documents and vocabularies

  • HTML uses a loose coding style, tolerant of
    coding errors XML pages must be well formed and
    comply with rigid schema
  • HTML lines deal with fonts and boldface
  • How it looks
  • XML statements define data content
  • What it is

  • XML is a metalanguage (defines and describes the
    language) not intended to replace XML
  • While HTML is easy, XML can be tough
  • Development tools, called parsers (like Xeena),
    can be used to make sure documents conform
    precisely to DTDs and schemas

Tech Standards
  • Before transferring data and managing
    relationships, both ends need common protocol and
    management model
  • XML fits the bill
  • Government uses to establish an open,
    distributed system for using XML
  • Reference repository for SML specs --
    vocabularies, DTDs, schemas

Standards and Frameworks
  • Teaming with CommerceNet, OASIS, and RosettaNet
  • Promotes open document standards and process
    standards for B2B supply chain communication
  • Establish common structures for interops
  • ebXML, BizTalk, and OAG
  • Global business specs to bring together competing
    XML efforts, guidelines for schemas
  • Crucial for DoD and government best value

Standards Roadmaps
  • GSA working to help agencies understand open
    standard choices for e-commerce
  • Open standards key to interoperability
  • Federal XML working group formed
  • Align with voluntary standards efforts (W3C,
    OASIS, RosettaNet, CommerceOne)
  • Identify business practices that can be improved
    with proper use of XML

Will XML Work in DoD?
  • Descendant of language (SGML) invented to let IRS
    and DoD define own markups
  • Universal language and open standards
  • Endorsing emerging standards
  • Systems now recognize supplier catalog content --
    helps with stocklisted parts
  • Eliminates one-to-one relationships common
    between buyers and sellers

Public Key Infrastructure
  • Uses digital IDs and on-line certificates
  • Security applicable to wide range of DoD
    electronic commerce functions
  • DoD has issued about 1 million certificates
    through 14 Jul 00
  • PKI certificates arent easily transferrable
  • Agencies/businesses working together to handle
    each others certificates -- slow progress

Defense Trading Exchanges
  • Big 4 Planned Trading Exchange
  • Airlines and defense industry have spent on
    their IT systems, so they need an
    architecture/system that works
  • XML or CommerceOnes xCBL?

Planned Trading Exchange
  • Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, and BAE
    Systems teaming with CommerceOne
  • B2B aircraft parts exchange between contractors
    and government agencies
  • Provide best value for DoD
  • CommerceOnes xCBL potentially a big player

  • Honeywell partnered with United Technologies and
    i2 Technologies
  • E-marketplace for aerospace products and services
    for all industry participants (airlines, repair
    depots, DoD)
  • Buy, sell, trade parts supply chain management
  • Real time vendor interaction--sound like XML?
  • Site uses 128 bit encryption and PKI for security

  • Internet company-led e-commerce marketplace for
    aerospace and defense
  • Highlighted in Forbes Best of the Web list of
    200 most promising web sites
  • Members range in sizes conduct B2B and
    government exchanges
  • Emphasis on security log on required

  • Will customers want vendors to provide all the
  • Will their be more inhouse IT done?
  • Will most IT be outsourced?

Time is of the Essence