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Computing Fundamentals Module Lesson 4 Computer Software


Understand the steps involved in software development. ... Software programs are lists of instructions in code that the computer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Computing Fundamentals Module Lesson 4 Computer Software

Computing Fundamentals ModuleLesson 4 Computer
  • Computer Literacy BASICS

  • Distinguish between software and hardware.
  • Explain how a computer software program works.
  • Understand the steps involved in software
  • Describe the difference between applications
    software and systems software.

Objectives (cont.)
  • Describe the three categories of systems
  • Describe operating systems for microcomputers,
    including network operating systems.
  • Define a user interface.

Objectives (cont.)
  • Explain the difference between a command-line
    user interface and a graphical user interface.
  • Understand the boot process a computer goes
    through when you start it.

  • Algorithm
  • Applications software
  • Boot
  • Graphical user interfaces (GUIs)
  • Language translators
  • MS-DOS
  • Multitasking
  • Network operating system
  • Operating systems
  • Software development
  • Systems software
  • Unix
  • User interface
  • Utility software

Hardware vs. Software
  • Computer systems consist of both hardware and
  • Hardware has little value without software, and
    software cannot run without hardware to run it.

What Is Hardware?
  • Hardware refers to anything you can physically
  • The keyboard and the mouse
  • The monitor and the printer
  • The motherboard and expansion cards
  • All the other components in the computer case or
    attached to the computer

What Is Software?
  • Software consists of the instructions issued to
    the computer to perform specific tasks
  • The software on a computer system refers to the
    programs that make the computer run.
  • Software programs are lists of instructions in
    code that the computer understands that tell the
    computer what to do.

How Software Programs Work
  • A computer processes data by applying rules
    called algorithms.
  • An algorithm creates a logical progression of
    steps needed to accomplish a task.

An Algorithm to Solve a Household Problem Dirty
Software Development
  • Software development is a multistep process that
    begins with a need to perform a task more
    efficiently using a computer
  • First, the programmer breaks down the problem
    into a series of steps in an algorithm.
  • The programmer may use a flowchart to show
    different paths the program will take.

Software Development (cont.)
  • Next, the programmer writes the steps in a
    computer programming language or code, using
    formal terms and syntax.
  • Then the computer translates the code into
    machine language it can understand and uses the
    translated commands to execute a program.

Debugging Software
  • The software development process does not end
    when the computer executes the program.
  • Errors in syntax or even spelling can cause
    problems and distort program results.
  • Tests of the software find and fix bugs or
    errors in the code so it will run properly.

Types of Software
  • There are literally thousands of software
    programs you can buy, but all of them can be
    grouped into one of two categories
  • Applications software
  • Systems software

Applications Software
  • Application software consists of programs that
    were created to perform a specific task.
  • Application software is also called productivity

Applications Software (cont.)
  • The most common types of application software are
  • Word-processing programs
  • Spreadsheet software
  • Presentation software
  • Database software
  • Web browsers
  • Games

Systems Software
  • Systems software refers to the programs that are
    used to manage computer system resources.
  • Systems software coordinates and controls the
    resources and operations of the computer itself.
  • The three categories of systems software are
  • Operating systems
  • Utility programs
  • Language translators

Operating Systems
  • Operating systems provide an interface between
    the user and the computer.
  • There are many brands and versions of operating
  • An operating system is designed to work with a
    specific processor.

An Operating System Is an InterfaceBetween Users
and Computers
Utility Programs
  • Utility programs are designed to help perform
    housekeeping chores for the computer
  • Manage the computers resources
  • Perform file and folder management tasks
  • Clean up unused files from the hard disk
  • Defragment disk storage
  • Copy files from one disk to another
  • Back up data to disk or tape

Language Translators
  • Computers cannot read program statements in
    programming language format, such as Visual Basic
    or Java program statements.
  • Language translator programs convert program
    language code into machine code that can be
    understood by the computer.
  • Once converted to machine code, the program can
    be run and executed by the computer.

Microcomputer Operating Systems
  • If your computer is a Macintosh, you are probably
    using a Mac OS.
  • If your computer is a PC or is PC compatible, you
    are most likely using one of these operating
  • DOS
  • A combination of DOS and Windows
  • A standalone version of Windows

Mac OS
  • Macintosh computers were introduced by Apple
    Computer in 1984.
  • Macintosh had one of the first GUI operating
    systems, with icons that represented programs,
    documents, and disks.
  • This was also the first operating system to
    provide an on-screen help system.

  • IBM introduced its first PC in 1981. Its
    operating system was called DOS, which stands for
    Disk Operating System.
  • DOS is a command-line interface operating system.
    The user had to enter commands at a screen
  • It was a single-tasking operating system, which
    meant that only one program at a time could be

  • Windows was Microsofts first GUI operating
    system, released in 1987.
  • The first versions were called operating
    environments because they acted as a shell around
    the DOS operating system and worked in
    combination with DOS.

  • Applications installed on a Windows system
    appeared as icons that were activated by clicking
    them, similar to the Mac OS Finder interface.
  • The earliest versions of Windows were labeled
    Windows 3.0, 3.1, and so on.
  • The first true multitasking version of Windows
    was Windows 95, which also included support for
    networking computers.

  • Windows 98 improved on Windows 95 and offered
    Internet integration and support for the USB bus.
  • Windows 2000 was an update to Windows 98 and
    Windows NT and included tools for Web site
  • The latest version is Windows XP, which provides
    increased stability and device recognition.

The Windows XP Operating System
Other Operating Systems
  • Unix was developed by ATT and is another early
    operating system that is still used today.
  • It is a portable operating system, which means it
    can run on any hardware platform.
  • Variants of Unix include the freeware operating
    system Linux and IBMs AIX.

Network Operating Systems
  • A network operating system (NOS) is designed to
    allow multiple computers to be connected and talk
    to each other.
  • The most popular networking operating systems
  • Microsoft Windows NT
  • Novells Netware
  • IBMs Warp Server

User Interfaces
  • You are probably familiar with the user interface
    of an operating system because it is what you see
    when you use the computer.
  • The user interface determines how user friendly
    the operating system is.
  • There are two commonly used types of operating
    system interfaces, command-line interfaces and
    graphical user interfaces.

Command-Line Interfaces
  • With this interface, you must type exact commands
    into the computer from a command prompt.
  • You must memorize many commands and keywords.
  • Command-line interfaces are not as user friendly
    as graphical user interfaces.

Graphical User Interfaces
  • Menu-based interfaces were easier to use,
    providing options so that commands did not need
    to be memorized.
  • The breakthrough in ease of use came with the
    introduction of graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

Graphical User Interfaces (cont.)
  • Users manipulate on-screen icons to perform
    functions, usually with a mouse or other pointing
  • Most of todays personal computers are equipped
    with some type of user-friendly GUI.

Comparing User Interfaces
Graphical User Interface
Command-Line Interface
Icons representing programs or files
Command prompt
Starting Your Computer
  • When you start your computer, operating system
    commands are loaded into memory.
  • Each operating system starts the computer in its
    own individual way.
  • When you turn on a computer, you boot the system.
  • POST (Power-on Self Test), a series of tests that
    check RAM and verify that the keyboard and disk
    drives are connected to the computer, runs when
    you start your computer.

Starting Your Computer (cont.)
  • Then the BIOS (Basic Input Output System)
    searches for the boot record. The hard disk drive
    C is typically the startup drive, so that is
    where the BIOS will look first for the boot
    record. BIOS is built-in software on a ROM chip.
    It contains all of the code that controls the
    monitor, keyboard, disk drives, and other

Starting Your Computer (cont.)
  • The boot record, which includes several files, is
    loaded into RAM. These files contain programming
    configuration instructions for hardware devices
    and software applications that you may have
    installed on your computer.
  • Next, the software drivers are loaded. Drivers
    enable you to use your printer, modem, scanner,
    or other devices. Generally, when you add a new
    device to your system, drivers are installed for
    that device.

Starting Your Computer (cont.)
  • Next to be loaded is the GUI or graphical user
    interface, such as Windows XP. When loading the
    GUI, the operating system reads the commands for
    your desktop configuration. It also loads
    whatever programs you have previously specified
    into the Windows Startup Folder.
  • If everything goes as it should, the GUI displays
    the desktop and the computer is ready to use.

  • Hardware refers to anything you can touch.
  • Software is instructions that tell the computer
    what to do.
  • Software is also called a program.
  • A computer processes data by applying rules
    called algorithms.

Summary (cont.)
  • An algorithm creates a logical progression of
    steps needed to accomplish a task.
  • Software development is a multistep process that
    includes writing the command code in a
    programming language, having the computer
    translate the code into machine language, and
    then debugging and testing the program.

Summary (cont.)
  • The two basic types of computer software are
    applications software, also called productivity
    software, and systems software.
  • Systems software coordinates and controls the
    resources and operations of a computer system.
  • Three major categories of systems software are
    operating systems, utilities, and language

Summary (cont.)
  • Operating systems provide an interface between
    the user and application program and the computer
  • Utility programs help users complete specialized
    tasks, such as file management.
  • Language translators convert code written in
    English-based software programs into machine

Summary (cont.)
  • All computers have operating systems.
  • Mac OS is used with Apples Power Macintosh
    computers and Power Macintosh clones.
  • DOS was introduced with the IBM PC in 1981 and is
    a character-based operating system.

Summary (cont.)
  • Microsoft introduced the first version of Windows
    in 1987 this was an operating environment.
  • Windows 95 was Microsofts first true
    multitasking operating system.
  • Unix is a portable operating system.

Summary (cont.)
  • Network operating systems allow a group of two or
    more microcomputers to be connected.
  • The user interface is the part of the operating
    system with which we are most familiar.
  • The two most common user interfaces are
    command-line interfaces and graphical user

Summary (cont.)
  • Most of todays computers come with some type of
    graphical user interface.
  • Icons are symbols that represent documents,
    software programs, disks, and so forth.
  • A graphical interface includes standard text and
    graphics so that data processed in one
    application program can be shared by other