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B.A. Mahayana Studies 000209 Introduction to Computer Science November 2005 March 2006 2. Software


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Title: B.A. Mahayana Studies 000209 Introduction to Computer Science November 2005 March 2006 2. Software

B.A. (Mahayana Studies)000-209 Introduction to
Computer ScienceNovember 2005 - March 20062.
  • What is software? What are the main types of
    software? Are there alternatives to expensive
    commercial software?
  • Your computer's operating system (OS).

  • 1. What is Software?
  • 2. Choosing Software
  • 3. Types of Application Software
  • office, educational, network, financial,
    entertainment, groupware, utilities
  • 4. What is a Software License?
  • 5. Alternatives to Commercial Software
  • shareware and freeware

  • 6. The Operating System
  • your computer's manager
  • 7. Types of OSes
  • desktop and server
  • 8. Multimedia Applications

1. What is Software?
  • Software is the instructions and its data, stored
    in electronic form, that tell the computer how to
    do a task.
  • Software is a computer program.

Types of Software
  • Application software helps the user carry out his
  • e.g. word processing, games, business
  • System software helps the computer carry out its
  • e.g. draw the GUI, print, manage files
  • the operating system is the main systems software
    on a computer
  • e.g. Windows XP, Mac OS X, DOS

What is a Computer Program?
  • A computer program is a set of instructions that
    tells a computer how to carry out some task.
  • A computer program is written in a computer
    programming language.
  • Example programming languages
  • Visual Basic, C, C, Java, Pascal

A Pascal Program
2. Choosing Software
  • Decide on the type of software you want.
  • Make sure the software is written for your
  • e.g. it works on a PC or Macintosh
  • Make sure the software will work with your
    operating system.
  • e.g it works on Microsoft XP or Mac OS X
  • Choose between commercial software, shareware, or

software compatibility
Software Compatibility
  • To be compatible, software must be
  • written for the type of computer you use
  • written for your computers operating system
  • System requirements list operating system and
    hardware needs for the software to work
  • they will be listed somewhere in the software
    package (e.g. on the box)

3. Types of Application Software
  • There are many types
  • office, educational, network, financial,
    entertainment, groupware, utilities, etc.
  • Application software costs money and usually
    requires the user to sign/agree to a user

Office Software
  • Office software package several applications
    together. They often include
  • Word processing, spreadsheets, databases, slides,
    drawing e-mail, etc.
  • e.g. Microsoft Office

Educational Software
  • There is educational and training software for
    people of all ages.

Network Software
  • Connect your computer to your local
  • e-mail software
  • Web browsers

The Internet
  • The Internet is the worlds computer network.
  • connects millions of computers, in 100 countries
  • provides many services, (e-mail, file transfer),
    but the most popular is the World Wide Web, or
  • Started as the ARPANET in 1969
  • a military network academic research
    network commercial network.

The Web
  • The Web presents the user with documents, called
    Web pages, which can include
  • text, images, video, animation, sound
  • A Web page can contain links (URLs) to other
  • A user can follow a link to another page ("surf")
    by using a Web browser.

Financial Software
  • Personal finance software helps with
  • bank accounts, investments, credit card balances
  • Some packages also support online banking
  • downloading transactions, transferring funds,
    paying bills

Entertainment Software
  • Each year, worldwide computer and video game
    software sales exceed 15 billion.

Groupware Software
  • Groupware allows a group of users on a network to
    work together on a project.
  • Groupware may provide services for communicating
    (such as e-mail), group document development,
    scheduling, and tracking.
  • Documents can include text, images, or other
    types of data.

  • Groupware products include
  • Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange, Novell
    GroupWise, Netscape SuiteSpot, Team Talk,

Utility Software
  • Utilities are system software that extends the
    basic operating system.
  • e.g. print more easily, change/extend the GUI,
    fix damaged files, and virus protection

4. What is a Software License?
  • A software license is a legal contract that
    defines the ways in which you may use the
  • Opening the software CD's wrapping means that you
    agree to the software license
  • sometimes called a shrink-wrap license

Types of Licenses
  • A single-user license limits the use of the
    software to only one user at a time. Most
    commercial software is distributed with a
    single-user license.
  • A multiple-user license allows more than one
    person to use a particular software package.
  • A concurrent-use license allows a certain number
    of copies of the software to be used at the same
  • A site license allows the software to be used on
    all computers at a specific location.

5. Alternatives to Commercial Software
  • Almost every type of commercial software has
    shareware/freeware alternatives
  • programs that do the same things, but..
  • cost much less, or nothing
  • do not have complex license agreements

Shareware and Freeware
  • Shareware is software that you can try before you
    buy it.
  • use the software for a certain amount of time for
  • if you want to continue using it, you must pay a
    registration fee
  • Freeware is software that costs nothing
  • it may be freely copied and distributed

Where to get Shareware/Freeware?
  • There are many Web sites that list them.
  • tucows, http//www.tucows.com/
  • CNET Download.com, http//www.download.com

  • Downloadable software is usually stored in a
    self-extracting file
  • a single file that holds all of the modules for
    the software
  • download sites include instructions for
  • once on your machine, you usually double-click on
    the file to extract the software

Other Free Sites
  • The Web (Internet) is a source of free software.
  • Be careful.
  • Strange software can do nasty things to your
  • Make sure you trust the software site.

6. The Operating System (OS)
  • An operating system (OS) controls/manages all the
    activities in a computer.
  • Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, and DOS
  • The operating system helps the application
    software and the hardware talk to each other.

OS Diagram
The OS helps the application software
and hardware talk to each other.
OS Services
  • External services
  • help users start programs, manage data, and
    maintain security
  • Internal services
  • help the computer system function efficiently
  • A system resource is part of a computer system.
  • e.g. disk drive space, memory, processor time

7. Types of OSes
  • Desktop OSes
  • for single-user micros
  • e.g. Windows XP, Mac OS X
  • Server OSes
  • for computers that provide storage and
    communication for networks and Web sites

MS Windows
  • Microsoft Windows supports lots of application
    software and peripherals.
  • Current versions of Windows include Windows XP,
    2000, Me, 98

What is (was) DOS?
  • DOS stands for disk operating system.
  • a command line OS without a GUI
  • the first Microsoft OS
  • is now part of Windows

Mac OS X
  • An operating system with a GUI developed by Apple
    Computers, based on UNIX.
  • Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS
    operating system for Macintosh computers.

  • A free Unix-type operating system, originally
    created by Linus Torvalds with the assistance of
    developers around the world.
  • A mixed GUI and command line interface.

  • A free, multi-user, multitasking operating system
    that is widely used in workstations and servers.
  • It was developed by ATT in 1969, and was very
    important in the development of the Internet.
  • There are now many versions of UNIX, made by
    different companies, universities, and
  • e.g Linux, FreeBSD, Knoppix

Servers OSes
  • Three popular server OSes are
  • Microsoft Windows NT Server
  • Windows 2000 Server.
  • Novell NetWare
  • Linux and UNIX are also used as server OSes.
  • they are free

8. Multimedia Applications
  • A multimedia application combines many types of
    computer-based media
  • text, graphics, sound, animation, photos, video
  • This requires more complex (expensive) hardware.

Multimedia Hardware
Multimedia Requirements
  • Multimedia requires sound and graphics
  • A sound card lets the computer record and play
  • connect speakers, headphone, microphone

  • A graphics card takes data from the OS and draws
    it onto the screen.
  • A graphics card usually requires special
    software, called a device driver.
  • A device driver helps the OS control peripherals,
    such as a graphics card, sound card, printers,
    modems, etc.
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