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B.A. Mahayana Studies 000209 Introduction to Computer Science November 2005 March 2006 2. Software

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Title: B.A. Mahayana Studies 000209 Introduction to Computer Science November 2005 March 2006 2. Software


1
B.A. (Mahayana Studies)000-209 Introduction to
Computer ScienceNovember 2005 - March 20062.
Software
  • What is software? What are the main types of
    software? Are there alternatives to expensive
    commercial software?
  • Your computer's operating system (OS).

2
Overview
  • 1. What is Software?
  • 2. Choosing Software
  • 3. Types of Application Software
  • office, educational, network, financial,
    entertainment, groupware, utilities
  • 4. What is a Software License?
  • 5. Alternatives to Commercial Software
  • shareware and freeware

continued
3
  • 6. The Operating System
  • your computer's manager
  • 7. Types of OSes
  • desktop and server
  • 8. Multimedia Applications

4
1. What is Software?
  • Software is the instructions and its data, stored
    in electronic form, that tell the computer how to
    do a task.
  • Software is a computer program.

5
Types of Software
  • Application software helps the user carry out his
    tasks
  • e.g. word processing, games, business
  • System software helps the computer carry out its
    tasks.
  • e.g. draw the GUI, print, manage files
  • the operating system is the main systems software
    on a computer
  • e.g. Windows XP, Mac OS X, DOS

6
What is a Computer Program?
  • A computer program is a set of instructions that
    tells a computer how to carry out some task.
  • A computer program is written in a computer
    programming language.
  • Example programming languages
  • Visual Basic, C, C, Java, Pascal

7
A Pascal Program
8
2. Choosing Software
  • Decide on the type of software you want.
  • Make sure the software is written for your
    computer
  • e.g. it works on a PC or Macintosh
  • Make sure the software will work with your
    operating system.
  • e.g it works on Microsoft XP or Mac OS X
  • Choose between commercial software, shareware, or
    freeware.

software compatibility
9
Software Compatibility
  • To be compatible, software must be
  • written for the type of computer you use
  • written for your computers operating system
  • System requirements list operating system and
    hardware needs for the software to work
  • they will be listed somewhere in the software
    package (e.g. on the box)

10
3. Types of Application Software
  • There are many types
  • office, educational, network, financial,
    entertainment, groupware, utilities, etc.
  • Application software costs money and usually
    requires the user to sign/agree to a user
    license.

11
Office Software
  • Office software package several applications
    together. They often include
  • Word processing, spreadsheets, databases, slides,
    drawing e-mail, etc.
  • e.g. Microsoft Office

12
Educational Software
  • There is educational and training software for
    people of all ages.

13
Network Software
  • Connect your computer to your local
    network/Internet/Web
  • e-mail software
  • Web browsers

14
The Internet
  • The Internet is the worlds computer network.
  • connects millions of computers, in 100 countries
  • provides many services, (e-mail, file transfer),
    but the most popular is the World Wide Web, or
    Web
  • Started as the ARPANET in 1969
  • a military network academic research
    network commercial network.

15
The Web
  • The Web presents the user with documents, called
    Web pages, which can include
  • text, images, video, animation, sound
  • A Web page can contain links (URLs) to other
    pages.
  • A user can follow a link to another page ("surf")
    by using a Web browser.

16
Financial Software
  • Personal finance software helps with
  • bank accounts, investments, credit card balances
  • Some packages also support online banking
  • downloading transactions, transferring funds,
    paying bills

17
Entertainment Software
  • Each year, worldwide computer and video game
    software sales exceed 15 billion.

18
Groupware Software
  • Groupware allows a group of users on a network to
    work together on a project.
  • Groupware may provide services for communicating
    (such as e-mail), group document development,
    scheduling, and tracking.
  • Documents can include text, images, or other
    types of data.

19
  • Groupware products include
  • Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange, Novell
    GroupWise, Netscape SuiteSpot, Team Talk,
    NetMeeting

20
Utility Software
  • Utilities are system software that extends the
    basic operating system.
  • e.g. print more easily, change/extend the GUI,
    fix damaged files, and virus protection

21
4. What is a Software License?
  • A software license is a legal contract that
    defines the ways in which you may use the
    software.
  • Opening the software CD's wrapping means that you
    agree to the software license
  • sometimes called a shrink-wrap license

22
Types of Licenses
  • A single-user license limits the use of the
    software to only one user at a time. Most
    commercial software is distributed with a
    single-user license.
  • A multiple-user license allows more than one
    person to use a particular software package.
  • A concurrent-use license allows a certain number
    of copies of the software to be used at the same
    time.
  • A site license allows the software to be used on
    all computers at a specific location.

23
5. Alternatives to Commercial Software
  • Almost every type of commercial software has
    shareware/freeware alternatives
  • programs that do the same things, but..
  • cost much less, or nothing
  • do not have complex license agreements

24
Shareware and Freeware
  • Shareware is software that you can try before you
    buy it.
  • use the software for a certain amount of time for
    free
  • if you want to continue using it, you must pay a
    registration fee
  • Freeware is software that costs nothing
  • it may be freely copied and distributed

25
Where to get Shareware/Freeware?
  • There are many Web sites that list them.
  • tucows, http//www.tucows.com/
  • CNET Download.com, http//www.download.com

26
  • Downloadable software is usually stored in a
    self-extracting file
  • a single file that holds all of the modules for
    the software
  • download sites include instructions for
    downloading
  • once on your machine, you usually double-click on
    the file to extract the software

27
Other Free Sites
  • The Web (Internet) is a source of free software.
  • Be careful.
  • Strange software can do nasty things to your
    machine.
  • Make sure you trust the software site.

28
6. The Operating System (OS)
  • An operating system (OS) controls/manages all the
    activities in a computer.
  • Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, and DOS
  • The operating system helps the application
    software and the hardware talk to each other.

29
OS Diagram
The OS helps the application software
and hardware talk to each other.
30
OS Services
  • External services
  • help users start programs, manage data, and
    maintain security
  • Internal services
  • help the computer system function efficiently
  • A system resource is part of a computer system.
  • e.g. disk drive space, memory, processor time

31
7. Types of OSes
  • Desktop OSes
  • for single-user micros
  • e.g. Windows XP, Mac OS X
  • Server OSes
  • for computers that provide storage and
    communication for networks and Web sites

32
MS Windows
  • Microsoft Windows supports lots of application
    software and peripherals.
  • Current versions of Windows include Windows XP,
    2000, Me, 98

33
What is (was) DOS?
  • DOS stands for disk operating system.
  • a command line OS without a GUI
  • the first Microsoft OS
  • is now part of Windows

34
Mac OS X
  • An operating system with a GUI developed by Apple
    Computers, based on UNIX.
  • Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS
    operating system for Macintosh computers.

35
Linux
  • A free Unix-type operating system, originally
    created by Linus Torvalds with the assistance of
    developers around the world.
  • A mixed GUI and command line interface.

36
UNIX
  • A free, multi-user, multitasking operating system
    that is widely used in workstations and servers.
  • It was developed by ATT in 1969, and was very
    important in the development of the Internet.
  • There are now many versions of UNIX, made by
    different companies, universities, and
    individuals
  • e.g Linux, FreeBSD, Knoppix

37
Servers OSes
  • Three popular server OSes are
  • Microsoft Windows NT Server
  • Windows 2000 Server.
  • Novell NetWare
  • Linux and UNIX are also used as server OSes.
  • they are free

38
8. Multimedia Applications
  • A multimedia application combines many types of
    computer-based media
  • text, graphics, sound, animation, photos, video
  • This requires more complex (expensive) hardware.

39
Multimedia Hardware
40
Multimedia Requirements
  • Multimedia requires sound and graphics
    capability.
  • A sound card lets the computer record and play
    sounds.
  • connect speakers, headphone, microphone

continued
41
  • A graphics card takes data from the OS and draws
    it onto the screen.
  • A graphics card usually requires special
    software, called a device driver.
  • A device driver helps the OS control peripherals,
    such as a graphics card, sound card, printers,
    modems, etc.
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