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Title: PROBLEM


1
(No Transcript)
2
PROBLEM
  • teenage alcoholism is a constant and growing
    problem in todays society
  • the average age for boys to have their first
    drink is 11 years old
  • the average age for girls to have their first
    drink is 13 years old
  • the average age for Americans to have their
    first drink is 15.9 years old
  • despite the fact that alcohol consumption
    under the age of 21 is illegal, alcohol abuse
  • affects a significant number of teenagers
    between the ages of 12 and 20
  • Statistics
  • Of all car accidents involving teens, one out
    of five show alcohol present in his or her
    system.
  • Overall, 72 of NYC youth have consumed
    alcohol at least once, which is no different from
    youth nationwide.
  • NYC youth binge drink half as much as the
    national average (14 vs. 26).
  • White youth report more binge drinking in the
    past month (28) than black (8) or Hispanic
    (18) youth.

3
PROBLEM
  • NYC youth binge drink half as much as the
    national average (14 vs. 26).
  • Those who drink heavily are four times more
    likely to commit theft outside the home than
    non-drinking adolescents
  • Heavy drinkers among 12 to 17-year-olds are
    three times more likely to report deliberately
    trying to hurt or kill themselves than the
    adolescent non-drinkers
  • Teenage heavy drinkers are three times more
    likely to report getting into physical fights
    than non-drinkers.
  • White youth report more binge drinking in the
    past month (28) than black (8) or Hispanic
    (18) youth.
  • Similar to the national average, about one in
    four students are younger than 13 when they drink
    for the first time.

4
PROBLEM
  • millions of American teenagers drink alcohol
  • over 60 percent of high school seniors drink at
    least once a week
  • alcohol is the most common drug used by teenagers
  • alcohol has special risks for this age group
    because they are more prone to abuse
  • alcohol can be a "gateway" drug, leading to other
    drug use
  • some teenagers may develop serious drinking
    problems, especially alcoholism
  • studies indicate that about half of the children
    of alcoholic parents will become alcoholic
    themselves
  • some teenagers say they got "hooked" the first
    time they took a drink
  • about one of every six high school seniors
    and dropouts average at least one alcoholic drink
    every other day
  • about 40 percent of seniors and dropouts
    experienced serious drinking related problems
    (e.g. fights or arrests) and drinking activities
    (e.g., combining alcohol with other drugs,
    blacking out) on multiple occasions in a year

5
PROBLEM
  • Teenagers who drink are more likely to
  • avoid family or friends
  • lose interest in activities or hobbies
  • hang out with a new, often older, crowd
  • get into fights with parents
  • be hyperactive and/or aggressive
  • suffer from mental disorders such as anxiety or
    depression
  • have suicidal thoughts and behaviors
  • have impaired judgment
  • take part in sexual promiscuity and early sexual
    encounters

6
CAUSES
  • Genetic Factors Alcoholism in the family can
    increase the chance of teen drinking. Lack of
    communication and negligence are also other
    causes associated with family.
  • Childhood Behavior Restlessness,
    impulsiveness, aggressiveness in children can
    predict alcohol and other drug use in
    adolescence.
  • Psychiatric Disorders Associations with early
    conduct disorders, anxiety, and/or depression. It
    has even been correlated with teenage behavior to
    consider, and sometimes complete their own
    suicides.
  • Emotional Factors Personality and values,
    emotional state of mind, family lifestyle, and,
    possibly, predisposition, or tendency, toward
    alcoholism all may influence the descent into
    alcoholism.

7
CAUSES
  • Expectancies The belief that alcohol use is
    positive has been found to predict the beginning
    of drinking among adolescents.
  • Social Behavior Curiosity, peer pressure, and a
    desire to relax or escape problems can lead teens
    to try alcohol.
  • Media Alcohol is popularly promoted on
    television, radio commercials, and print
    advertising.
  • Boredom Bored teens are 50 percent more likely
    to smoke, drink, and use illegal drugs than
    active teens.

8
SURVEY
Age ___________ Grade Level
__________ GPA __________ Gender __________ Race
__________ of parents at home __________ Do you
drink? Circle yes no
If you drink how frequently do you drink? Circle
daily weekly monthly on occasion When
you drink do you choose to drink circle beer
hard liquor wine no preference
9
Analysis of Survey Results
Chi square statistics were used in the analysis
of our survey results. A degree freedom of 1 was
used. Critical values of chi square were
analyzed using the values in the chart below
http//fig.cox.miami.edu/Faculty/Dana/chisquare.gi
f
10
13 Year-Olds Surveyed
  • Our findings
  • Most 13 year olds believe that
  • - friends influence them to drink
  • - if their family has a history of alcoholism,
    it will impact their own drinking habits
  • - radio, TV, and movies does not encourage them
    to drink
  • - advertisements encourage them to drink
  • - minors shouldnt be allowed to drink without
    parental supervision
  • - their close friends do not drink

11
14 Year-Olds Surveyed
  • Our findings
  • Most 14 year olds believe that
  • their friends do not influence them to drink
  • their family does not have a history of
    alcoholism
  • radio, TV, and movies do not encourage them to
    drink
  • advertisements do not encourage them to drink
  • minors should not be able to drink alcoholic
    beverages with parental supervision
  • their friends do not drink alcohol

12
15 Year-Olds Surveyed
  • Our findings
  • Most 15 year olds believe that
  • their friends influence them to drink
  • if their family has a history of
    alcoholism, it will impact their drinking habits
  • radio, television, and movies influence
    them to drink
  • advertisements encourage them to drink
  • they should drink alcoholic beverages only
    with parental supervision
  • their close friends do not drink
  • their family members think it is
    acceptable for them to drink alcoholic beverages

13
16 Year-Olds Surveyed
  • Our findings
  • Most 16 year olds believe that
  • friends do not influence them to drink
  • their familys history of drinking impacts
    their drinking
  • radio, TV, and movies encourage them to
    drink
  • - advertisements encourage them to drink
  • - minors shouldnt drink with parental
    supervision
  • - their friends do not drink
  • - their family members believe it is
    acceptable for them to drink alcoholic beverages

14
17 Year-Olds Surveyed
  • Our findings
  • Most 17 year olds believe that
  • friends do not influence them to drink
  • if their immediate family has a history of
    alcoholism, this factor will most likely make
    them drink alcohol as well
  • radio, TV, and movies encourage them to
    drink
  • advertisements encourage them to drink
  • minors should be allowed to drink
    alcoholic beverages without parental supervision
  • - their friends drink alcohol
  • their family members believe it is
    acceptable for them to drink alcoholic beverages

15
18 Year-Olds Surveyed
  • Our findings
  • Most 18 year olds believe that
  • their friends influence their decision to
    drink
  • if the family has a history of alcoholism,
    they are also more likely to drink alcohol
  • radio, TV, and movies encourage them to
    drink
  • advertisements encourage them to drink
  • minors should be allowed to drink
    alcoholic beverages without parental supervision
  • their close friends drink
  • - their family members accept the fact that
    they drink alcohol

16
19 Year-Olds Surveyed
  • Our findings
  • Most 19 year olds believe that
  • friends do not influence their decision
    to drink alcohol
  • if the immediate family has a history of
    alcoholism, it has an impact on their own
    drinking of alcohol
  • - radio, TV, and movies encourage them to
    drink
  • advertisements encourage them to drink
  • teens should be allowed to drink
    alcoholic beverages without parental supervision
  • their friends drink alcohol
  • - their family members think it is
    acceptable for them to drink alcoholic beverages

17
Additional Findings
  • ? 39.37 of 13 year old females with GPAs of B
    or better drink alcohol .
  • ? 44.71 of 13 year old males with GPAs of
    B or better drink alcohol.
  • ? 84 of 14 year old females with GPAs of B or
    better drink alcohol.
  • ? 69 of 14 year old males with GPAs of B
    or better drink alcohol.
  • ? 37 of 15 year old females with GPAs of B or
    better drink alcohol.
  • ? 40 of 15 year old males with GPAs of B
    or better drink alcohol.
  • ? 58 of 16 year old females with GPAs of B or
    better drink alcohol.
  • ? 57 of 16 year old males with GPAs of B or
    better drink alcohol.
  • ? 54.5 of 17 year old females with GPAs of B or
    better drink alcohol.
  • ? 67.3 of 17 year old males with GPAs of B
    or better drink alcohol.

18
CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOL
  • The alcohol found in alcoholic beverages is ethyl
    alcohol (ethanol).
  • Ethyl alcohol is a depressant a substance that
    slows the activity of the central nervous system
    (CNS) making reflexes and thinking ability
    slower.
  • In the image C is carbon, H is hydrogen, O is
    oxygen and the hyphens are the chemical bonds
    between the atoms.
  • The O-H group is responsible for the chemical
    effects of alcohol.
  • Ethanol is produced by fermentation- the
    metabolism of carbohydrates by certain species of
    yeast in the absence of oxygen. The process of
    culturing yeast under alcohol-producing
    conditions is referred to as brewing.

19
TYPES OF ALCOHOL
? Pure alcohol does not exist in most drinks. ?
Danger only a few ounces of pure alcohol can
quickly raise the blood alcohol level into the
danger zone. ? For various types of beverages,
the ethanol concentration (by volume) is as
follows ? Beer 4 to 6 percent (average of
about 4.5 percent) ? Wine 7 to 15 percent
(average of about 11 percent) ? Champagne 8
to 14 percent (average of about 12 percent) ?
Distilled spirits (e.g. rum, gin, vodka, whiskey)
40 to 95 percent
20
BLOOD ALCOHOL ANALYSIS
  • Blood alcohol content (BAC) or blood alcohol
    concentration is the concentration of alcohol in
    blood.
  • It is usually measured as mass per volume. For
    example, a BAC of 0.02 means 0.02 grams of
    alcohol per 100 grams of individual's blood, or
    0.2 grams of alcohol per 1000 grams of blood.
  • The consumption from a sober state of two
    standard drinks (containing a total of 20 grams)
    of alcohol will increase the average person's BAC
    roughly 0.05, (A single standard drink consumed
    each hour after the first two will keep the BAC
    at approximately 0.05). Note there is much
    variation according to body weight, gender, and
    body fat percentage.
  • The number of drinks consumed and the BAC are not
    precise indicators for the degree or severity of
    impairment.
  • A persons alcohol tolerance, which is different
    for everyone, is based upon genetics, synergistic
    effects of drugs, and adaptation to chronic
    alcohol use.

21
BLOOD ALCOHOL ANALYSIS
  • Measures the percentage of weight of alcohol in
    the blood.
  • Gas chromatography, the most popular method of
    analyzing blood for alcohol, separates the
    alcohol from the other substances in the blood.
  • Another method is treating blood with the enzyme
    NAD, which oxidizes with alcohol.

22
BLOOD ALCOHOL ANALYSIS
  • Advantages of Blood Analysis
  • Blood tests allow investigators to accurately
    test the same sample several times properly.
  • Disadvantages of Blood Analysis
  • Process requires trained medical staff.
  • Analysis requires procedures to be followed by
    trained lab technicians.
  • It takes a while for results.
  • It costs a great deal of money.

23
ABSORPTION OF ALCOHOL ON AN EMPTY STOMACH
  • Drinking alcohol on an empty stomach leads more
    quickly to intoxication.
  • Drinking alcohol on an empty stomach heightens
    the alcohol blood level within the first hour of
    drinking or less. Drinking alcohol on an empty
    stomach causes the alcohol to be absorbed into
    the bloodstream at a much more rapid rate thus
    causing a more potent effect on the brain.
  • Beer Drinkers Four beers on an empty stomach
    will go straight into your system and quickly
    become a predictable BAC.
  • The same four beers on a full stomach will take
    longer to hit your bloodstream, resulting in a
    lower BAC for a longer period of time, and a
    higher BAC at a later time.
  • Although you ultimately will "get to" the same
    BAC, it will take a longer or shorter amount of
    time to do so based on what it is in your system.
    Avoid carbonated drinks and warmer drinks both
    of which are absorbed faster.
  • To slow down intoxication drink more slowly and
    eat food -- especially proteins, fats and dense
    carbohydrates. Things to be avoided  because they
    speed up alcohol absorption include carbonated
    drinks and warmer drinks, both of which are
    absorbed faster. Therefore, before consuming
    alcohol, one should always have a meal with a lot
    of protein, fat and carbohydrates.

24
ABSORPTION OF ALCOHOL ON AN EMPTY STOMACH
  • In general, alcohol consumed is absorbed through
    simple diffusion into the blood stream from all
    parts of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Alcohol is most efficiently absorbed in the small
    intestine. 20 to 25 of a dose of alcohol is
    absorbed from the stomach and 75 to 80 from the
    small intestine.
  • The highest blood alcohol concentrations are
    reached in about 0.5 to 2.0 hours and an average
    of around 0.75 to 1.35 hours depending upon
    dosage and time of last meal.

25
ABSORPTION OF ALCOHOL ON A FULL STOMACH
  • Drinking alcohol on a stomach with a regular meal
    will delay absorption.
  • If a person drinks the same amount of alcohol one
    to two hours after an average meal, the blood
    alcohol level peaks much more slowly and never
    reaches the same level as after drinking on an
    empty stomach. With food in the stomach, the body
    has a slower rate of absorption of alcohol. Fatty
    foods block absorption of alcohol longer than
    protein or carbohydrate foods because they take
    longer to digest.
  • During the process of digestion, after a meal,
    the rate of the absorption of alcohol into the
    large intestine slows down. In addition, there is
    a longer elapsed time before symptoms begin to
    show and the blood alcohol concentration is lower
    than the blood alcohol concentration for an empty
    stomach.
  • Also, if you drank on a full stomach, you can
    often show that your BAC at the time you were
    observed operating your vehicle was under the
    legal limit of 0.08, and that it only rose above
    0.08 much later when you gave your breath test
    due to a full stomach, or other factors. This is
    called the "Rising BAC" defense, and it is a good
    one.

26
ALCOHOL IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • A central nervous system depressant that affects
    reticular formation, spinal cord, cerebellum and
    cerebral cortex, as well as on many
    neurotransmitter systems.
  • Alcohol easily crosses the blood brain barrier
    due to its solubility in lipid and water
    solutions.
  • Some of the neurochemical effects of alcohol are
  • Increased turnover of norepinephrine and dopamine
  • Decreased transmission in acetylcholine systems
  • Increased transmission in GABA systems
  • Increased production of beta-endorphin in the
    hypothalamus

27
ALCOHOL IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • In low doses, alcohol produces
  • a relaxing effect
  • reduces tension
  • lowers inhibitions
  • impairs concentration
  • slows reflexes
  • impairs reaction time
  • reduces coordination
  • In medium doses, alcohol produces
  • slur speech
  • cause drowsiness
  • alter emotions
  • In high doses, alcohol produces
  • vomiting
  • breathing difficulties
  • unconsciousness
  • coma

28
ALCOHOL IN THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  • The removal of alcohol from an adult body occurs
    at a rate of ½ to ¾ of an ounce per hour. When a
    large quantity of alcohol is present in the body,
    the ability of the brain to control the
    respiratory system is disabled.
  • At .30 BAL, death may occur. At .40 BAL, the
    drinker may become unconscious. At .50 BAL, the
    functions of the respiratory system and the heart
    decrease dramatically. Finally, at .60 BAL, most
    drinkers die.
  • It is known that the depressant effect increases
    with BAC hence, the importance of BAC as an
    index of impairment. Extreme amounts of alcohol
    can paralyze the respiratory system and cause
    death, but some persons can survive and even
    drive at these and still higher concentrations.
  • High doses, the respiratory system slows down
    drastically and can cause a coma or death.
  • Heavy drinkers are more susceptible to pneumonia
    and lung collapse, and also have more pulmonary
    infections.

29
FIELD SOBRIETY TEST
  • The Standardized Field Sobriety Test (SFST)
    consists of three different tests to show
    intoxication and reason for arrest.
  • The SFST was first created by the National
    Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
    Its first test was performed by the Southern
    California Research Institute.
  • Through NHTSAs formal program of training, law
    enforcement officers improve their skills of
    detecting DWI suspects, describing the suspects
    behavior, and providing valid testimony during a
    trial in court.

30
FIELD SOBRIETY TEST
  • Field sobriety testing includes some simple
    physical or cognitive tests that determines the
    sobriety of a driver when he is suspected of
    drunkenness by a police officer.
  • These tests were standardized by guidelines
    created by the National Highway Traffic and
    Safety Administration (NHTSA) so they may be more
    accurate.
  • The standardized tests procedures include
  • the One-Leg Stand (OLS)
  • Walk-and-Turn
  • Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN)
  • Some non-standardized tests procedures include
  • standing with feet together and tipping the head
    backwards
  • counting the number of fingers that the officer
    raises
  • reciting the alphabet or a portion of it
  • counting backwards
  • Rhomberg stationary balance test
  • finger-to-nose test

31
BREATHALYZER TEST
  • A breathalyzer (or breathalyser) is a device for
    estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a
    breath sample.
  • The name breathalyzer came from a brand of a
    model of this device created by Smith and Wesson.
    It then became a trademark for all devices which
    estimate BAC.
  • Intoxilyzer, Intoximeter, AlcoScan, Alcotest,
    AlcoSensor, Alcolizer, Datamaster are the other
    most common brand names in use today.
  • The U.S. Government's National Highway Traffic
    Safety Administration has a "Conforming Products
    List" of breath alcohol devices that approve them
    as appropriate means to collect evidence and
    detect alcohol (alcohol detection tests).

32
FEDERAL POLICY
  • Alcohol Excise Taxes
  • The Federal Government regulates volume taxes
    on alcoholic beverages in addition to alcohol
    taxes imposed by the state. Prices in relation to
    inflationary level prices of alcohol have
    declined considerably since 1960.
  • Product Approval
  • The Tax and Trade Bureau has jurisdiction for
    labeling, packaging, and product approval.
  • Advertising
  • The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau and
    the Federal Trade Commission are agencies created
    by the government that have authority over
    advertising alcoholic products. These
    organizations also have control over televised
    and broadcasted advertising.
  • Giving alcohol to minors is illegal and is
    punishable by law.
  • The national drinking age is 21 years of age. US
    territories, Puerto Rico, the U.S Virgin Islands,
    and Guam have a drinking age of 18.
  • The 21st amendment gives states majority powers
    concerning alcohol. Each state has its own laws
    that preside over the alcohol markets within the
    respective states. Laws concerning the sellers of
    alcohol are dictated by the state as well.
    Alcohol beverage control agencies are found
    within every state of the US.

33
FEDERAL POLICY
The Federal Alcohol policy is most regulated by
the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
located in the Department of Treasury. The
primary responsibility of the TTB is to enforce
and administer laws covering the production,
consumption, and sale of tobacco and alcohol
related goods.
Labeling Producers of alcohol must receive a
Certification/Exemption of Label/Bottle Approval
(COLA) through the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,
Firearms and Explosives before production occurs
legally. In 1989, the government passed a law
that made it a requirement for alcoholic beverage
containers to have a small warning message
informing the public about the risks of consuming
alcoholic beverages. These warning labels
emphasize the possibility of birth defects
occurring if alcoholic beverages are drank during
pregnancy and on the dangers of driving a vehicle
once alcohol has been consumed. There are states,
such as California, which have made it a
requirement for there to be signs with the risks
of alcohol posted in establishments where alcohol
is served.
34
FEDERAL POLICY
  • Raised Alcohol Excise Taxes
  • Keg Tagging Tracking of Alcohol sales
  • Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) Training
  • Product Labeling
  • ? Notification of the risks of alcohol
    consumption
  • Limiting Alcohol Sales Licenses
  • Enforcement of Underage Drinking Laws
  • Limiting Alcohol Sales at public events
  • Restrictions on Alcohol Advertisements ? At
    Sporting Events ? To Underage Youth
  • Holding Adults Responsible for Teen Parties

35
STATE POLICY
  • Open Container It is against the law to have an
    open container in public with the intent of
    consumption, or an open container with the intent
    of consumption on private property without the
    permission of the owner of that property. Fines
    can be dealt of up to 150 dollars and an
    offender can get and/or 15 days of jail-time.
  • 2. Minor in Possession If a person, under 21
    years of age, is found possessing alcoholic
    beverages and is planning on drinking it, they
    may be punished by receiving a fine of 50 or
    less and may be required to participate in an
    alcohol awareness program, as well as, serving 30
    hours of community service.
  • 3. Providing False Identification If a person,
    under 21 years of age, uses a false
    identification in order to purchase alcoholic
    beverages, they may be required to pay a fine of
    100 or less, participate in a program for
    alcohol awareness, and serve up to 30 hours of
    community service.
  • 4. Furnishing Alcohol to a Person Under Age 21
    It is illegal for a person to sell or give an
    alcoholic beverage to an individual under 21
    years of age.
  • 5. Liability for Injury Caused by Furnishing
    Alcohol to Persons Under 21 If someone is
    injured by an intoxicated minor (under the age of
    21), the vendor of the alcohol, that sold it to
    the minor has to pay for all damages caused by
    the impaired minor if the vendor had any
    reasonable doubt the law breaker was under the
    age of 21.

6. Selling Alcohol to an Intoxicated Person It
is illegal for an individual to give another
person, who is already intoxicated, alcoholic
beverages. 7. Liability For Injury Caused By Sale
of Alcohol to Any Intoxicated Person If an
individual is harmed by an intoxicated person,
they have the option and right to sue or take
lawful actions against them. The intoxicated
person is then forced to make reparations to the
person who was harmed. 8. Driving While
Intoxicated The use of a motor vehicle while a
person is under the influence of alcohol and has
a blood alcohol count of .10 or higher, is
considered a misdemeanor and is punishable
through a fine of 500 to 1000. This person may
also have to serve a prison term of 1 year. Their
license may also be revoked or suspended. 9.
Driving While Ability Impaired The use of a
motor vehicle while a person is under the
influence of alcohol and has a blood alcohol
count of .05 but less than .10 is considered to
be a misdemeanor. 10. Operating a Motor Vehicle
After Consuming Alcohol While Under Age 21 Any
person who drives with a blood alcohol level of
0.02 and is under the age of 21 is susceptible
to license revocation or suspension and can be
ticketed with a 125 charge. This violation is
not officially labeled as a crime or any other
offense.
36
LOCAL POLICY
  • You must be 21 years old to purchase alcohol.
  • Underage consumption of alcohol is not explicitly
    prohibited.
  • Sale of alcohol to minors is prohibited.
  • Use of a false ID to obtain alcohol is a criminal
    offense.
  • Possession is prohibited unless the minor has
    parent or guardian consent or is using alcohol
    for specific religious, educational, or medical
    purposes.
  • Liquor and wine can only be sold in licensed
    stores. These are closed on Sundays, holidays,
    and election days when voting polls are open.
  • Beer can be purchased 24 hours in delis or
    grocery stores except on Sundays before 12pm.
  • It is illegal to drink alcohol in public,
    including outside of a restaurant, bar, café, or
    any other establishment which sells it.
  • Federal law influences state alcohol policies.
    Federal law requires that a portion of the
    Federal highway funding be withheld from any
    state that allows the purchase or consumption of
    alcohol beverages by persons under the age of 21.

37
Most Effective and Feasible Policy
  • The maximum alcohol content in any drink has to
    be 0.08 grams/100 ml.
  • If the persons BAC level is above 0.02 he/she
    must pay a fine that equals 100,000 times their
    BAC level if they commit a crime.
  • Liquor stores must keep track of each individual
    customer.
  • Each time a customer returns to buy more liquor,
    the cost of a bottle goes up two times its
    original price.
  • Alcoholics are subject to a background check at
    liquor stores. The owner may refuse to sell them
    liquor if they have broken several alcohol laws.
  • Primary punishment for violation of alcohol law
    is revocation, suspension, or denial of driving
    privileges.
  • Severe penalties for parents who allow drinking
    at teenage parties which they host in their own
    home.
  • Emphasis in school health education of danger of
    excess alcohol consumption.
  • Family and school counseling services for
    teenager and their families.

38
References (Cover)
  • http//fc05.deviantart.com/fs8/i/2006/161/6/8/new_
    york_lights___tweak_by_Rhea_Batz.jpg

39
References (Problem 1)
  • www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/pr2007/pro19-07.shtml

40
References (Problem 2)
  • http//www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/pr2007/pr019-07.s
    html
  • http//alcoholism.about.com/cs/teens/a/aa000307.ht
    m
  • http//www.nature.com/bdj/journal/v202/n2/images/b
    dj.2007.60-i1.jpg
  • http//blog.teenoptions.com/wp-content/uploads/200
    7/09/binging.jpg

41
References (Problem 3)
  • http//www.focusas.com/Alcohol.html
  • http//www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB6004-1/
    index1.html
  • www.google.com/images

42
References (Problem 4)
  • www.baptistonle.org/health/library/alco4138.asp
  • www.teenage-drinking.net
  • www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/pr2007/pro19-07.shtml

43
References (Causes 1)
  • http//www.sitesplus.co.uk/user_docs/u/Image/Depre
    ssion20from20defence20magazine.jpg
  • http//jackson.ces.ncsu.edu/content/images/library
    /50/FCS-discipline.jpg

44
References (Causes 2)
  • http//www.aolcdn.com/red_galleries/safety-peer-pr
    essure-400a06.jpg
  • http//publications.highestwire.com/our_truth/sect
    ions/feature/2004/08/20/6/full_photos/510149845dri
    nking.jpeg

45
References (Analysis of Survey Results)
  • http//fig.cox.miami.edu/Faculty/Dana/chisquare.gi
    f

46
References (Chemistry of Alcohol)
  • http//recipes.howstuffworks.com/alcohol12.htmhtt
    p//images.google.com/imgres?imgurlhttp//www.che
    mistrydaily.com/chemistry
  • Saferstein, Richard. CriminalisticsAn
    Introduction to Forensic Science 7th Edition. New
    Jersey Prentice Hall,2001

47
References (Types Of Alcohol)
  • http//www1.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve
    /3376501/2/istockphoto_3376501_celebration_toast_w
    ith_champagne.jpg
  • http//www1.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve
    /2856865/2/istockphoto_2856865_splash_whiskey.jpg
  • http//beerkong.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/bee
    r_becks.jpg

48
References (Blood Alcohol Analysis 1)
  • http//images.jupiterimages.com/common/detail/69/5
    8/22855869.jpg
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_alcohol_content

49
References (Blood Alcohol Analysis 2)
  • http//www.duilasvegas.com/las_vegas_dui_arrest/ar
    t/blood_alcohol_tests.jpg
  • http//www.duicentral.com/drunk_driving/blood_alco
    hol_physiology.html
  • http//www.columbia.edu/cu/biology/courses/c2005/i
    mages/nad.gif
  • http//www.cee.vt.edu/ewr/environmental/teach/smpr
    imer/gc/schmtc.jpg

http//wunaladreaming.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/
blood_analysis.jpg
50
References (Blood Alcohol Analysis 3)
  • http//wunaladreaming.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/
    blood_analysis.jpg

51
References (Absorption of Alcohol On An Empty
Stomach 1)
  • http//www.google.com/alcohol
  • http//www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/HealthIssues/2006
    0414152217.html

52
References (Absorption of Alcohol On An Empty
Stomach 2)
  • http//www.rivm.nl/interspeciesinfo/Images/stomach
    -figure-2_tcm75-26457.gif

53
References (Absorption of Alcohol On A Full
Stomach)
  • http//cache.eb.com/eb/image?id62749rendTypeId4
  • http//www.eurobrews.com/faq.html

54
References (Alcohol In The Nervous System)
  • http//faculty.washington.edu/chudler/alco.htmlht
    tp//www.chemcases.com/alcohol/alc-07.htm

55
References (Alcohol In The Respiratory System)
  • http//www.biotopics.co.uk/humans/chestn.gif
  • http//www.oregoncounseling.org/ArticlesPapers/Doc
    uments/ETOHBIOFx.htm

56
References (Field Sobriety Test 1)
  • http//www.nhtsa.dot.gov/People/injury/alcohol/SFS
    T/appendix_a.htm

57
References (Field Sobriety Test 2)
  • http//www.chemcases.com/alcohol/alc-07.htm

58
References (Breathalyzer Test)
  • http//www.martinrothonline.com/personalhealthmoni
    tor/Reviews/AlcoHawk20Precision.jpg
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breathalyzer
  • http//www.the-florida-dui.com/What_is_a_Breathaly
    zer_.html

59
References (Federal Policy 1)
  • http//www.marininstitute.org/alcohol_policy/feder
    al.htm
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol_laws_of_the_U
    nited_States_by_state
  • http//www.epi.umn.edu/alcohol/pathfinder/index.sh
    tm

60
References (Federal Policy 2)
  • http//www.marininstitute.org/alcohol_policy/feder
    al.htm

61
References (State Policy)
  • http//www.marininstitute.org/alcohol_policy/feder
    al.htm
  • http//security.vassar.edu/da_policy.html

62
References (Local Policy)
  • http//www.carterstore.com/upload/products/ande/ar
    snoalco-2.jpg

63
References (The Most Effective Feasible
Policy)
  • http//www.boat-ed.com/images/graphics/bac_effects
    .gif

64
CREDITS
Instructor Mary Villani
Student Leaders
Chan, Joyce Chung, Monica Kim, Brian Kim,
Virginia Mohammed, Karimu Pozin, Mikhail Raslin,
Lev Rubel, Elizabeth Tesillo, Melanie Yoon, Mina
65
CREDITS
Instructor Mary Villani
Researchers and Production Staff

Al Qaisi, Raymond Ally, Nishaun Aziz,
Rishat Bardales, Bryan Bencosme, Francisco Brown,
Kelly Ann Burgos, Alan Cajder, Paula Carlos,
Deenroy Chan, Joyce Chan, Michael Chang,
Richard Chen, Kaiyue Christoforatos,
Katerina Chung, Monica Circu, Christina Cogan,
Benjamin Coleman, Timothy Cosma, Ruxanda Eng,
Kenneth Fann, Thomas Fischler, Jacob Fu, Amy
Goldsmith-Greenberg, Sarah Guitelman,
Daniela Han, Zachary Henning, Daniel Hong,
Cindy Hsu, Allen Hu, Diana Islam, Nafis
Bin Kazmi, Stefan Khan, Shayan Khoo, Daniel Kim,
Brian Kim, Grace Kim, Susana Kim, Victor Kim,
Virginia Koukias, Michael Kukreja, Megha Lee,
Kathie Li, Jason Liang, Charlene Lin, Kristen Lo,
Kevin
Louie, Allison Mohammed, Karimu Molina,
Diane Muniz, Diana Ng, Alan Parikh, Amit Park,
Andreas Picariello, Alex Pozin, Mikhail Prokes,
Sean Pupovic, Eldin Qian, Patty Quevedo,
Maria Rahman, Mahmuda Raslin, Lev Rodgers,
John Rodriguez, Stephanie Ross Jr, Luis Roze,
David Rubel, Elizabeth Rubenfeld, Daniel Sanchez,
Monica Satia, Karan Schori, Eitan
Seid, Edward Shyu, Emily Sim Cho,
Jared Steinberg, Shane Stroz, Casey Sukenick,
Martina Sung, Frederick Tang, Amanda Tesillo,
Melanie Too, Annazizi Toumazou, Andreas Tratner,
Brian Ventura, Elias Weinberg, Jessica Won, Sung
Bae Yang, Alice Yared, Naomi Yoon, Mina Young,
Laura Zeng, Kenny Zmich, Cynthia Zmich,
Nicole Zouroudis, Hazidenio
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