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Internet2 IPv6 Workshop

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Dale Finkelson, Michael Lambert, Brent Sweeny, Bill Owens and a ... Smallville. ISP1 (UUNET) ISP2 (Abilene) 2001:897::/35. 2001:468::/35. 2001:468:1210::/48 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Internet2 IPv6 Workshop


1
Internet2 IPv6 Workshop
  • Grover Browning, Bill Cerveny, Dale Finkelson,
    Michael Lambert, Brent Sweeny, Bill Owens and a
    cast of dozens

2
IPv6 Addressing
3
Overview of Addressing
  • Historical aspects
  • Types of IPv6 addresses
  • Work-in-progress
  • Abilene IPv6 addressing

4
Historical Aspects of IPv6
  • IPv4 address space not big enough
  • Cant get needed addresses (particularly outside
    Americas)
  • Resort to private (RFC1918) addresses
  • Competing plans to address problem
  • Some 64-bit, some 128-bit
  • Current scheme unveiled at Toronto IETF (July
    1994)

5
Types of IPv6 Addresses
  • Like IPv4
  • Unicast
  • Multicast
  • Anycast
  • but designed into specifications from the
    beginning

6
Representation of Addresses
  • All addresses are 128 bits
  • Write as sequence of eight sets of four hex
    digits (16 bits each) separated by colons
  • Leading zeros in group may be omitted
  • Contiguous all-zero groups may be replaced by
  • Only one such group can be replaced

7
Examples of Writing Addresses
  • 3ffe3700020000ff0000000000000001
  • can be written
  • 3ffe3700200ff0001
  • or
  • 3ffe3700200ff1

8
Interface Identifiers
  • Sixty-four bit field
  • Guaranteed unique on subnet
  • Essentially same as EUI-64
  • Formula for mapping IEEE 802 MAC address into
    interface identifier
  • Used in many forms of unicast address

9
Types of Unicast Addresses
  • Unspecified address
  • All zeros ()
  • Used as source address during initialization
  • Also used in representing default
  • Loopback address
  • Low-order one bit (1)
  • Same as 127.0.0.1 in IPv4

10
Types of Unicast Addresses
  • Link-local address
  • Unique on a subnet
  • Result of router discovery or neighbor discovery
  • High-order FE80/64
  • Low-order interface identifier
  • Site-local address
  • Unique to a site
  • High-order FEC0/48
  • Low-order interface identifier
  • What is a site?

11
Types of Unicast Addresses
  • Mapped IPv4 addresses
  • Of form FFFFa.b.c.d
  • Used by dual-stack machines to communicate over
    IPv4 using IPv6 addressing
  • Compatible IPv4 addresses
  • Of form a.b.c.d
  • Used by IPv6 hosts to communicate over automatic
    tunnels

12
Types of Unicast Addresses
  • Aggregatable global unicast address
  • Used in production IPv6 networks
  • Goal minimize global routing table size
  • From range 2000/3
  • Three fields in /64 prefix
  • 16-bit Top Level Aggregator (TLA)
  • 8-bit reserved
  • 24-bit Next Level Aggregator (NLA)
  • 16-bit Site Level Aggregator (SLA)

13
Types of Unicast Addresses
  • Aggregatable global unicast address

14
Top-Level Aggregators
  • Allocated by RIRs to transit providers
  • In practice, RIRs have adopted slow-start
    strategy
  • Start by allocating /35s
  • Expand to /29s when sufficient use in /35
  • Eventually move to /16s

15
Abilene sTLA
  • Allocated 2001468/35

16
NLAs and SLAs
  • NLAs used by providers for subnetting
  • Allocate blocks to customers
  • Can be multiple levels of hierarchy
  • SLAs used by customers for subnetting
  • Analogous to campus subnets
  • Also can be hierarchical

17
Other Unicast Addresses
  • Original provider-based
  • Original geographic-based
  • GSE (88)
  • Tony Hains Internet Draft for provider-independen
    t (geographically-based) addressing

18
Multicast Address
  • From FF00/8
  • Address contains four-bit scope field
  • Unlike IPv4 multicast, scope is explicitly
    defined in address
  • Low-order 112 bits are group identifier, not
    interface identifier

19
Anycast Address
  • Used to send packets to all interfaces on a
    network (like IPv4 anycast, not all will
    necessarily respond)
  • Low-order bits (typically 64 or more) are zero

20
Abilene IPv6 Addressing
  • Two prefixes allocated
  • 3ffe3700/24 on 6bone
  • 2001468/35 sTLA
  • Planning migration from 6bone addressing
  • Current addressing plan built on assumption of /35

21
Allocation Procedures
  • GigaPoPs allocated /40s
  • Expected to delegate to participants
  • No BCP (yet) for GigaPoP allocation procedures
  • Direct connectors allocated /48s
  • Will (for now) provide addresses to participants
    behind GigaPoPs which havent received IPv6
    addresses
  • See WG web site for details

22
Registration Procedures
  • Providers allocated TLAs (or sTLAs) must register
    suballocations
  • ARIN allows rwhois or SWIP
  • For now, Abilene will use SWIP
  • Will eventually adopt rwhois
  • GigaPoPs must also maintain registries
  • Will probably have central Abilene registry

23
Obtaining Addresses
  • Drop a note to Abilene NOC (noc_at_abilene.iu.edu)
    with request
  • Will set wheels in motion

24
Allocation Schemes
  • CIDR representation and IPv6 allocations.

25
CIDR
  • In IPv4 you would see representations like
  • 129.93.0.0/16
  • 129.93.0.0 255.255.240.0
  • 129.93.0.0/20
  • At the bit level this is
  • 10000001.01011101.1111 0000.00000000

26
Reasons for CIDR
  • To try to preserve the address space.
  • To control the growth of the routing table.

27
IPv6 Notation
  • In IPv6 every address is notated
  • 20010468/35
  • IPv6 address / Prefix Length
  • At the bit level
  • 0010 0000 0000 0001 0000 0100 0110 1000000
    0/35

28
Allocation Strategies
  • We wish to allocate /48s out of the /35.
  • Which are available
  • 200104680000 through
  • 200104681fff
  • Recall the the bit structure is
  • 0010 0000 0000 0001 0000 0100 0110 1000 000
    0000000000000
  • 0010 0000 0000 0001 0000 0100 0110 1000 000
    1111111111111
  • So there are 8,192 /48s in a /35

29
How would Allocations work?
  • Suppose you wish to give out /40s in the /35.
  • 20010468000 0 0000 or 20010468/40
  • 20010468000 1 1111 or 200104681f00/40
  • Thus there are 32 /40s in the /35 each of which
    has 256 /48s.

30
How would Allocations work?
  • The same idea holds for /41s or /42s.
  • 20010468000 000000 or 20010468/41
  • 20010468000 111111 or 200104681f80/41
  • 20010468000 0000000 - 000 1111111
  • 20010468/42 200104681fd0/42

31
Mixed Allocations
  • The interesting case is how to handle mixed
    allocations.
  • One site wants a /40 another a /42. How can you
    handle this case.
  • See
  • draft-ietf-ipngwg-ipaddressassign-02
  • A flexible method for managing the assignment of
    bits of an IPv6 address block

32
Mixed Allocations
  • Each /35 has
  • 32 /40s with 256 /48s
  • 64 /41s with 128 /48s
  • 128 /42s with 64 /48s
  • Look at the bits here.

33
Router Configuration
34
IPv4 Subnet Masking
  • Originally the network size was based on the
    first few bits (classful addressing)
  • Getting rid of address classes was painful!
  • routing protocols, stacks, applications
  • Modern IPv4 allows subnet boundaries anywhere
    within the address (classless addressing)
  • But decimal addresses still make figuring out
    subnets unnecessarily difficult. . .

35
IPv6 Subnet Masking
  • IPv6 still has address classes, but they set the
    address types, not the network size.
  • Hexadecimal format makes subnetting easier for
    human beings. . . but thinking in binary is still
    necessary.

36
IPv6 Prefixes
  • Always hierarchical, and aggregated at each level
  • 2001468/35 Abilene
  • 00100000000000010000010001101000000
  • 2001468400/40 Indiana GigaPoP
  • 0010000000000001000001000110100000000000
  • 2001468401/48 Indiana University
  • 001000000000000100000100011010000000010000000001
  • 2001468401b/64 Abilene NOC at IU
  • 001000000000000100000100011010000000010000000001
    0000000000001011

37
Aggregation
  • IU campus routers carry /64 routes for internal
    subnets (and possibly other, shorter prefixes for
    large nets or internal aggregation).
  • IU advertises only 2001468401/48 to their
    gigaPoP
  • Indiana GigaPoP advertises only 2001468400/40
    to Abilene
  • Abilene advertises only 2001468/35 to peers.

38
v6 Interfaces
  • Multiple Addresses per interface
  • Link-local fe80(EUI-64)
  • Global autoconfigured
  • Global manually configured
  • Multicast all-nodes, solicited-node, etc.
  • Anycast
  • Stateless Autoconfiguration
  • Stateful Autoconfiguration - DHCPv6

39
EUI-64
  • Mechanical construction of a unique address from
    the IEEE MAC of the interface
  • Need 64 bits, so the 48-bit MAC is padded up
  • 0050da205b03
  • 0250dafffe205b03
  • Where did the 02 come from? It indicates this is
    a globally unique address - reverse of the
    original EUI-64 spec.

40
Cisco Router Configuration
  • Rule 1 What Would v4 do?
  • Enable routing
  • ipv6 unicast-routing
  • Configure Interfaces
  • ipv6 address
  • Configure Routing Protocols

41
Cisco Configs
  • LAN Interface
  • interface Ethernet0/0
  • ip address 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0
  • ipv6 address 200146812312/64

42
Cisco Configs
  • Tunnel Interface
  • interface Tunnel1
  • description IPv6 to Abilene
  • no ip address
  • no ip redirects
  • no ip proxy-arp
  • ipv6 address 3FFE3700FF1052/64
  • tunnel source ATM2/0.1
  • tunnel destination 192.168.193.14
  • tunnel mode ipv6ip

43
Cisco Configs
  • ATM PVC
  • interface ATM2/0.3 point-to-point
  • description My GigaPoP
  • no ip redirects
  • no ip proxy-arp
  • pvc MyGigaPoP 3/66
  • ubr 155000
  • encapsulation aal5snap
  • !
  • ipv6 address 2001468FF5551/64

44
Cisco Configs
  • IGP - most sites will use RIPng for now, but
    IS-IS is also available. OSPFv3 is on the way. .
    .
  • ipv6 router rip ipsix
  • redistribute connected
  • interface Ethernet1/0
  • ipv6 rip ipsix enable
  • ipv6 rip ipsix default-information orig
  • Static
  • ipv6 route

45
Cisco Configs
  • BGP - added to your existing IPv4 BGP config
  • router bgp 64555
  • bgp router-id 192.168.2.1
  • neighbor Abilene-v6 peer-group
  • neighbor Abilene-v6 remote-as 11537

46
Cisco Configs
  • BGP continued. . .
  • address-family ipv6 unicast
  • neighbor Abilene-v6 activate
  • neighbor Abilene-v6 soft-reconfiguration in
  • neighbor Abilene-v6 prefix-list to-Abilene-v6
    out
  • neighbor 20014685552006 peer-group
    Abilene-v6
  • network 20014684ff/48
  • aggregate-address 20014684ff/48 summary-only
  • exit-address-family

47
Cisco Configs
  • BGP continued. . .
  • ipv6 route 20014684ff/48 Null0
  • !
  • ipv6 prefix-list to-Abilene-v6 seq 10 permit
    20014684ff/48

48
Juniper Router Configuration
  • Rule 1 What Would v4 do?
  • Enable routing - already there. . .
  • Configure Interfaces
  • family inet6 address
  • Configure Routing Protocols and RIBs

49
Juniper Configs
  • Interface (physical)
  • interfaces
  • fe-0/1/0
  • unit 0
  • family inet6
  • address 20014681231/64

50
Juniper Configs
  • Interface (tunnel)
  • interfaces
  • ip-0/3/0
  • unit 0
  • tunnel
  • source 192.168.2.2
  • destination 192.168.45.2
  • family inet6
  • mtu 1514
  • address 20014681231/64

51
Juniper Configs
  • Router Advertisement - not enabled by default
  • protocols
  • router-advertisement
  • interface fe-0/3/0.0
  • prefix 2001468123/64

52
Juniper Configs
  • Routing setup
  • routing-options
  • interface-routes
  • rib-group
  • inet6 ifrg6
  • rib inet6.0
  • aggregate
  • route 20014684ff/48

53
Juniper Configs
  • Routing setup continued. . .
  • rib-groups
  • ifrg6
  • import-rib inet6.0 inet6.2
  • router-id 192.168.2.1

54
Juniper Configs
  • IGP - RIPng and IS-IS are both available
  • protocols
  • ripng
  • group local
  • export redist-direct
  • neighbor fe-0/1/0.0
  • policy-options
  • policy-statement redist-direct
  • from protocol direct
  • then accept

55
Juniper Configs
  • BGP
  • protocols
  • bgp
  • group Abilene-v6
  • type external
  • family inet6
  • unicast
  • export to-Abilene-v6
  • peer-as 11537
  • neighbor 20014685552006

56
Juniper Configs
  • BGP continued. . .
  • policy-options
  • policy-statement to-Abilene-v6
  • term accept-aggregate
  • from
  • route-filter 20014684ff/48
    exact
  • then accept
  • term reject
  • then reject

57
Cisco Show Commands
  • show bgp
  • show bgp summary
  • show ipv6 bgp neigh routes
  • show ipv6 bgp neigh advertised
  • show ipv6 route
  • show ipv6 interface
  • show ipv6 neighbors

58
Juniper Show Commands
  • show bgp summary
  • show route advert bgp
  • show route rece bgp
  • show route table inet6.0 (terse)
  • show interfaces
  • show ipv6 neighbors

59
Lab Basic IPv6 Functionality
60
Enable IPv6 functionality on each router using
addresses allocated by Internet2 or your lab
router's "upstream" IPv6 provider. Send and
receive BGP IPv6 routes.
  • Ensure your router interfaces are configured with
    IPv6 addresses
  • Ping a neighboring router using IPv6 ICMP.
  • Verify that you are sending IPv6 BGP routes to
    neighboring routers, where appropriate.
  • Verify you are receiving IPv6 BGP routes.
  • Verify connectivity around the workshop lab.
  • If your workshop lab is connected to the global
    IPv6 Internet, verify you can ping and traceroute
    to a host on the global IPv6 Internet.
  • Verify lab client computer (laptop) is receiving
    router advertisements.

61
Multihoming Issues
  • Many sites are multihomed in the current Internet
  • reliability
  • stability - which provider will stay in business?
  • competition
  • AUP - commodity vs. RE
  • But all IPv6 addresses are provider-assigned!

62
Multihoming
2001897/35
2001468/35
ISP1 (UUNET)
ISP2 (Abilene)
University of Smallville
20014681210/48
20018970456/48
63
Lab Multiple Address Configuration and
Multihoming
64
Configure router interfaces with alternate IPv6
addresses provided while retaining initial IPv6
address allocation. An additional link will be
added to the IPv6 workshop lab, making
multihoming possible from some routers. Using the
added multihomed link, configure the router to
support routing across either interface.
  • Verify that your router interfaces are configured
    with multiple IPv6 addresses.
  • Verify connectivity around the workshop lab with
    either router interface address.
  • Verify host computers connected off router
    interfaces are receiving router advertisements
    for all address blocks configured on local router
    interface.

65
Provider-Independent Addressing
66
PI Multihoming
  • One possible answer to the multihoming/multiple
    address problem is the use of addresses
    determined by geography.
  • Each site uses the location of its ISP demarc to
    determine its PI address space - put your GPS on
    top of your router.

67
PI Address Calculation
  • Lat/Lon each converted to a 22-bit binary number
  • 40.0433N 0001110001111001101010
  • 105.2781W 1011010100100010101101
  • Two values interleaved, latitude first
  • 0100 0111 1011 0001 0010 1110 1000 0110 1100 1101
    1001
  • 4 7 b 1 2 e 8 6 c d
    9
  • X47b12e86cd9/48
  • X because this scheme is not yet approved, but
    the expectation is that 1 will be used.

68
PI Address Calculation
  • Why interleave? So that as the prefix gets
    longer, the area included in the prefix gets
    smaller
  • bits degrees nominal square
    scope sites
  • -------------------------------------------------
    -------------------
  • 4 - 90.00000 10000 km
    octant
  • 8 - 22.50000 2500 km
    expanse
  • 12 - 5.625000 600 km
    zone
  • 16 - 1.406250 150 km
    region
  • 20 - 0.3515625 40 km
    metro 16777216
  • 24 - 0.087890625 10 km
    city 1048576
  • 28 - 0.02197265625 2.5 km
    locality 65536
  • 32 - 0.0054931640625 600 m
    neighborhood 4096
  • 36 - 0.001373291015625 150 m
    block 256
  • 40 - 0.00034332275390625 40 m lot
    16
  • 44 - 0.0000858306884765625 10 m
    site 1

69
PI Address Calculation
  • If all the ISPs in an area meet at a local
    exchange, they may be able to aggregate PI
    addresses to some degree.
  • But using PI will inevitably mean that more
    prefixes are carried in the default-free zone
    (DFZ) at the core of the Internet.

70
PI Multihoming
152886532800/39
ISP2 (WestCo)
ISP1 UUnet
IBM 15288653294C/48
SOX 1528865328FE/48
Ford 1528865329A6/48
GE 152886532905/48
71
PI Multihoming
  • Proposed format draft-hain-ipv6-pi-addr-use-02.tx
    t
  • Usage discussion draft-hain-ipv6-pi-addr-use-02.t
    xt
  • Abilene PIA background and calculator
    http//loadrunner.uits.iu.edu/neteng/ipv6/pi/pi.h
    tml
  • Remember, this is NOT a standard yet!

72
Lab Provider-Independent Addressing
73
Configure router interfaces with
provider-independent addresses, based on
geographic location of each router.
  • Verify connectivity to all provider-independent
    addresses configured in the router lab.
  • Verify host computers connected off router
    interfaces are receiving router advertisements
    for all address blocks configured on local router
    interface.

74
IPv6 Under the Hood
75
Changes from IPv4 to IPv6
  • Expanded addressing capabilities
  • Header format simplification
  • Improved support for extensions and options
  • Flow labelling capability
  • Authentication and privacy capabilities

76
IPv6 Header Format
77
IPv6 Header Fields
  • Defined in RFC 2460
  • Version (4 bits) 6. Enough said.
  • Traffic class (8 bits) DSCP?
  • Flow label (20 bits) Used in identifying
    flows
  • Payload length (16 bits) Length in octets of
    rest of packet
  • Next header (8 bits) Identifies type of header
    immediately following IPv6 header

78
IPv6 Header Fields
  • Hop limit (8 bits) Decremented by one each time
    packet is forwarded
  • Source address (128 bits) Originator of this
    packet
  • Destination address (128 bits) Intended
    recipient of packet

79
IPv6 Extension Headers
  • Hop-by-hop options
  • Routing
  • Fragment
  • Destination options
  • Authentication
  • Encapsulating security payload

80
ICMPv6
  • Defined in RFC 2463
  • Two types of messages defined
  • Error messages
  • Informational messages
  • Implemented as extension header (type 58)
  • Follows other extension headers

81
ICMPv6 Format
82
ICMPv6 Types
  • ICMPv6 error messages
  • Destination unreachable (1)
  • Packet too big (2)
  • Time exceeded (3)
  • Parameter problem (4)
  • ICMPv6 informational messages
  • Echo request (128)
  • Echo reply (129)

83
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery
  • Used by nodes on same link to
  • Discover each others presence
  • Determine each others link-layer addresses
  • Find routers
  • Maintain reachability information about paths to
    active neighbors
  • Defined in RFC 2461 (93 pages!)
  • Adds five ICMPv6 messages

84
Router Solicitation Message
  • Router Solicitation When an interface becomes
    enabled, hosts may send out Router Solicitations
    that request routers to generate Router
    Advertisements immediately rather than at their
    next scheduled time.
  • ICMPv6 type 133

85
Router Advertisement Message
  • Router Advertisement Routers advertise their
    presence together with various link and Internet
    parameters either periodically, or in response to
    a Router Solicitation message. Router
    Advertisements contain prefixes that are used for
    on-link determination and/or address
    configuration, a suggested hop limit value, etc.
  • ICMPv6 type 134

86
Neighbor Solicitation Message
  • Neighbor Solicitation Sent by a node to
    determine the link-layer address of a neighbor,
    or to verify that a neighbor is still reachable
    via a cached link-layer address. Neighbor
    Solicitations are also used for Duplicate Address
    Detection.
  • ICMPv6 type 135

87
Neighbor Advertisement Message
  • Neighbor Advertisement A response to a Neighbor
    Solicitation message. A node may also send
    unsolicited Neighbor Advertisements to announce a
    link-layer address change.
  • ICMPv6 type 136

88
Redirect Message
  • Redirect Used by routers to inform hosts of a
    better first hop for a destination.
  • ICMPv6 type 137

89
Building a dual stack host
  • Rangers.ipv6.unl.edu
  • Dale Finkelson

90
OS
  • I started by installing Freebsd 4.4.
  • Has the advantage of having the Kame stack
    compiled into the Kernel.
  • I choose to use two names for the machine.
  • One resolving to a v6 address
  • One resolving to a v4 host
  • In the rc.conf file I used the name
    rangers.unl.edu rather then the v6 name.
  • For some reason this worked better.
  • It messed up the window manager Gnome.
  • My guess is Gnome didnt know how to deal with a
    AAAA record
  • Not a big deal if you use another window manager.

91
Applications
  • Named
  • 4.4 came with 8.2.4
  • This supports AAAA
  • Configuration
  • DNS will be done in more detail at another time
    in the workshop.

92
Applications
  • Apache_1.3.20ipv6
  • This was trivial. All I had to do was do a make
    in the ports directory.
  • The config file is /usr/local/etc/apache/httpd.con
    f
  • Apart from some http configuration there was
    nothing v6 specific to do.

93
Applications
  • Mozilla-0.9.3.1ipv6
  • This took forever to install. The compilation is
    huge. It probably cannot be done in a half day of
    a workshop.
  • Unless your machine is faster.
  • It worked just fine. However you will have a hard
    time convincing yourself if www.kame.net is not
    available.
  • You need a v6 addressed server where you know you
    will use the v6 address.
  • It does not display the address of the machine it
    is going to.
  • I use different names for v4 and v6 on rangers.
    Thus by attaching to rangers.ipv6.unl.edu I
    convinced myself it works.

94
Applications
  • Sendmail
  • The sendmail in freebsd 4.4 is v6 capable. Its
    version 8.11.6.
  • There is however configuration you need to do.
  • In the M4 file, in my case this was
    /etc/mail/freebsd.mc, you need to add the
    following two lines.
  • DAEMON_OPTIONS(NameMTA-v4, Familyinet)
  • DAEMON_OPTIONS(NameMTA-v6, Familyinet6)

95
Sendmail Configuration
  • In my machine the file /etc/mail/freebsd.mc
    contained the lines.
  • I uncommented them.
  • I copied the file to /usr/share/sendmail/cf/cf.
  • Then /usr/share/sendmail/cf/m4/cf.m4 freebsd.mc
    freebsd.cf
  • Copied freebsd.cf to sendmail.cf and restarted
    the sendmail process.
  • It worked fine.
  • Test this by telneting to port 25 on the v6
    hostname

96
Sendmail
  • I could not make the m4 stuff work if I was in
    another directory then the one specified.
  • The README file says to do a ./Build in the
    directory, but I could not get that to work.

97
Applications
  • Cucipop-1.31
  • Pop3 server
  • There are several, I chose this one for no
    particular reason.
  • Compiled and installed with no problem.
  • Configuration
  • By default pop3 is probably turned off in
    inetd.conf.
  • Had to change the pop line in inetd.conf from tcp
    to tcp6 or create a new one so it would support
    both.
  • Restart inetd

98
Applications
  • Sylpheed.0.6
  • A v6 complient mail client.
  • Complied and installed just fine.
  • Configuration
  • I configured it to use rangers.ipv6.unl.edu as
    the sending and receiving host.
  • Set up a user
  • Testing
  • This will be hard to test as someone else with a
    v6 capable mailer needs to mail you a message.
  • In a workshop this could be done and mail could
    move back and forth there.

99
Applications
  • Those are the major ones that I know of that will
    provide the major services that at least I use
    most of the time.
  • I also installed some tools.

100
Tools
  • Ethereal 0.9.1
  • Easy to compile and install.
  • Will receive and decode v6 packets.
  • At least to the extent that you know how to use
    ethereal.
  • Good for exploring and verifying the packet flows
    for neighbor discovery or stateless autoconfig as
    well as verifying packets are using v6 addresses.

101
Tools
  • Netperf-2.1.3
  • Compiled and installed fine.
  • I have no clue if it works.

102
Tools
  • Pchar-1.4
  • This does the path charactistics.
  • Works with v6 addresses.

103
Failures
  • I had two packages that are claimed to work but
    that I could not make work.
  • Mtr 0.45
  • This is a ping/traceroute tool. It would not
    resolve a v6 hostname or work with a v6 address.
  • Ncftp 3.1.2
  • Same problem. It failed to resolve v6 hostnames
    or use v6 addresses.

104
Conclusion
  • Over about 3 days, I was able to build a dual
    stack workstation that can
  • Do DNS for ipv6.unl.edu
  • Send and receive mail
  • Host a web site
  • Use other v6 web sites
  • Do some network analysis and testing.
  • There are also of course the standard tools line
    ping6 and traceroute6 that are simply included in
    4.4.
  • This is Unix specific. I suspect that Linux with
    Usagi will have very similar results.

105
IPv6 and Microsoft Windows (as of April 14, 2002)
  • Bill Cerveny

106
Supported Platforms
  • Windows 2000 with Service Pack 1 installed
  • Must install IPv6 Technology Preview
  • Installing with Service Pack 2 see
    http//msdn.microsoft.com/Downloads/sdks/platform/
    tpipv6/faq.asp
  • Windows XP
  • Integral part of the operating system
  • Must be turned on

107
Turning on IPv6 support in Windows XP
  • C\Documents and Settings\Billipv6 install
  • Installing...
  • Succeeded.
  •  

108
Installation Verification via ipv6 if
  • C\Documents and Settings\Billipv6 if
  • Interface 5 Ethernet Local Area Connection 2
  • uses Neighbor Discovery
  • uses Router Discovery
  • link-layer address 00-50-04-f0-64-b2
  • preferred global 3ffe37001f05e0d847c169c
    aa0cab2, life 6d23h56m11s/23h
  • 53m49s (anonymous)
  • preferred global 3ffe37001f05e02504fffef
    064b2, life 29d23h58m54s/6d23
  • h58m54s (public)
  • preferred link-local fe802504fffef064b2,
    life infinite
  • multicast interface-local ff011, 1 refs,
    not reportable
  • multicast link-local ff021, 1 refs, not
    reportable
  • multicast link-local ff021fff064b2, 2
    refs, last reporter
  • multicast link-local ff021ffa0cab2, 1
    refs, last reporter

109
Installation Verification via ipv6 if (cont)
  • link MTU 1500 (true link MTU 1500)
  • current hop limit 64
  • reachable time 23000ms (base 30000ms)
  • retransmission interval 1000ms
  • DAD transmits 1
  • Interface 4 Ethernet Local Area Connection
  • cable unplugged
  • uses Neighbor Discovery
  • uses Router Discovery
  • link-layer address 00-60-08-d2-5c-1b
  • preferred link-local fe802608fffed25c1b,
    life infinite
  • multicast interface-local ff011, 1 refs,
    not reportable
  • multicast link-local ff021, 1 refs, not
    reportable
  • multicast link-local ff021ffd25c1b, 1
    refs, last reporter

110
Installation Verification via ipv6 if(cont)
  • link MTU 1500 (true link MTU 1500)
  • current hop limit 128
  • reachable time 25000ms (base 30000ms)
  • retransmission interval 1000ms
  • DAD transmits 1
  • Interface 3 6to4 Tunneling Pseudo-Interface
  • does not use Neighbor Discovery
  • does not use Router Discovery
  • preferred global 2002d1d3ed55d1d3ed55,
    life infinite
  • link MTU 1280 (true link MTU 65515)
  • current hop limit 128
  • reachable time 32000ms (base 30000ms)
  • retransmission interval 1000ms
  • DAD transmits 0

111
Installation Verification via ipv6 if(cont)
  • Interface 2 Automatic Tunneling Pseudo-Interface
  • does not use Neighbor Discovery
  • does not use Router Discovery
  • router link-layer address 0.0.0.0
  • EUI-64 embedded IPv4 address 0.0.0.0
  • preferred link-local fe805efe209.211.237.85
    , life infinite
  • preferred global 209.211.237.85, life
    infinite
  • link MTU 1280 (true link MTU 65515)
  • current hop limit 128
  • reachable time 43000ms (base 30000ms)
  • retransmission interval 1000ms
  • DAD transmits 0

112
Installation Verification via ipv6 if(cont)
  • Interface 1 Loopback Pseudo-Interface
  • does not use Neighbor Discovery
  • does not use Router Discovery
  • link-layer address
  • preferred link-local 1, life infinite
  • preferred link-local fe801, life infinite
  • link MTU 1500 (true link MTU 4294967295)
  • current hop limit 128
  • reachable time 21500ms (base 30000ms)
  • retransmission interval 1000ms
  • DAD transmits 0

113
Windows XP ping6
  • C\Documents and Settings\Billping6 www.kame.net
  •  
  • Pinging kame220.kame.net 3ffe50148192000280a
    dfffe7181fc
  • from 3ffe37001f05e0d847c169caa0cab2 with
    32 bytes of data
  •  
  • Reply from 3ffe50148192000280adfffe7181fc
    bytes32 time249ms
  • Reply from 3ffe50148192000280adfffe7181fc
    bytes32 time232ms
  • Reply from 3ffe50148192000280adfffe7181fc
    bytes32 time249ms
  • Reply from 3ffe50148192000280adfffe7181fc
    bytes32 time229ms
  •  
  • Ping statistics for 3ffe50148192000280adfffe
    7181fc
  • Packets Sent 4, Received 4, Lost 0 (0
    loss),
  • Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds
  • Minimum 229ms, Maximum 249ms, Average
    239ms

114
IPv6 tracert
  • C\Documents and Settings\Billtracert6
    www.kame.net
  •  
  • Tracing route to kame220.kame.net
    3ffe50148192000280adfffe7181fc
  • from 3ffe37001f05e0d847c169caa0cab2 over a
    maximum of 30 hops
  •  
  • 1 3ffe37001f05e04700
  • 2 19 ms 19 ms 19 ms
    3ffe3700ff24a1
  • 3 75 ms 95 ms 95 ms
    snva-ipls.ipv6.abilene.ucaid.edu 3ffe3700f
  • f5092
  • 4 76 ms 97 ms 76 ms
    cisco1.sanjose.wide.ad.jp 200120006c031
  • 5 250 ms 229 ms 231 ms
    cisco1.notemachi.wide.ad.jp 200120006c01
  • 29027fffe3ad8
  • 6 230 ms 232 ms 230 ms
    pc3.yagami.wide.ad.jp 200120001c041000
  • 2000
  • 7 251 ms 229 ms 250 ms
    gr2000.k2c.wide.ad.jp 2001200048192000
  • 1
  • 8 232 ms 251 ms 234 ms apple.kame.net
    3ffe50148192000280adfff
  • e7181fc

115
IPv6 configuration commands
  • ipv6 rc View the route cache
  • ipv6 nc View the neighbor cache
  • ipv6 if View interface information
  • ipv6 ifc Configure interface attributes
  • ipv6 rtu Add IPv6 route
  • ipv6 adu Configure IPv6 with manual addresses

116
ipv6 rc (route cache)
  • C\Documents and Settings\Billipv6 rc
  • 3ffe50148192000280adfffe7181fc via
    5/fe802602ffffea3c098
  • src 5/3ffe37001f05e0d847c169caa0cab2
  • PMTU 1500
  • 200120004819280adfffe7181fc via
    5/fe802602ffffea3c098
  • src 5/3ffe37001f05e0d847c169caa0cab2
  • PMTU 1500
  • 2002c0586301c0586301 via 3/2002c0586301c0
    586301 (stale)
  • src 3/2002d1d3ed55d1d3ed55
  • PMTU 1280
  • 2002836b213c836b213c via 3/2002836b213c83
    6b213c (stale)
  • src 3/2002d1d3ed55d1d3ed55
  • PMTU 1280

117
ipv6 nc (neighbor cache)
  • C\Documents and Settings\Billipv6 nc
  • 5 fe802602ffffea3c098 00-60-2f-a3-c0-98
    stale (router)
  • 5 fe802504fffef064b2 00-50-04-f0-64-b2
    permanent
  • 5 3ffe37001f05e02504fffef064b2
    00-50-04-f0-64-b2 permanent
  • 5 3ffe37001f05e0d847c169caa0cab2
    00-50-04-f0-64-b2 permanent
  • 4 fe802608fffed25c1b 00-60-08-d2-5c-1b
    permanent
  • 3 2002c0586301c0586301 192.88.99.1
    permanent
  • 3 2002836b213c836b213c 131.107.33.60
    permanent
  • 3 2002d1d3ed55d1d3ed55 127.0.0.1
    permanent
  • 3 2002836b213c1e08f08f0208 131.107.33.60
    permanent
  • 3 200170801624
    incomplete
  • 2 209.211.237.85 127.0.0.1 permanent
  • 2 fe805efe209.211.237.85 127.0.0.1
    permanent
  • 1 fe801 permanent
  • 1 1 permanent

118
Operating System Applications with IPv6
Functionality Included
  • Internet Explorer
  • telnet
  • ftp
  • ftpd
  • Microsoft Network Monitor

119
Coming Soon
  • .net Server, now in beta and to be released in
    2H2002
  • IPv6 compliant IIS
  • IPv6 compliant Micosoft Media Server
  • Anything that runs over MS RPC should just
    work.
  • Alledgedly every Microsoft application group is
    working on IPv6 compliance, but timetables are
    uncertain.

120
Open Software with IPv6 Support within Windows XP
  • NTemacs
  • Teraterm Pro with SSH
  • Cygwin with IPv6 extensions
  • Apache with IPv6 extensions for win32
  • NcFTP
  • Windump
  • Emacs

121
Open Source Porting Problems
  • Sylpheed supports IPv6 with FreeBSD and Linux,
    but doesnt appear to work with Windows XP
  • Mozilla supports IPv6 on FreeBSD and Linux, but
    not for Windows. This is apparently because
    Windows XP doesnt support IPv4-mapped IPv6
    addresses
  • Mozilla developer said there is some interest in
    making mozilla IPv6-capable on Windows XP
  • Look for a Windows single stack network
    architecture in 2003

122
Applications to be investigated
  • Wanderlust - Yet another message interface on
    Emacsen
  • http//www.gohome.org/wl/index-e.htmlIMAGES

123
Microsoft Bleeding Edge Statement
  • The IPv6 software supplied in this release
    contains prerelease code and is not intended for
    commercial use. This software is available for
    research, development and testing only and must
    never be used in a production environment.
    Microsoft is not responsible for your use of the
    code or for the results from your use of the
    code, and Microsoft does not provide any level of
    technical support for IPv6 in this release. Peer
    support is available from the microsoft.public.pla
    tformssdk.networking.ipv6 newsgroup found at
    msnews.microsoft.com

124
Firing Up DVTS over IPv6
  • Bill Cerveny

125
What is DVTS?
  • Digital Video over IP
  • Videoconferencing over IPv6 or IPv4 with
    preference for IPv6
  • A product of the Wide Project
  • http//www.sfc.wide.ad.jp/DVTS/

126
Operating Systems Supported
  • FreeBSD
  • NetBSD
  • Linux
  • Windows 2000 and Windows XP (IPv4 only as of Jan
    10, 2002)
  • MacOS X -- incomplete IPv4 seems to work IPv6
    stuff incomplete

127
Tested Operating System Environments
  • Linux
  • Must use specific Linux kernel and configuration
  • Used Debian Linux, but any Linux variant should
    be OK
  • Firewire configuration on desktop easy, but
    challenging on laptop PC
  • Once working, everything looked obvious
  • Gory details at end of presentation

128
Tested Operating System Environments
  • MacOS X
  • Wasnt able to build without significant
    modification port incomplete

129
Tested Configuration
This shows video/audio flow Going one direction
only. For Both directions, duplicate this Going
in opposite direction.
Firewire Link
15-30Mbps IPv6
Abilene
15-30Mbps IPv6
SVGA or Composite Video
Video Content
Firewire Link
130
Network Traffic Generated
  • By default, 32Mbps IPv6 or IPv4 traffic is
    generated in each direction (30 frames per
    second)
  • Can reduce frame rate to 15 frames per second to
    reduce bandwidth to about 16Mbps without
    noticable degradation in video performance

131
Bandwidth Stats from Test Between Chicago and
Armonk, NY
  • Abilene (mix of IPv4 and IPv6 traffic)

132
Bandwidth Stats from Test Between Chicago and
Armonk, NY
  • Armonk IPv6 Router Stats - FastEthernet Interface

Armonk, NY IPv6 Router Stats - Tunnel
133
Cost of DVTS -- Wide Estimate
134
DVTS Cost - My Experience
135
References
  • DVTS Main Page - http//www.sfc.wide.ad.jp/DVTS/
  • DVTS Presentation to Internet2 IPv6 Workshop in
    Los Angeles - http//www.toyabe.net/I2-presentatio
    n.ppt

136
Linux Configuration Notes
  • Configured on Debian Linux, 2.4.12 kernel.
  • Turned on IEEE1394 (and IPv6) support in Linux
    kernel
  • DVTS source code looks for IEEE1394 kernel source
    code at /usr/src/linux/drivers/ieee1394
  • Must install libraw1394 libraries

137
Kernel configuration - 1 of 3Turning on
Experimental Code
138
Kernel configuration 2 of 3Enabling IPv6
139
Kernel configuration 3 of 3IEEE1394 Options
140
Personal Linux/Hardware Compatibility Notes
  • What works
  • IBM Thinkpad T21 and 600E
  • Western Digital IEEE1394 Cardbus card
    (WDAD0003-RNW)
  • Sony DCR-PC9 Camcorder (also DCR-PC3 and DCR-PC7)
  • Sony A/D Converter
  • Dell 400Mhz GX1
  • Pinnacle PCI IEEE1394 card
  • Orange Micro IEEE1394/USB PCI card (USB not
    tested)
  • Siig PCI card
  • All Firewire devices listed above

141
Personal Hardware Compatibility Notes
  • Doesnt work
  • Siig 2-port Cardbus card (NN-PC2012)
  • Dazzle Hollywood A/D Bridge

142
Warnings
  • Dont try to use ohci1394 stuff in pcmcia-cs
    source code -- it doesnt work and developers
    dont intend to fix it (I wasted a lot of time
    troubleshooting it, before I gave up)
  • If you are using a Cardbus IEEE1394 card and
    Linux freezes, you must remark some ohci1394
    initialization code (this seems to be a laptop
    memory problem)

143
Final Note about DVTS (IMHO)
  • You have to get past source code and hardware
    configuration problems, but once you do this,
    DVTS seems easy and straightforward.

144
Campus/GigaPoP IPv6
  • Addressing, Software Versions, Topology Issues,
    DNS Support, Traffic

145
Campus Addressing
  • Most sites will receive /48 assignments
  • 16 bits left for subnetting - what to do with
    them?

EUI host address (64 bits)
Network address (48 bits)
16 bits
146
Campus Addressing
  • Sequentially, e.g.
  • 0000
  • 0001
  • FFFF
  • 16 bits 65535 subnets

147
Campus Addressing
  • Sequentially
  • Following existing IPv4
  • Subnets or combinations of nets subnets, or
    VLANs, etc., e.g.
  • 128.8.60.0/24 ?? 003c
  • 128.8.91.0/24 ?? 005b
  • 128.8.156.0/24 ?? 009c
  • 156.56.60.0/24 vs 129.79.60.0/24?
  • 013c or 383c or 9c3c vs 023c or 4f3c or 813c

148
Campus Addressing
  • Sequentially
  • Following existing IPv4
  • Topological/aggregating
  • reflecting wiring plants, supernets, large
    broadcast domains, etc.
  • Main library 0010/60
  • Floor in library 001a/64
  • Computing center 0020/55
  • Student servers 002c/64
  • Medical school 00c0/50
  • and so on. . .

149
New Things to Think About
  • You can use all 0s and all 1s! (0000, ffff)
  • Youre not limited to 254 hosts per subnet!
  • Switch-rich LANs allow for larger broadcast
    domains (with tiny collision domains), perhaps
    thousands of hosts/LAN
  • No secondary subnets (though 1
    address/interface)
  • No tiny subnets either (no /30, /31, /32)plan
    for what you need for backbone blocks, loopbacks,
    etc.

150
New Things to Think About
  • Every /64 subnet has far more than enough
    addresses to contain all of the computers on the
    planet, and with a /48 you have 65536 of those
    subnets - use this power wisely!
  • With so many subnets your IGP may end up carrying
    thousands of routes - consider internal topology
    and aggregation to avoid future problems.

151
New Things to Think About
  • Renumbering will likely be a fact of life.
    Although v6 does make it easier, it still isnt
    pretty. . .
  • Avoid using numeric addresses at all costs
  • Avoid hard-configured addresses on hosts except
    for servers
  • Anticipate that changing ISPs will mean
    renumbering

152
Router Software Versions
  • JUNOS 5.1 and up Line Rate v6 (just turn it on)
  • IOS 12.2T and up - for most ISP-type routers
  • IOS 12.0(19)ST and up - GSR only
  • IOS process-switches IPv6 traffic with the router
    CPU, so beware high traffic loads (though this is
    a good problem to have!)
  • No IPv6 support on 65xx/76xx or 73xx yet.

153
Topology Issues
  • V6 in a production network

154
Layer-2 Campus1 Switch
Bldg Switch
Big Core Switch
Bldg Switch
Bldg Switch
Big Core Router
155
Layer-2 Campus1 Switch
Bldg Switch
Big Core Switch
Bldg Switch
Bldg Switch
Big Core Router
Small v6 Router
156
Layer-2 Campus2 Core Switches
Bldg Switch
Bldg Switch
Bldg Switch
Big Core Switch
Big Core Switch
Big Core Router
Big Core Router
157
Layer-2 Campus2 Core Switches
Bldg Switch
Bldg Switch
Bldg Switch
Small v6 Router
Big Core Switch
Big Core Switch
Big Core Router
Big Core Router
158
Layer-3 Campus
Bldg Router
Big Core Router
Bldg Router
Bldg Router
Border Router
159
Edge Router Options
Host v4/v6
Bldg Switch
VLAN2
VLAN1
Switched Core
Bldg Switch
VLAN1
Host v4-only
VLAN1
VLAN1
VLAN2
Commodity Router v4-only
Internet2 Router v4 and v6
160
Routing Protocols
  • iBGP and IGP (RIPng/IS-IS)
  • IPv6 iBGP sessions in parallel with IPv4
  • Static Routing
  • all the obvious scaling problems, but works OK to
    get started, especially using a trunked v6 VLAN.
  • OSPFv3 is coming
  • It will run in a ships-in-the-night mode relative
    to OSPFv2 for IPV4 - neither will know about the
    other.

161
DNS Issues
  • BIND Versions
  • All modern versions of BIND support AAAA
  • BIND9 can use IPv6 transport for queries
  • IPv6 root servers
  • ip6.int vs. ip6.arpa - being fixed, we hope!

162
Equipment Needs
  • Tunnel Router (Cisco 2600) 2,000
  • A router with two Ethernet interfaces is best, to
    avoid one-armed routing.
  • Workstation Linux Box 1,000
  • For testing and demonstrations, any old cast-off
    Pentium will get you going. . .

163
Future Needs
  • Routers better v6 support, new features, speed
  • Servers Dual-Stack, Application support
  • Topology Border/Core Designs

164
Traffic
  • Not much - this graph is of IPv6 NNTP traffic
    between UO and NYSERNet on June 20, which at the
    time was the only non-routing-protocol v6 traffic
    over Abilene. There are a few other occasional
    tests, but WE NEED MORE TRAFFIC!

165
Traffic - the NNTP Experiment
  • Usenet makes an excellent IPv6 "foundation"
    application, and INN, the traditional open source
    news server supported by the ISC, has IPv6
    support in the INN -CURRENT development tree
    (ftp//ftp.isc.org/isc/inn/snapshots/) Tin
    supports v6 reading (http//www.tin.org)
  • Building INN is covered in detail in the INSTALL
    file included with the source including support
    for IPv6 is a simple matter of including the line
    --enable-ipv6 as part of the configure time
    options. See also doc/IPv6-info (included with
    the source).
  • IPv6 addresses show up explicitly in three
    configuration files
  • incoming.conf - who can transfer articles to you
  • innfeed.conf - where you are feeding articles
  • readers.conf - who can read/post from your server
  • All work the way you'd expect, and can accept
    either host names or IPv6 colon-formatted
    addresses (if you use colon-formatted raw
    addresses, enclose them in double quotes due to
    the use of colons as punctuation in the
    innfeed.conf file).
  • If folks need help finding an IPv6 Usenet peer,
    they should feel free to contact Joe St Sauver
    (joe_at_oregon.uoregon.edu). He will usually be
    willing to provide IPv6 Usenet peering, or play
    "matchmaker" to help people find other IPv6
    Usenet peers.

166
Contacts
  • Internet2 IPv6 Working Group
  • ipv6.internet2.edu
  • Grover Browning
  • gcbrowni_at_iu.edu
  • Abilene NOC
  • noc_at_abilene.iu.edu
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