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Chapter 2 Hardware Designed to Meet the Need

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Title: Chapter 2 Hardware Designed to Meet the Need


1
Chapter 2Hardware Designed to Meet the Need
  • The Digital Revolution
  • Integrated Circuits and Processing
  • Storage
  • Input, Output, and Expansion
  • Selecting and Purchasing a Computer

2
2.1 The Digital Revolution
  • What does it mean to be digital?

3
The Digital Revolution
DIGITAL RADIO
DIGITAL
Digital PCS Cell Phone
DIGITAL
DIGITAL TV
DIGITAL
DIGITAL
Digital Camera
DIGITAL
Whats all this fuss about digital?!
Digital Video (DVD)
DIGITAL THEATERS
DIGITAL
The Digital Divide
DIGITAL
Digital Convergence
4
The Digital Revolution
Whats all the fuss about digital?!
5
The Bit (binary digit)
Recall from chapter 1.
  • Bits are the 1s and 0s that allow us to
    represent, store, and manipulate data
  • They are the smallest unit of data in a digital
    electronics device

6
The Bit
  • Bits arent really 1s and 0s, they are devices
    that can be set to one of two states.
  • A bit can be a capacitor that is electronic
    charged or not charged.
  • A bit can be an area of metal particles on the
    surface of a disk that are either magnetically
    charged or not.
  • A bit can be a microscopic spot on a highly
    reflective disk surface that either has a pit
    burned into it or not.

7
The Bit
  • How can a bit (an on-off switch) represent useful
    data and information?
  • Information can be assigned to the two states of
    the bit
  • On
  • Off

1 and 0 are typically used to describe the state
of a bit, but you could use anything
black/white, true/false, male/female, etc.
8
The Bit
  • How many units of information could be
    represented with 2 bits?

00 01 10 11
9
The Bit
  • How many units of information could be stored
    using 3 bits?

000 001 010 011
100 101 110 111
10
The Bit
  • Increasing the amount bit allows us to digitally
    describe things in more detail.

11
The Bit
How many units of information can be represented
with 4 bits?
12
The Bit
General Rule 2bits units of info
13
Bit Bytes
  • Bytes can represent any collection of items using
    a look-up table approach
  • ASCII is used to represent characters

ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information
Interchange http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII
14
Retro Trends ASCII ART
  • Before graphical user interfaces were the norm, a
    subculture of Internet users invented ASCII art
    creating pictures from ASCII characters.
  • ASCII art ranges from simple to complex images.

15
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17
Bit Bytes
  • Bytes can also represent values using the
    binary number system.
  • The binary number system uses only two values, 0
    and 1, and is used by computers and digital
    devices to represent and process data.

18
Bit Bytes
2
1
4
8
16
32
64
128
2
1
4
64
128
8
16
32
Click to run Binary Counter position counter
here.
Binary is not only used for math but also to
digitize pictures, and music. In fact, most
things that we perceive with our senses can be
described and stored digitally as values (binary
numbers) and manipulated with numeric
calculations. More on this in chapter 6.
19
The Value of Going Digital
  • Anything that can be expressed through words,
    numbers, sounds, pictures, and even scents can be
    digitized.
  • Digital information is easy to manipulate.
  • Digital information is easy to copy and transfer.
  • Digital information is long lasting.
  • Digitization standardizes the format of all
    different types of data and information leading
    to

20
Digital Convergence
  • Digital convergence is the trend to merge
    multiple digital services into one device.

21
Why Study Computer Hardware Components?
  • Consider PC Choices

22
Lets go shopping!
  • CompUSA
  • Sony
  • Apple

In order to shop intelligently, you must
understand the basics about processors, storage,
input/output and peripherals.
23
Key Components
Processor
Memory
RemovableStorageCD-R/DVD
Storage
Networking
Battery Life
OS
Display
24
2.2 Integrated Circuits and Processing
25
Transistor
  • A transistor is an electronics component,
    composed typically of silicon, that opens or
    closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity
    to store and manipulate bits.

26
Integrated Circuit
  • An Integrated Circuit (chip) combines transistors
    and capacitors in a tiny module to store and
    process bits and bytes in todays digital
    electronic devices.

http//www.intel.com/technology/silicon/index.htm
27
The Central Processing Unit
Intels Core Duo Processors use 65 nm technology
to cram hundreds of millions of transistors on a
chip the size of you thumb nail.
  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is an
    integrated circuit (or microprocessor) that
    performs the processing in todays personal
    computers and other digital devices.

28
Pentium 4
Die photo of the Intel Pentium 4 Processor
built on 90nm technology
29
Chicago, IL
Satellite image of ChicagoWhich is more complex?
30
CPU Components
  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) contains the
    circuitry to carry out the instructions in the
    processors instruction set.
  • Control Unit sequentially accesses program
    instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the
    flow of data throughout the system.
  • Registers hold the data and instructions
    currently being processed (300 bytes).
  • System Clock provides a steady clock signal used
    to synchronize activities within the processor.
    Measured in GHz (billions of cycles per second)
  • Cache Memory Fast access memory for instructions
    and data soon to be needed (1-2MB).

31
The Motherboard
  • The motherboard is the primary circuit boards of
    a computing device that houses the digital
    devices circuitry including the microprocessor
    and memory.

32
Processing
  • The microprocessor accesses instructions stored
    in memory over the system bus.

Random Access Memory (RAM) is temporary, or
volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and
program instructions for the processor to access.
33
Processing The Machine Cycle
Central Processing Unit
Control Unit
ALU
2.Decode
3.Execute
The Machine Cycle The four stages of the machine
cycle are (1) fetch the instruction from memory,
(2) decode and (3) execute the instruction, then
(4) store the results.
Registers
1.Fetch
4.Store
Memory
34
Contributors to CPU Speed
  • www.intel.com/products/processor_number/chart
    click View the Demo
  • Clock Speed measured in Megahertz (MHz) and
    Gigahertz (GHz), millions and billions of cycles
    per second
  • Wordlength how many bits can be processed at a
    time (32 or 64)
  • Cache size 512 KB 2 MB
  • Front Side Bus Speed (FSB) 345-840 MHz
  • Architecture
  • See next slide

35
Multi-core processors
  • A multi-core microprocessor is one which combines
    two or more independent processors into a single
    package, often a single integrated circuit.
  • Dual core
  • Soon to come - Quad core

36
Which processor is best?
  • Truest Measures of Performance
  • MIPS millions of instructions per second
  • Gigaflops billions of floating point operations
    per second.
  • Note that different instructions take differing
    amounts of clock cycles.

37
Multiple processors
  • Multiprocessing is processing that occurs using
    more than one processing unit.
  • Parallel processing speeds processing by linking
    several CPUs to operate at the same time, in
    parallel.

38
PC Processor Options
  • www.intel.com
  • AMD, an alternative to Intel http//www.amd.com/us
    -en/

39
Moores Law
  • the number of transistors per square inch on
    integrated circuits will double every 18 months
    2 years.

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore27s_Law_note-I
ntelInterview
40
Review Questions
41
2.3 Storage
From CH1 Storage is the ability to maintain data
within the system temporarily or permanently
42
System Storage
  • Random Access Memory, RAM, or primary storage
  • Volatile memory that stores currently running
    software OS and apps, and data in addressed
    cells.
  • 512 MB Standard, 1 GB recommended
  • RAM SIMM Single In-line Memory Module is
    inserted in slots in the Motherboard

43
Other Types of Memory
  • Cache Memory is fast access storage on the
    processor
  • Video RAM is included on video card for faster
    video display
  • ROM stores the boot process instruction that
    start the computer and load the OS from hard
    drive into RAM
  • CMOS memory provides semipermenant storage for
    system configuration information that may change.

44
Secondary Storage
  • Storage Methods
  • Sequential Access (tape)
  • Direct Access (disk or solid state)
  • Storage Media Type
  • Magnetic storage devices use the magnetic
    properties of iron oxide particles to store bits
    and bytes more permanently than RAM.
  • Optical storage media, such as CDs and DVDs store
    bits using an optical laser to burn pits into the
    surface of a highly reflective disk surface.
  • Solid State storage devices use flash memory to
    store bits.

Tape Drive
23
45
Secondary Storage
  • Secondary storage is used to store data more
    permanently without the need for electricity.

Tape Drive
23
46
Magnetic Media
  • Hard Disk Drives
  • Magnetic Tape
  • High-capacity Disks (Zip, etc)
  • Floppy Disks (outdated)
  • Microdrives

47
Optical Media
  • CD, DVD, Blu-laser Disk (BD)

48
Solid State
  • A flash memory card is a chip that, unlike RAM,
    is nonvolatile and keeps its memory without the
    need for electricity.
  • USB Flash Drives use flash memory to provide high
    capacity storage through the USB port.

Universal Serial Bus or USB is a standard that
allows a wide variety of devices to connect to a
computer through a common port.
49
Internet Storage
  • Users are increasingly storing data on Web
    servers, rather than on PCs through services
    provided by companies like Yahoo, MSN, Google and
    others.
  • Google offers Web-based Email, Calendar, Photo,
    Spreadsheet, and Word Processing services that
    provide the software and substantial online
    storage for free.

50
Storage Criteria
  • Choose storage media by the
  • Cost per MB
  • Capacity
  • Portability
  • Durability
  • Security
  • Accessibility
  • as associated with the requirements of the data
    and usage

51
network
Storage Review
52
Review Questions
53
2.4 Input, Output, and Expansion
54
I/O Concepts
  • An input device assists in capturing and entering
    raw data into the computer system.
  • An output device allows you to observe the
    results of computer processing with one or more
    of your senses.

55
I/O Concepts
  • Speed and Functionality
  • Human vs. Machine Readable Data
  • Source Data Automation

56
Input Devices
  • Keyboard, Mouse, Trackball
  • Touch screen, stylus, kiosks
  • Microphone, speech recognition
  • Gamepad, other game-centered devices
  • Digital cameras
  • Scanning devices

http//www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/tabletpc/defaul
t.mspx
57
Output Devices
Display resolution is a measure, in width by
height, of the number of pixels on the screen.
  • Displays
  • Liquid crystal display (LCD) or Flat panel
    display is a thin flat display that uses liquid
    crystals between two pieces of glass to display
    text and images.
  • Printers and Plotters
  • Sound Systems
  • Special purpose I/O

58
http//www.universaldisplay.com/foled.htm
IBMs Flexible Display (in development)
59
http//www.hhi.fraunhofer.de/english/im/products/f
ree2c/
The Free2C 3D Kiosk
60
New forms of I/O. Microsofts surface computing
project use combinations of sensors, cameras and
projectors to turn various surfaces, such as
kitchen tables, desks, counters, or walls into
computing interfaces.
http//seattlepi.nwsource.com/photos/photo.asp?Pho
toID61073
61
Review Questions
62
2.5 Selecting and Purchasing a Computer
63
Strategies for Computer Shopping
  • Choose type notebook, desktop, tablet, handheld
  • Choose platform
  • Windows/Mac/Linux
  • Palm/WindowsMobile
  • Choose Manufacturer
  • Choose Model
  • Select Add-ons
  • The all-important Warranty

64
Helpful Links for Computer Shopping
  • Research
  • www.zdnet.com
  • www.cnet.com
  • www.macworld.com
  • Computer Retailers
  • www.cdw.com
  • www.compusa.com
  • Direct from Manufacturer
  • www.apple.com
  • www.dell.com
  • www.sony.com
  • www.hp.com
  • www.gateway.com
  • www.toshiba.com

65
Chapter 2 Questions?
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