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Scientifically Based Math Interventions

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Title: Scientifically Based Math Interventions


1
Welcome
2
Scientifically Based Math Interventions June 16,
2009 Alabama SPDG Ms. Abbie Felder,
Director Curtis Gage, Education
Specialist Alabama Department of Education
3
Georgia SPDG Dr. Julia Causey, Director Georgia
Department of Education Dr. Paul Riccomini
National Dropout Prevention Center for Students
with Disabilities Clemson University
4
Drs. Judy and Howard Schrag
Third Party Evaluators Alabama
and Georgia
5
Our Agenda
6
  • What does the research say?
  • Overview - Alabama SBR Math Interventions
  • Evaluation of Alabama SBR Math Interventions
  • Overview Georgia SBR Math Interventions
  • Evaluation of Georgia SBR Math Interventions
  • Summary
  • Open Discussion

7
Ok - Let's begin
8
Lets examine the evidence
SBR Math Interventions
9
Foundations for SuccessNational Mathematics
Advisory Panel
  • Final Report, March 2008

10
Presidential Executive OrderApril 2006
  • The Panel will advise the President and the
    Secretary of Education on the best use of
    scientifically based research to advance the
    teaching and learning of mathematics, with a
    specific focus on preparation for and success in
    algebra.

10
11
Basis of the Panels work
  • Review of 16,000 research studies and related
    documents.
  • Public testimony gathered from 110 individuals.
  • Review of written commentary from 160
    organizations and individuals
  • 12 public meetings held around the country
  • Analysis of survey results from 743 Algebra I
    teachers

11
12
Two Major Themes
  • First Things First
  • - Positive results can be achieved in a
    reasonable time at accessible cost by addressing
    clearly important things now.
  • - A consistent, wise, community-wide effort
    will be required.

Learning as We Go Along - In some areas,
adequate research does not exist. - The
community will learn more later on the
basis of carefully evaluated practice and
research. - We should follow a disciplined model
of continuous improvement.
12
13
Curricular Content
  • Streamline the Mathematics Curriculum in Grades
    PreK-8
  • Follow a Coherent Progression, with Emphasis on
    Mastery of Key Topics
  • Focus on the Critical Foundations for Algebra
  • - Proficiency with Whole Numbers
  • - Proficiency with Fractions
  • Particular Aspects of Geometry and Measurement
  • Avoid Any Approach that Continually Revisits
    Topics without Closure

13
14
Curricular Content
  • An Authentic Algebra Course
  • All school districts
  • Should ensure that all prepared students have
    access to an authentic algebra course, and
  • Should prepare more students than at present to
    enroll in such a course by Grade 8.

14
15
Curricular Content
  • What Mathematics Do Teachers Need to Know?
  • For early childhood teachers
  • Topics on whole numbers, fractions, and the
    appropriate geometry and measurement topics in
    the Critical Foundations of Algebra
  • For elementary teachers
  • All topics in the Critical Foundations of Algebra
    and those topics typically covered in an
    introductory Algebra course
  • For middle school teachers
  • - The Critical Foundations of Algebra
  • - All of the Major Topics of School Algebra

15
16
Learning Processes
  • Scientific Knowledge on Learning and Cognition
    Needs to be Applied to the Classroom to Improve
    Student Achievement
  • Most children develop considerable knowledge of
    mathematics before they begin kindergarten.
  • Children from families with low incomes, low
    levels of parental education, and single parents
    often have less mathematical knowledge when they
    begin school than do children from more
    advantaged backgrounds. This tends to hinder
    their learning for years to come.
  • There are promising interventions to improve the
    mathematical knowledge of these young children
    before they enter kindergarten.

16
17
Learning Processes
  • To prepare students for Algebra, the curriculum
    must simultaneously develop conceptual
    understanding, computational fluency, factual
    knowledge and problem solving skills.
  • Limitations in the ability to keep many things in
    mind (working-memory) can hinder mathematics
    performance.
  • Practice can offset this through automatic
    recall, which results in less information to keep
    in mind and frees attention for new aspects of
    material at hand.
  • Learning is most effective when practice is
    combined with instruction on related concepts.
  • Conceptual understanding promotes transfer of
    learning to new problems and better long-term
    retention.

17
18
Learning Processes
  • Childrens goals and beliefs about learning are
    related to their mathematics performance.
  • Childrens beliefs about the relative importance
    of effort and ability can be changed.
  • Experiential studies have demonstrated that
    changing childrens beliefs from a focus on
    ability to a focus on effort increases their
    engagement in mathematics learning, which in turn
    improves mathematics outcomes.

18
19
Instructional Practices
Instructional practice should be informed by high
quality research, when available, and by the best
professional judgment and experience of
accomplished classroom teachers.
  • All-encompassing recommendations that instruction
    should be student-centered or teacher-directed
    are not supported by research.

19
20
Instructional Practices
  • Research on students who are low achievers, have
    difficulties in mathematics, or have learning
    disabilities related to mathematics tells us that
    the effective practice includes
  • Explicit methods of instruction available on a
    regular basis
  • Clear problem solving models
  • Carefully orchestrated examples/ sequences of
    examples.
  • Concrete objects to understand abstract
    representations and notation.
  • Participatory thinking aloud by students and
    teachers.

20
21
For More Information
  • Please visit us online at
  • http//www.ed.gov/MathPanel

21
22
Mathematical Proficiency Defined
  • National Research Council (2002) defines
    proficiency as
  • Understanding mathematics
  • Computing Fluently
  • Applying concepts to solve problems
  • Reasoning logically
  • Engaging and communicating with mathematics

23
  • Grous and Ceulla (2000) reported the following
    can increase student learning and have a positive
    effect on student achievement
  • Increasing the extent of the students
    opportunity to learn (OTL) mathematics content.
  • Focusing instruction on the meaningful
    development of important mathematical ideas.
  • Providing learning opportunities for both
    concepts and skills by solving problems.   
  • Giving students both an opportunity to discover
    and invent new knowledge and an opportunity to
    practice what they have learned.
  • Incorporating intuitive solution methods,
    especially when combined with opportunities for
    student interaction and discussion.

24
  • Using small groups of students to work on
    activities, problems, and assignments (e.g.,
    small groups, Davidson, 1985 cooperative
    learning, Slavin, 1990 peer assisted learning
    and tutoring, Baker, et al., 2002).
  • Whole-class discussion following individual and
    group work.
  • Teaching math with a focus on number sense that
    encourages students to become problem solvers in
    a wide variety of situations and to view math as
    important for thinking.
  • Use of concrete materials on a long-term basis
    to increase achievement and improve attitudes
    toward math.

25
Let's turn to Alabama and Georgia
26
Alabama SBR Math SPDG-Supported Activities
27
GOAL 1 Through the implementation of SBR
instructional strategies within the framework,
there will be a 20 percent reduction in the
achievement gap between students with and without
disabilities in the area of math and age
appropriate progress in pre-literacy/reading and
math.
28
Alabama State Department
  • MATH INITIATIVE
  • 2008-2009

29
Overview
  • 12 school districts participated in 2007-2008.
    An additional 4 school districts participated in
    2008-2009 (16 total).
  • 31 schools participated in 2007-08, and 42
    schools participated in 2008-2009including 11
    new schools.
  • 170 teachers participated in 2007-08, and 281
    participated during 2008-2009including 68 new
    teachers.
  • Over 7700 students were entered into VPORT,
    with 4,659 students having two data points in at
    least one Vmath assessment so far in the
    2008-2009 school year.
  • Of those with two data points, 838 were
    indicated as special education students.

30
  • Voyager Expanded Learning Math Intervention
    Program
  • A targeted, systematic program that provided
    students more opportunity and support to learn
    mathematics.
  • Vmath is informed by Curriculum-Based
    Measurement and provides daily, direct,
    systematic instruction in essential skills needed
    to reduce achievement gaps and accelerate
    struggling math students to reach and maintain
    grade-level performance.
  • V-math is designed to complement all major math
    programs by providing an additional 30-40 minutes
    of daily, targeted concept, skill, and
    problem-solving development.

31
  • Each level of Vmath contains 10 individual
    modules covering the basic strands of elementary
    mathematics.
  • The content of these modules is aligned with
    grade-level expectations for the NCTM Content
    Standards.

32
  • 5 Keys to Successful VMath Implementation
  • Amount of Instruction
  • 5 days per week 40 minutes per day
  • One lesson per day (some lessons will be l l/2 to
    2 days, if time is less than 40 minutes or
    students need extra time).
  • Start within 4 weeks of school start data.
  • Use of Assessments
  • Initial Assessment prior to instruction at the
    beginning of the year
  • Computational Fluency Benchmark Assessments 3
    times per year.
  • Computational Fluency Progress Monitoring
    Assessments mid-module.

33
  • Pre-Tests and Post Tests Beginning and end of
    each module.
  • Final Assessment after instruction at the end
    of the year.
  • Quality of Instruction
  • 3 hours of initial training on using scripted
    dialogue to scaffold instruction implementing
    small-group instruction, administering
    assessments, using VmathLive, and using VPORT.
  • Principal/Coach reviews teacher instruction,
    teacher completes self-analysis.

34
  • Differentiation
  • Small group instruction
  • Use Initial Assessments and PRE-Tests to
    identify strengths and weaknesses in math
    content.
  • Differentiate instruction using VmathLive.
  • Classroom Management
  • Small group area identified Vmath scheduled.
  • Overhead projector Smartboard or teacher
    computer with projector available to teach
    lessons.
  • Web-accessible computers for VmathLive
    designated.

35
  • Evaluation of VMath
  • I. Process Evaluation
  • 1. Classroom visitations to gather on-going
    implementation data during Year 2 of the SPDG.
  • 88 of the Classrooms implemented VMath 5 days
    a week (12 - Not Available)
  • Number of minutes per day of VMath 30
    minutes 59 37.5 4 45 minutes 18 less
    than 45 minutes 8 (11 - Not Available)
  • Group size 1-6 65 7-12 14 13 7
    (Not Available 13)
  • Delivery Approach 55 - In-class 21 -
    Pull-Out Specialist pull/push 13 (11 - Not
    Available).

36
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Initial Assessment prior to instruction at the
    beginning of the year
  • Computational Fluency Benchmark Assessments 3
    times per year.
  • Computational Fluency Progress Monitoring
    Assessments mid-module.
  • Pre-Tests and Post Tests Beginning and end of
    each module.
  • Final Assessment after instruction at the end
    of the year.

37
II. Outcome Evaluation Student Math Achievement
Scores on State Testing Statewide Longitudinal
Assessment of Participating Students with
Disabilities
38
Third Grade Computational Fluency
  • On average, Third Grade students increased their
    Computational Fluency scores from 18.9 to 51.7.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency decreased from 92 to
    44.

39
Third Grade Modules
40
Third Grade Computational FluencySpecial
Education Students
  • On average, Third Grade students increased their
    Computational Fluency scores from 15.7 to 37.7.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency decreased from 96 to
    72.

41
Third Grade ModulesSpecial Education Students
42
Fourth Grade Computational Fluency
  • On average, Fourth Grade students increased
    their Computational Fluency scores from 37.5 to
    56.4.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency decreased from 35 to
    19.

43
Fourth Grade Modules
44
Fourth Grade Computational FluencySpecial
Education Students
  • On average, Fourth Grade students increased
    their Computational Fluency scores from 25.6 to
    40.2.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency decreased from 62 to
    51.

45
Fourth Grade ModulesSpecial Education Students
46
Fifth Grade Computational Fluency
  • On average, Fifth Grade students have increased
    their Computational Fluency scores from 31.9 to
    37.9.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency increased from 3 to 6.

47
Fifth Grade Modules
48
Fifth Grade Computational FluencySpecial
Education Students
  • On average, Fifth Grade students increased their
    Computational Fluency scores from 29.5 to 35.6.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency increased from 5 to 12.

49
Fifth Grade ModulesSpecial Education Students
50
Sixth Grade Computational Fluency
  • On average, Sixth Grade students increased their
    Computational Fluency scores from 41.5 to 51.5.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency decreased from 23 to
    16.

51
Sixth Grade Modules
52
Sixth Grade Computational FluencySpecial
Education Students
  • On average, Sixth Grade students increased their
    Computational Fluency scores from 39.2 to 42.6.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency increased from 31 to
    34.

53
Sixth Grade ModulesSpecial Education Students
54
Seventh Grade Computational Fluency
  • On average, Seventh Grade students increased
    their Computational Fluency scores from 33.3 to
    47.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency decreased from 65 to
    47.

55
Seventh Grade Modules
56
Seventh Grade Computational FluencySpecial
Education Students
  • On average, Seventh Grade students increased
    their Computational Fluency scores from 34.1 to
    46.8.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency decreased from 57 to
    48.

57
Seventh Grade ModulesSpecial Education Students
58
Eighth Grade Computational Fluency
  • On average, Eighth Grade students increased
    their Computational Fluency scores from 28.8 to
    35.4.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency decreased from 11 to 7.

59
Eighth Grade Modules
60
Eighth Grade Computational FluencySpecial
Education Students
  • On average, Eighth Grade students increased
    their Computational Fluency scores from 28.8 to
    35.4.
  • The percent of students needing intensive focus
    on computational fluency decreased from 20 to
    14.

61
Eighth Grade ModulesSpecial Education Students
62
Transitional Math Four school improvement
schools were selected during Year 2 for
implementation of Transitional Math One
high school in Butler County - Greenville
One high school in Elmore County - Stanhope
Two high schools in Montgomery County Jefferson
Davis and Robert E. Lee The four
participating schools received eight days of
technical assistance a month from two consultants
from SOPRIS West.
63
  • Transitional Mathematics is designed to help
    students understand operations on whole numbers
    conceptually and addresses the needs of
    struggling students who have scored at or below
    the 40th percentile on national math tests.
  • Transitional Mathematics is based on three broad
    design principals
  • Ensuring that students have relevant background
    knowledge.
  • Using a balanced approach in computational
    practice.
  • Addressing the need for careful time management.

64
  • I. Process Evaluation
  • The Transitional Math program uses curriculum
    based student progress monitoring, which services
    as a fidelity tool. In August 2009, the
    TransMath Online Assessment System will be
    launched as
  • Individualized student placement based on
    students mastery of foundational math skills.
  • Ongoing assessment to inform instruction and
    measure student progress

65
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66
Jefferson Davis High School Comparison Comparison
(Dec/May)
67
Greenville High School Comparison Comparison
(Dec/May)
68
Robert E. Lee High School Comparison Comparison
(Dec/May)
69
II. Outcome Evaluation Student Math Achievement
Scores on State Testing Statewide Longitudinal
Assessment of Participating Students
70
Lessons Learned/Next Steps
  • The value of teacher coaching/support to ensure
    fidelity of instruction and data gathering.
  • The importance of providing data driven
    instruction based on individual student needs.

71
Georgia SBI Math SPDG-Supported Activities
72
Math in Georgia
  • SPDG Context
  • Georgia Performance Standards rollout
  • Dropout Prevention/Graduation Project

73
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74
Georgia Performance Standards Math
  • Georgia Performance Standards
  • Integrated math curriculum algebra, geometry,
    statistics
  • Aligns with recommendations from the National
    Math Panel
  • New Math Standards
  • Phase-in statewide 2005-2011
  • Grade 6 in 2005 --K-2 and 7
    in 2006
  • Grades 3-5 and 8 in 2007 --Grade 9 began last
    year
  • Full implementation 2011
  • Intensive statewide training for all math
    teachers
  • standards-based math instruction
  • Implementation of the Student Achievement Pyramid
    of Interventions (RTI)

75
Georgia SPDG Goals
  • Improve reading and math achievement
  • Increase the number of students with disabilities
    who graduate with a general education diploma
  • Decrease the number of students with disabilities
    ho dropout
  • Improve Postsecondary outcomes
  • Increase recruitment of fully certified special
    education teachers
  • Increase parent support of pre-literacy, math,
    and social skills development for young children
    with disabilities
  • Embed parent engagement within each goal

76
Georgias SPDG
  • Focus is dropout prevention and increasing the
    graduation rate for students with disabilities
  • Partnering with the National Dropout Prevention
    Center for Students with Disabilities
  • Year 1 Data Analysis and Individualized Plans
  • Year 2 Training and Implementation

77
Georgia SPDG
  • Cohort 1 (2007-2009)
  • 34 schools (15 HS, 18 MS)
  • High School with one or two feeder middle schools
  • Geographically distributed throughout the state
  • Content
  • Research-based dropout prevention strategies
  • Partnership with the National Dropout Prevention
    Center for Students with Disabilities

78
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79
Project Strands
79
80
Project Strands
80
81
Collaboration Coaches Duties
Attend to Essential Implementation Tasks
81
82
Essential Tasks to Facilitate In-school
Implementation
  • Identify team members for the school
  • Participate in overview training
  • Participate in data training
  • Collect and analyze data

83
Essential Tasks to Facilitate In-school
Implementation
  • Examine causes and prioritize needs based on
    school and system data
  • Participate in overview of effective practices
    that increase student engagement and school
    completion
  • Select intervention framework that best matches
    prioritized need
  • Develop a reasonable action plan

84
Essential Tasks to Facilitate In-school
Implementation
  • Provide training for appropriate school staff on
    the selected intervention
  • Develop a timetable for coaching and feedback to
    ensure fidelity of implementation
  • Establish checkpoints to evaluate implementation
    of intervention
  • Communicate results of implementation

85
Schools Implementing SRB Math
  • Improving math achievement priority 10 schools
  • Lewis Frazier Middle School
  • Midway Middle School
  • Henry High School
  • Henry Middle School
  • Rutland Middle School
  • Coffee High School
  • Coffee Middle School
  • Cook Middle School
  • Manchester Middle School

86
Cohort 1 Baseline Data
  • Georgia High School Graduation Test
  • Percent Passing Math
  • 5-20 6 High Schools
  • 25-40 5 High Schools
  • gt 40 2 High Schools
  • Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test
  • Percent Passing Math
  • lt 20 1 Middle School
  • 25-40 10 Middle Schools
  • gt 40 7 Middle Schools

87
Expanding the Training
  • Ten targeted schools math teachers and
    collaboration coaches trained
  • Demand spread beyond SPDG schools
  • Expanded training beyond SPDG schools
  • Open to any school stateside
  • Trained several hundred math teachers on
    strategies for teaching students struggling in
    math
  • Follow-up webinars for interested participants
  • 2010-2011 school year Follow-training will be
    offered to participants from last school year

88
Components of Effective Mathematics Programs
Mathematics Curriculum Interventions
Assessment Data-Based Decisions
100 Math Proficiency
Teacher Content Instructional Knowledge
89
Teachers and Teacher Education
  • Mathematically Knowledgeable Classroom Teachers
    Have a Central Role in Mathematics Education.
  • Evidence shows that a substantial part of the
    variability in student achievement gains is due
    to the teacher.
  • Less clear from the evidence is exactly what it
    is about particular teacherswhat they know and
    do that makes them more effective.
  • National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008)

89
90
Basis for Math Instruction
  • Engaged Time
  • Student Success Rate
  • Content Coverage Opportunity to Learn
  • Grouping for Instruction
  • Scaffolded Instruction
  • Addressing Forms of Knowledge
  • Activating Organizing Knowledge
  • Teaching Strategically
  • Making Instruction Explicit
  • Making Connections

91
Specific Instructional Strategies
  • Space learning over time
  • Interleave worked example solutions and
    problem-solving exercises
  • Connect and integrate abstract and concrete
    representations of concepts
  • Use quizzes to re-expose students to information

IES Practice Guide (2007). Organizing
Instructional and Study to Improve Student
Learning
92
Specific Areas Targeted
  • Computational Fluency
  • Conceptual Development
  • Basic Fact Automaticity
  • Problem Solving Application
  • Essential Vocabulary
  • Student Success

93
Instructional Practices
  • Research on students who are low achievers, have
    difficulties in mathematics, or have learning
    disabilities related to mathematics tells us that
    the effective practice includes
  • Explicit methods of instruction available on a
    regular basis
  • Clear problem solving models
  • Carefully orchestrated examples/ sequences of
    examples.
  • Concrete objects to understand abstract
    representations and notation.
  • Participatory thinking aloud by students and
    teachers.

National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008)
93
94
Evaluation of SBR Initiatives
95
Formative Data
  • Formative Data
  • Individualized based on each schools focus
    priority
  • Used to guide implementation of the action plan
  • Collected for targeted at-risk student group
  • Discipline Referrals
  • Reading Achievement
  • Math Achievement
  • Social Studies Achievement
  • Science Achievement
  • Attendance
  • English/Language Arts
  • Discipline Referrals

96
Summative Data
  • All Cohort 1 Schools
  • Graduation Rate for Students with Disabilities
    and All Students (Collected Oct. 09)
  • Dropout Rates for Students with Disabilities and
    All Students (Collected Oct. 09)

97
Summative Math Data
  • For the 10 project schools with a math focus
  • CRCT Math Scores for Middle Schools
  • GHSGT Math Scores for High Schools
  • Scores will be available late summer

98
Formative Data
  • Specific to each schools plan and interventions
  • Examples
  • Lewis Frazier Middle School Transmath
  • 18 of targeted students passed CRCT Math 2008
  • 44 of the same targeted students passed CRCT
    Math 2009
  • Liberty County High School Transmath
  • All targeted students with pre/post test data
    improved

99
Formative Data Examples
  • Midway Middle School
  • 59 of students with both pre/post test scores
    improved.
  • Rutland Middle School SuccessMaker Math Labs
  • 59 of targeted students improved math grade
    level scores, ranging from .54 to 3.07

100
Formative Results Examples
  • Cook County Middle School ASCEND Math Lab
  • COMPUTATION
  • Of the targeted group of students
  • 57 were SWD
  • 71 of all students progressed from the
    Frustration to Instructional or Mastery Level
  • 66 of SWD progressed from the Frustration to
    Instructional or Mastery Level
  • CONCEPTS/ESTIMATION
  • Of the targeted group of students
  • 28 were SWD
  • 56 of all students progressed from the
    Frustration to Instructional or Mastery Level
  • 45 of SWD progressed from the Frustration to
    Instructional or Mastery Level

101
Formative Data Examples
  • Coffee County Middle School
  • Saturday school with math focus
  • Math vocabulary and fluency
  • AIMSWeb for progress monitoring 6th and 8th gr.
  • Numeracy coaches
  • Strategies from SPDG training
  • Results for 24 sections of 6th grade math
  • 79 of the sections had gt50 of students with
    matched scores from January to March improved

102
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103
Coffee County Examining Teacher Practices
  • Pilot Survey of 6th Grade Teachers
  • Use of 12 targeted strategies from Riccominis
    training on differentiating in math
  • Six teachers participated in the survey
  • Twelve strategies/methods from the training were
    identified on the survey

104
Instruction Methods/Strategies on Survey
  • Grouping
  • Scaffolded Instruction
  • General Learning Strategies (Ex. RIDE)
  • Math Vocabulary
  • Spaced Instructional Review (SIR)
  • Interleave Worked Example
  • Writing about Math
  • Graphic Organizers for Math
  • Mnemonic Strategy
  • Fluency
  • Explicit Methods of Instruction
  • Memory Strategies
  • Chunking Keyword

105
Survey Results
106
2009 Statewide CRCT Results
  • 6th Grade All Students
  • 75 met/exceeded the standard
  • 6 percentage point increase from 2008
  • 15 percentage point increase since 2006
  • Exceeded state target
  • 7th Grade All Students
  • 84 met/exceeded the standard
  • 4 percentage point increase from 2008
  • 14 percentage point increase since 2006
  • Exceeded state target
  • 8th Grade All Students
  • 70 met/exceeded the standard
  • 8 percentage point increase from 2009
  • Exceeded target

107
Students with Disabilities
  • CRCT Math Scores 08 to 09
  • More than a five percentage point increase in
    math scores for grades 6, 7, and 8 for SWD

108
Students with Disabilities
  • Georgia High School Graduation Test
  • Grade 11, first-time test takers
  • 08 to 09 for SWD
  • 63 met/exceeded standards
  • 4 percentage point increase from 2008

109
Lessons Learned/Next Steps
  • Review of requirements for data collection to
    better ensure uniformity
  • Importance of continuing connection with general
    education statewide math initiatives
  • Selection of new cohort of schools for Year 3
  • Continued follow-up for cohort 1
  • other

110
Open Discussion
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