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Propagation of Fruit Crop Plants

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Some focus on a few plant types-(Roses) (Hilltop Nursery-Fruit Trees) Wholesale Nursery ... Pulpy fruits (apple, walnut, rose, viburnum) must be de-pulped, and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Propagation of Fruit Crop Plants


1
Propagation of Fruit Crop Plants
  • By
  • Robert Tomesh
  • UW-Extension

2
Fruit Crops
  • Strawberry
  • Raspberry
  • Grapes
  • Gooseberry
  • Currant
  • Elderberry
  • Saskatoons
  • Blueberries
  • Fruit Trees
  • Apple
  • Pear
  • Plum
  • Peach
  • Apricot
  • Nuts

3
Obtaining Plants
  • Purchase plants from a reputable nursery
  • True to name
  • Disease free
  • Virus indexed
  • Arrange for spring delivery
  • Home Propagation (???Name, diseases)

4
Propagation
  • Dont come true from seed
  • Must be propagated asexually
  • Stool layering (rootstocks)
  • Layerage
  • Cuttings
  • Grafting budding

5
Fruit from a single cross
6
Wholesale Nursery
  • Some grow several hundred plant types- (Trees and
    Shrubs)
  • Some focus on a few plant types-(Roses) (Hilltop
    Nursery-Fruit Trees)

7
Wholesale Nursery
  • Propagation Area Start seeds, cuttings,
    grafting, tissue culture, layerage
  • Move rooted plants to field area
  • Trained, pruned, root pruned, pest control
  • Canned stock grown in containers
  • Grading and packing area (cold storage)

8
Collecting, Storage and Planting
  • Spring produced seeds (red maple, silver maple,
    poplar, elm) should be collected when mature and
    sowed immediately.
  • Pulpy fruits (apple, walnut, rose, viburnum) must
    be de-pulped, and stored in a cool moist
    environment for 1 4 months.
  • Some with hard seed coats (honey-locust, Kentucky
    Coffee Tree, basswood) need seed coat abrasion.

9
Stratification of Seeds
  • Stored in a cool (35 t0 39 degrees) moist
    environment (moist peat moss, shredded leaf
    litter, potting soil) for 1 4 months.
  • Hormone (Dormin) in the seed has to break down
    before seeds will sprout.
  • Collect acorns in fall, store in refrigerator
    with moist materialafter 3 months the radical
    will begin to emerge.
  • Natural seeding in soilchilling, moist.

10
Scarification of Seeds
  • Seeds with hard seed coats.
  • Place seeds in a covered can with equal portions
    of sand and set in the truck bed for a day or
    twothis will scratch the seed coat.

11
Cuttage Vegetative Propagation
  • The vegetative plant part that is to develop
    adventitious roots and/or shoots is cut
    (detached) from the mother plant.
  • Most commonly pieces of stem are used as cuttings
    by nurseries.

12
Cuttage Vegetative Propagation
  • Hardwood cuttings stem segments from the
    previous seasons growth are collected during the
    dormant season (chilling may be necessary to
    break dormancy).
  • Softwood cuttings stem segments collected from
    current seasons growth during early summer.
  • Root cuttings root segments are taken in late
    winter or early spring before new growth starts.

13
Hardwood Cutting
  • Dormant 4 to 6 inch stem segments from last
    seasons growth.
  • Cut just below a node.
  • Use rooting hormone.
  • Heat soil medium.

14
Softwood Cutting
  • Four to 6 inch segments of current seasons
    growth.
  • Remove lower leaves or major portion of leaf.
  • Basal cut below node.
  • Use rooting hormone.

15
Root Cutting
  • Four to 6 inch dormant root segments are used.
  • Adventitious buds originate from the cambial
    region of the root.
  • Polarity is important for adventitious formation.

16
Tissue Culture
17
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21
Amelenchier sp. 15 shoots per culture jar 1524 c
ulture jars 4 week rotation 1 round 22,860 sho
ots
1 year 297,180 shoots
22
Whitespire Senior Birch
23
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24
Strawberry Propagation
  • Breeding program
  • Tissue Culture (virus index)
  • Each plant from tissue
  • Field run propagation

25
Breeding Program
  • Runner verses hill type production
  • Fruit rot resistance
  • Resistance to soil diseases red stele,
    verticillium wilt
  • Herbicide tolerance
  • Fruit quality factors
  • Productivity

26
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27
Strawberry Cultivars
  • Annapolis
  • Earliglow
  • Honeoye
  • Raritan
  • Redchief
  • Cavendish
  • Glooscap
  • Kent
  • Jewel
  • Mesabi
  • Mira
  • Lateglow
  • Sparkle
  • Winona

28
Everbearing Strawberries
  • Fort Laramie
  • Ogallala
  • Ozark Beauty

29
Day-neutral Cultivars
  • Fern
  • Selva
  • Seascape
  • Tribute
  • Tristar

30
Raspberries
31
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32
Breeding Strategies
  • Hardiness
  • Productivity
  • Quality (Self-life)
  • Disease Resistance
  • Plant vigor
  • Bloom period
  • Harvest period

33
Winter Breeding Process
  • Complete pollination process in the absence of
    field pollen
  • Primocanes dug in fall, containerized
  • Chilled at 32 degrees for 6 to 10 weeks
  • Brought into greenhouse, fertilized and allowed
    to grow
  • Flowering about February or March

34
Pollination Process
  • At balloon stage, sepals closed, stamen and
    emasculated
  • Emasculation Sepals, petals, and stamen are
    removed from the flower base
  • Stigma has not yet reached receptive stage
  • Flowers are bagged until pollination
  • Selected crosses completed later

35
Balloon Stage
36
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37
Pollination Process
  • Pollination is completed 2 5 days after
    emasculation
  • Pollen is transferred with a camel hair brush
    (sterilized with alcohol
  • Flowers are re-bagged until fruit ripens

38
Fruit Harvest
39
Stratification of Seeds
  • Stored in a cool (35 t0 39 degrees) moist
    environment (moist peat moss, shredded leaf
    litter, potting soil) for 1 4 months.
  • Hormone (Dormin) in the seed has to break down
    before seeds will sprout.
  • Collect acorns in fall, store in refrigerator
    with moist materialafter 3 months the radical
    will begin to emerge.
  • Natural seeding in soilchilling, moist.

40
Scarification of Seeds
  • Seeds with hard seed coats.
  • Scratch seed coat
  • Acid scarification (wash)
  • Place seeds in a covered can with equal portions
    of sand and set in the truck bed for a day or
    twothis will scratch the seed coat.

41
Seed to Seedling
  • At maturity, seeds are removed from pulp
  • Stratified 4 months at 32 36 degrees
  • Scarified and placed in a soil-mix and allowed to
    germinate
  • Transplanted to nursery for evaluation

42
Raspberry Propagation
  • Breeding program
  • Tissue Culture (virus index)
  • Each plant from tissue
  • Field run propagation
  • Tip layering (Black raspberry)

43
Nursery Planting
44
Tips
Floricanes
Side Branches
Primocanes
Crown
Roots
Crown Buds
45
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46
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47
Summer-bearing Raspberry
  • Boyne
  • Nova
  • Festival
  • Killarney
  • Reveille
  • K81-6
  • Latham
  • Haida

48
Fall-bearing Raspberries
  • Summit
  • Autumn Britten
  • Autumn Bliss
  • Ruby
  • Caroline
  • Fall Red
  • Red Wing
  • Heritage

49
Black Raspberries(Black-caps)
  • (Tip Layer)
  • Blackhawk
  • Bristol

50
Tip Layerage
  • Some plants (black raspberry) rat-tail.
  • Rooting takes place near the tip of current
    seasons shoot.
  • Dig after rooting and before transplanting.

51
Purple Raspberries(Tip Layer)
  • Amethyst
  • Brandywine
  • Royality

52
Yellow Raspberries
  • Fall Gold
  • Honeyqueen
  • Anne

53
Blackberries
  • Thornless not hardy in Wisconsin
  • Native selections
  • Darrow ???

54
Grape Species
  • European Grapes Vitis vinifera
  • American Grapes V. labrusca, V. riparia V.
    aestivalis
  • European/ Rissling, Thompson Seedless,
    Cabernet
  • Labrusca Concord, Catawba, Fredonia
  • French/American hybrids - Foch, Milot,

55
Breeding Programs
  • Hardiness
  • Days to maturity
  • Productivity
  • Disease resistance
  • Cluster size
  • Berry size
  • Open clusters

56
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57
Pre-flowering showing cluster, leaf, and leaf
shoot
58
Wisconsin Challenges with Growing Grapes
  • Bud injury occurs between -10 and -25 degrees F.
  • Select cultivars which mature within your growing
    season (frost free period).
  • Success depends upon selected cultural management
    practices

59
Heat Unit Accumulation Base 50
60
Fruiting Cane/Fruit
  • Propagation wood from currant seasons growth
  • Sticks with three buds
  • Maintain cane polarity

61
Save canes from last seasons growthcontains
fruiting buds
62
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63
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64
Grape Cuttings
  • Spring is best
  • Chilled (stratified) by Mother Nature
  • Plant when spring frost are past
  • Fall
  • Cut to three buds
  • Store in cool area below 38 degrees
  • Start after stratification (3 months)

65
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67
Planting for Training System
68
Cultivar Choices - Hardiness
  • Valiant
  • Beta (Alpha)
  • King of the North (Jungs Nursery)
  • Suelter
  • Bluebelle
  • MN 78
  • Eona
  • Swenson Red
  • Eidelweiss
  • Other Swenson cvs.
  • Foch
  • Merlot
  • Worden
  • Fredonia
  • Concord

69
Cultivar Choices - Maturity
  • Valiant (late Aug.)
  • Beta
  • Swenson Red (early Sept.)
  • MN 78
  • Bluebelle (mid to late Sept.)
  • Eidelweiss
  • Foch
  • Suelter (late Sept.)
  • King of the North
  • Worden
  • Frontenac
  • Swenson Wine Var.
  • Fredonia
  • Concord

70
Recent Introductions
  • St Croix (wine type)
  • St. Pepin (wine type)
  • Lacrosse (wine type)
  • Kay Gray
  • Espirit (wine type)
  • Frontenac (wine type)
  • Frontenac Gris
  • Prairie Star
  • Louise Swenson
  • Swenson White
  • Skujinsh 675 (Latvia) ripens early and in cool
    seasons
  • Zilga (Lativa)
  • Kandiyohi
  • Summer Sweet (early, late Aug.)
  • Trollhaugen (Seedless)

71
Blueberry Types
  • Lowbush growing wild
  • Seed, green tip cuttings, dig plants, root
    cuttings
  • Half-high Minnesota and Michigan
  • - Northblue, Northsky, North County, St. Cloud,
    Freindship
  • Highbush Blue Jay, Bluetta, Bluecrop, Elliott

72
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77
Planting Blueberries
  • Purchase potted plants (tissue culture)
  • Set at same height as in the nursery pot
  • Plant in spring
  • Water thoroughly

78
Currants (Ribes rubrum, petaeum, and sativum)
  • Cultivars come in red, white and black (white
    pine blister rust host)
  • Red cultivars Red Lake, Wilder, Zante and
    Rovata
  • White cultivars White Imperial and White grape

79
Methods of Woody Vegetative Propagation
  • Graftage-combining rootstock and scion wood.
  • Induction of adventitious roots and shoots.
  • Layerage-rooting while attached to mother plant.
  • Cuttage-rooting stems cut from mother plant or
    shoots generated from mother plant root
    segments.

80
Adventitious Roots and Shoots
  • Roots and/or shoots produced from abnormal or
    unusual locations.
  • Growing points are initiated on a vegetative
    structure.

81
Layerage
  • The vegetative plant part remains attached to the
    mother plant while it is developing adventitious
    roots and/or shoots.

82
Simple Layerage
  • Dig hole to bury plant part.
  • Wounding stem stimulates rooting.
  • Initiate in late spring.
  • Sever from mother plant in late summer
  • Transplant in fall or earlier spring.

83
Trench Layerage
  • Trench layering consists of growing a plant or a
    branch in a horizontal position in the base of a
    trench and filling with soil.
  • Roots develop from the base of new shoots
  • Initiated in spring.
  • Wounding between buds stimulates rooting.
  • Used for many shrubs.

84
Mound Layering (Stooling)
  • Mound layering involves cutting back a plant to
    near the ground during the dormant season and
    mounding soil over the base where new shoots will
    develop.
  • Dwarf fruit tree rootstock.

85
Cuttage Vegetative Propagation
  • Hardwood cuttings stem segments from the
    previous seasons growth are collected during the
    dormant season (chilling may be necessary to
    break dormancy).
  • Softwood cuttings stem segments collected from
    current seasons growth during early summer.
  • Root cuttings root segments are taken in late
    winter or early spring before new growth starts.

86
Plant Polarity
  • Shoots are formed on the distal end (nearest the
    tip).
  • Roots are formed on the proximal end (farthest
    from the tip).
  • Keeping the polarity in proper dimension is
    important with grafting.

87
Hardwood Cutting
  • Dormant 4 to 6 inch stem segments from last
    seasons growth.
  • Cut just below a node.
  • Use rooting hormone.
  • Heat soil medium.

88
Softwood Cutting
  • Four to 6 inch segments of current seasons
    growth.
  • Remove lower leaves or major portion of leaf.
  • Basal cut below node.
  • Use rooting hormone.

89
Root Cutting
  • Four to 6 inch dormant root segments are used.
  • Adventitious buds originate from the cambial
    region of the root.
  • Polarity is important for adventitious formation.

90
Gooseberries (Ribes hirtellum)
  • Pixwell
  • Poorman
  • Downing
  • Welcome
  • Chautauqua
  • Fredonia
  • Hinnonmake Red
  • Hinnonmake Yellow
  • Colossal

Picture from Cornell University
91
Elderberries (Sambucus canadensis)
  • Adams 1
  • Adams 2
  • York
  • John
  • Kent
  • Nova
  • Scotia

Picture by UMAFRA
92
Juneberries (Amelanchier sp.)
  • A. alnifolia Saskatoon, serviceberry,
    juneberry
  • A. arborea Downy serviceberry
  • A. canadensis Shadblow serviceberry
  • A. grandifolia apple serviceberry
  • A. laevis Alleghany serviceberry
  • A. stolonifera Running serviceberry

93
Juneberry
  • Smokey
  • Honeywood
  • Pembina
  • Thiessen
  • Martin
  • Northline
  • Success
  • Regent

Picture from University of saskatuwan
94
Mulberry (Morus rubra, alba, and nigra)
  • Hicks Everbearing
  • Johnson
  • Stubbs
  • Townsend
  • Illinois Everbearing
  • Travis

Picture from UW Herbarium
95
Break
96
Tree Fruit Propagation
97
Fruit Tree Pollination
  • Where cross-pollination results in a plant
    different from the parent (apple).
  • Increase the number of a plant cultivar which is
    difficult to propagate by adventitious rooting.
  • Trees have different c-some levels
  • Plum Pipestone/Toka
  • Apples Mutsu, Jonagold

98
Plum Hybrids
  • Cultivars and hybrid cultivars needing selected
    pollinators Oka, Compass, Sapa, Opata, Nicollet,
    Tom Thumb, and St. Anthony
  • Ploidy of cells

Picture from U of Co.
99
History of Grafting
  • Started with fruit, olive and nut trees
  • Dates back 3000 years to China
  • Found in written records in Rome and Greece
  • Now the primary method propagating clonal
    selections,(ie. Delicious, MacIntosh)

100
Graftage
  • Joining of plant parts by means of tissue
    regeneration.
  • Rootstock provides the root portion (dwarf,
    disease resistant).
  • Scion wood is the parent portion selected for its
    cultivar characteristics.
  • Graft union is the healing wound between the
    rootstock and scion.

101
Reasons for Grafting
  • Increase the number of a plant cultivar which is
    difficult to propagate by adventitious rooting.
  • Where cross-pollination results in a plant
    different from the parent (apple).
  • Seedless cultivars (seedless grapes, seedless
    plants, male plants).
  • Peaches (self-pollinate)

102
Other Reasons for Grafting
  • Leaf color (Autumn Blaze Maple)
  • Flower color (Prairie Fire Crabapple)
  • Fruit quality (Delicious Apple)
  • Tree hardiness (Bud 9 Apple Rootstock)
  • Disease resistance (Nova Easy Grow Apple)
  • Sexual status (Cotton-less Cottonwood, Marshall
    Seedless Ash, Male Ginkgo, Female Bittersweet)

103
Safety Concerns
  • First aid supplies
  • Wear leather gloves
  • Cut away from yourself and others

104
Tools and Materials
  • Rootstock and scion wood
  • Sharp knife (utility knife).
  • Grafting tape (rubber strips, rubber electricians
    tape.
  • Tree wound dressing.
  • Practice wood (poplar, basswood).

105
Rootstocks
  • Clonal
  • Super dwarf
  • Dwarf
  • Semi-dwarf
  • Semi-standard
  • Seedling
  • An established tree (top-working)

106
Dwarf Rootstocks
  • M.27 - Smallest clone, 15 seedling size, poorly
    anchors, high density plantings
  • M.9 - 25 size, most dwarfing rootstock used in
    Wisconsin, precocious
  • Bud 9 Originates from Russia, similar to M.9
  • These rootstocks require staking

107
Semi-dwarf Rootstocks
  • M.26 - 50 size, cold hardy, used commercially,
    does not tolerate wet soils
  • M.7 55 size, widely use rootstock, disease
    tolerant, adapted to a wide range of soils, slow
    to bear, suckers
  • G.30 Cold tolerant, resistant to fireblight, weak
    graft unions,

108
Selecting Rootstock
  • Young seedlings
  • Root segments
  • An established tree (top working, or use trunk)

109
Mound Layering (Stooling)
  • Mound layering involves cutting back a plant to
    near the ground during the dormant season and
    mounding soil over the base where new shoots will
    develop.
  • Dwarf fruit tree rootstock.

110
Stool Layering
111
Stool Layering
112
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113
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114
Stool Bed
115
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116
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117
Collecting Dormant Scion Wood
  • Collect dormant wood in late February.
  • Select one year-old water sprouts or shoots.
  • One fourth to 3/8 diameter stems (pencil sized).
  • Store in moist cool (36 degree) environment.

118
Compatibility
  • Graft only closely related plants (same species
    (red maple/Autumn Blaze, white ash/ Autumn Purple
    Ash).
  • Unrelated plant species usually result in plant
    failure.

119
Selecting the Grafting Site
  • Select a smooth and straight area on both the
    rootstock and scion wood.
  • Root stock grafts may have side roots trimmed.
  • Match the cambial zone on both the rootstock and
    scion wood.

120
Match the Cambial Zone
121
Whip and Tongue Graft
122
Whip and Tongue Graft
123
GraftUnion
124
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125
Cleft Graft
126
Cleft Graft in Future Years
127
Modified Cleft Graft
128
Root Graft
129
Root Graft
130
Bud Grafting
  • Budding is a form of grafting the scion is
    reduced in size to one bud.
  • Can be done either during dormancy or during the
    growing season.

Bud Shield
131
Bud (Shield) Graft
132
Bud (Shield) Graft
133
Summer Bud Graft
134
Field T-budding
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136
Cutting ¾ inch bud chip
137
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140
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141
Fruit Crops
  • Strawberry
  • Raspberry
  • Grapes
  • Gooseberry
  • Currant
  • Elderberry
  • Saskatoons
  • Blueberries
  • Fruit Trees
  • Apple
  • Pear
  • Plum
  • Peach
  • Apricot
  • Nuts

142
The End
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