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Discrimination in the Military

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As the Army makes an effort to promote more qualified blacks up the military ... There definitely is discrimination in the way the army promotes black officers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Discrimination in the Military


1
Discrimination in the Military?
  • Bill Gordon
  • Gabriel Kwofie
  • Jeff Parks
  • Tom Yoo

2
What We Did
  • We looked for empirical and statistical evidence
    in the US Army in order to determine whether or
    not there is substantial evidence to support the
    claim that discrimination exists within the US
    Army.

3
Is there Discrimination in the US Army?
  • Blacks make up a smaller percentage of high
    ranking officers than lower ranking officers
  • Blacks are not being promoted up the chain of
    command as fast as other racial groups

4
Blacks as Percentage of Total Personnel by Grade
Source U.S. Department of Defense
5
Source U.S. Department of Defense
6
Enlisted Attrition (at 36 months)
Source U.S. Department of Defense
7
Statistical Support for Discrimination
  • Empirical evidence shows statistically
    significant evidence for discrimination in the
    way blacks and minorities are promoted in the
    Army
  • Black males are promoted from stage two 2.2
    slower than their white counterparts
  • All other minorities are promoted 2.9 slower
    than their white counterparts from stage two

8
Minority Male Promotion Rates
Evidence supports the notion that minorities have
a difficult time getting promoted within the
ranks of the military There are statistically sig
nificant differences in retention and promotion
rates amongst white males, blacks and other
minorities.
9
Female Promotion Rates
Evidence also supports the notion that women have
a difficult time getting promoted within the
ranks of the military There are statistically sig
nificant differences in retention and promotion
rates amongst white females, black females and
other minorities.
10
Summary of Promotion Rates
Below we see the overall situation facing minori
ties and
women in the military.
Promotion and Retention rates for 1977 Cohort
11
Chances for Early Promotion
  • It is statistically more likely for a white
    officer to be promoted more quickly on average
    than it is for a minority
  • For a white officer, the probability of early
    promotion is .509
  • For a minority officer, the probability of early
    promotion is .434
  • These results are statistically significant

12
Performance Appraisals
We found strong evidence that performance
appraisals, which are very subjective at the ear
ly stages, are biased against minorities.
Below is data on early promotion recommendations
by race. Minorities are given early promotion re
commendations much less frequently than whites.
The difference is statistically significant
Performance Appraisals for early-stage white and
minority officers
13
The Question of Human Capital?
  • Empirical evidence that is statistically
    significant suggests that the differences in
    promotion rates between blacks and whites are not
    due to a lower rate of human capital for blacks

14
Promotion Appraisals (Cont.)
It is surmised that the differences could be due
to human capital characteristics. The data sugg
ests that human capital corrections do eliminate
some of the disparity. Attending a selective co
llege and GPA brings the coefficient on
Minority down from -.090 to -.051 (.064
-.115). The variable is still statistically sign
ificant, suggesting some other factors, possibly
discrimination
15
Promotion to 4th Level
Below we see three models for predicting
promotion to the 4th Level Model 1 suggests that
being a minority is highly detrimental to this
accomplishment However, when corrected for GPA, t
he variable is not significant
And, when corrected for GPA and early promotion
recommendation, the variable is not significant.
This suggests that promotion is probably fair at
the 4th level, but the effects of
discrimination in prior appraisals impacts
promotion in subsequent levels.
16
Why promotional differences Discrimination in
Job Assignment?
NAVAL CASE STUDY The COMBAT models below predict
the probability of being assigned to a combat
ship. Even when corrected for GPA, minority
status is significantly negative.
The CRUDES models predict how many combat ships
were served on by applicants for 4th level promot
ion. Both of these suggest that minorities are b
eing discriminated against in job
assignment. This leads to less acquired skills
and lower overall human capital for minorities.
17
The Military Academies
  • At both the US Military Academy at West Point and
    the US Naval Academy at Annapolis, blacks are
    admitted at the lowest rate among all studied
    ethnicities
  • However, the blacks that apply to these academies
    do have a lower average SAT scores than do
    whites.

18
Admission Rates
  • At both the U.S. Naval and Military Academies,
    blacks are admitted at the lowest rate (1995)

19
Discrimination at West Point?
  • Case Study
  • 1995 entering class at the U.S. Military Academy
    at West Point

20
Comparison of SAT Scores
21
What Does Affirmative Action Accomplish?
  • There have been suggestions that had race not
    been a factor in admission, fewer blacks would
    have been admitted into West Point.
  • Statistics support the fact that Affirmative
    Action is helping blacks gain admission to the US
    military academies

22
Affirmative Action in Favor of Blacks
Odds of Admission
23
What Does this Mean for the Future?
  • Blacks are slowly beginning to increase their
    percentage representation in officer positions
    towards the top of the command chain
  • As the Army makes an effort to promote more
    qualified blacks up the military ranks, blacks
    will slowly have a higher representation in the
    higher ranks of the military

24
Conclusion
  • There definitely is discrimination in the way the
    army promotes black officers
  • The army is making a concerted effort to
    eradicate this problem
  • Trends predict that in 25 years, statistically
    the problem of racial discrimination in the
    military will have been eradicated
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