Cancer 101 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Cancer 101


1
Cancer 101
  • Ann Broderick, M.D. MS
  • Director, Palliative Care
  • University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics

2
Cancer
  • Abnormal cells divide without control
  • Can invade locally or metastasize (spread) via
    the blood or lymph system
  • Benign tumors can grow larger, but do not spread

3
Diagnosis of cancer
  • Screening tests mammogram, PSA, colonoscopy,
    PAP
  • Biopsy
  • Incisional
  • Excisional
  • Needle (core or fine needle aspirate)
  • Need tissue to look at under the microscope to
    decide how to treat the pathology report.

4
Symptoms of cancer
  • None
  • Weight loss
  • Dyspnea or shortness of breath
  • Nausea
  • Anorexia, or lack of appetite
  • Fatigue

5
Cancer type based on which cell type is dividing
abnormally
  • Carcinoma
  • Sarcoma
  • Leukemia
  • Lymphoma
  • Central nervous system tumors
  • Melanoma

6
Carcinoma
  • begins in skin or lining cell
  • Adenocarcinoma starts in the skin cells and the
    gland cells.
  • Adenocarcinoma of the breast, pancreas, prostate,
    thyroid

7
Wait! Prostate
8
Metastasis
  • Plural is metastases
  • Cancer cell travels via blood or lymph tissue to
    a distant organ, but maintains characteristics of
    the primary tumor.
  • Cancers have tendencies prostate to bone, breast
    to liver, brain and lung, colon to liver

9
Stages of cancer
  • Stage 1 small and confined to the organ
  • Stage 2 beyond the organ /- lymph nodes
  • Stage 3 locally spread, greater than 2.
  • Stage 4 spread to another organ

10
Sarcoma
  • begins in the cells muscle, bone, blood vessels,
    cartilage

11
Leukemia
  • begins in the cells found in the bone marrow
    (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets)

12
Bone marrow
  • Myelo is the prefix myelosuppression,
    myelodysplastic
  • Bone marrow is aspirated, and biopsied in the hip
    bone
  • Bone marrow transplant harrowing procedure in
    which the bone marrow cells are destroyed by
    chemo, then replaced with banked bone marrow.

13
Lymphoma and multiple myeloma
  • begins in the cells of the immune system that
    fight infection (B cells, T cells, plasma cells)

14
Melanoma
  • Originates in the melanocytes, which make
    pigment. These cells can be found in the skin,
    the eyes.

15
Treatment local
  • Surgery
  • Radiation

16
Treatment systemic
  • Principle of treatment to kill the fastest
    growing cells earliest days of chemo and
    radiation.
  • Hormonal manipulation in cancers such as prostate
    and breast.
  • Little variation from center to center on the
    treatment of cancers. Protocols are standard
    throughout the country.
  • Clinical trials are well-monitored large scale
    efforts to determine the best treatment regimen

17
Complementary and alternative therapies
  • Acupuncture proven to be effective for
    chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting
  • Current clinical trials for acupuncture for
    symptoms of colon cancer, for shark cartilage and
    small cell lung cancer, and for massage therapy
    for cancer-related fatigue.

18
Remission
  • Decrease or disappearance of signs and symptoms
    of cancer

19
Palliative Care-usually inpatient
  • Treatment of symptoms from the time of diagnosis
  • Grief specialists in the hospital
  • Allowing the patient and family voice to be heard

20
Hospice
  • Dame Cicely SaundersYou matter because you are
    you.You matter to the last moment of your
    life,And we will do all we can,Not only to help
    you die peacefully,But also to live until you
    die.

21
Take home points
  • It is a new language write down the words that
    you do not know and learn them for the next
    time.
  • Ignorance is an opportunity to learn.
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Title:

Cancer 101

Description:

Hormonal manipulation in cancers such as prostate and breast. ... and small cell lung cancer, and for massage therapy for cancer-related fatigue. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Cancer 101


1
Cancer 101
  • Ann Broderick, M.D. MS
  • Director, Palliative Care
  • University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics

2
Cancer
  • Abnormal cells divide without control
  • Can invade locally or metastasize (spread) via
    the blood or lymph system
  • Benign tumors can grow larger, but do not spread

3
Diagnosis of cancer
  • Screening tests mammogram, PSA, colonoscopy,
    PAP
  • Biopsy
  • Incisional
  • Excisional
  • Needle (core or fine needle aspirate)
  • Need tissue to look at under the microscope to
    decide how to treat the pathology report.

4
Symptoms of cancer
  • None
  • Weight loss
  • Dyspnea or shortness of breath
  • Nausea
  • Anorexia, or lack of appetite
  • Fatigue

5
Cancer type based on which cell type is dividing
abnormally
  • Carcinoma
  • Sarcoma
  • Leukemia
  • Lymphoma
  • Central nervous system tumors
  • Melanoma

6
Carcinoma
  • begins in skin or lining cell
  • Adenocarcinoma starts in the skin cells and the
    gland cells.
  • Adenocarcinoma of the breast, pancreas, prostate,
    thyroid

7
Wait! Prostate
8
Metastasis
  • Plural is metastases
  • Cancer cell travels via blood or lymph tissue to
    a distant organ, but maintains characteristics of
    the primary tumor.
  • Cancers have tendencies prostate to bone, breast
    to liver, brain and lung, colon to liver

9
Stages of cancer
  • Stage 1 small and confined to the organ
  • Stage 2 beyond the organ /- lymph nodes
  • Stage 3 locally spread, greater than 2.
  • Stage 4 spread to another organ

10
Sarcoma
  • begins in the cells muscle, bone, blood vessels,
    cartilage

11
Leukemia
  • begins in the cells found in the bone marrow
    (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets)

12
Bone marrow
  • Myelo is the prefix myelosuppression,
    myelodysplastic
  • Bone marrow is aspirated, and biopsied in the hip
    bone
  • Bone marrow transplant harrowing procedure in
    which the bone marrow cells are destroyed by
    chemo, then replaced with banked bone marrow.

13
Lymphoma and multiple myeloma
  • begins in the cells of the immune system that
    fight infection (B cells, T cells, plasma cells)

14
Melanoma
  • Originates in the melanocytes, which make
    pigment. These cells can be found in the skin,
    the eyes.

15
Treatment local
  • Surgery
  • Radiation

16
Treatment systemic
  • Principle of treatment to kill the fastest
    growing cells earliest days of chemo and
    radiation.
  • Hormonal manipulation in cancers such as prostate
    and breast.
  • Little variation from center to center on the
    treatment of cancers. Protocols are standard
    throughout the country.
  • Clinical trials are well-monitored large scale
    efforts to determine the best treatment regimen

17
Complementary and alternative therapies
  • Acupuncture proven to be effective for
    chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting
  • Current clinical trials for acupuncture for
    symptoms of colon cancer, for shark cartilage and
    small cell lung cancer, and for massage therapy
    for cancer-related fatigue.

18
Remission
  • Decrease or disappearance of signs and symptoms
    of cancer

19
Palliative Care-usually inpatient
  • Treatment of symptoms from the time of diagnosis
  • Grief specialists in the hospital
  • Allowing the patient and family voice to be heard

20
Hospice
  • Dame Cicely SaundersYou matter because you are
    you.You matter to the last moment of your
    life,And we will do all we can,Not only to help
    you die peacefully,But also to live until you
    die.

21
Take home points
  • It is a new language write down the words that
    you do not know and learn them for the next
    time.
  • Ignorance is an opportunity to learn.
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