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Teen Pregnancy

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Teenage Pregnancy Statistics, New York: Alan Guttmacher Institute, May, 1996; ... The United States has much higher pregnancy and birth rates than other fully ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Teen Pregnancy


1
Teen Pregnancy
  • William P. Adelman M.D., FAAP
  • Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
  • Uniformed Services University of the Health
    Sciences
  • National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy
  • www.teenpregnancy.org

2
Teen Pregnancy
  • Why do we care?
  • U.S. Data and current trends
  • Should we care in the military?
  • What military data is available?
  • What works and where is the evidence?
  • Office Based Approach
  • We know lots about sex, what about sexuality?
  • Adult and teen perceptions

3
Four in Ten Girls Get Pregnant at Least Once
Before Age 20.
Source National Campaign to Prevent Teen
Pregnancy analysis of Henshaw, S.K., U.S..
Teenage Pregnancy Statistics, New York Alan
Guttmacher Institute, May, 1996 and Forrest,
J.D., Proportion of U.S. Women Ever Pregnant
Before Age 20, New York Alan Guttmacher
Institute, 1986, unpublished.
4
100 Teen Girls Get Pregnant Each Hour
Total 905,000
542,640
337,530
24,830
The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special
report U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with
comparative statistics for women aged 20-24. New
York Author.
5
Were Number One
The United States has much higher pregnancy and
birth rates than other fully industrialized
countries. US pregnancy rates are nearly twice
as high as rates in Canada and England and seven
to eight times as high as rates in Japan and the
Netherlands.
Singh, S., Darroch, J.E. (2000). Adolescent
pregnancy and childbearing Levels and trends in
developed countries. Family Planning Perspectives
32(1), 14-23. Pregnancy rates calculated as the
sum of births, abortions, and estimated
miscarriages (20 percent of births plus 10
percent of miscarriages).
6
Each Year, Half a Million Teens Give Birth
In 1996, just over one-half of teen pregnancies
to girls aged 15-19 ended in birth, about
one-third ended in abortion, and 14 percent ended
in miscarriage.
124,700
491,577
263,890
The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special
report U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with
comparative statistics for women aged 20-24. New
York Author.
7
55 Teen Girls Give Birth Each Hour
Nearly one-half million teen births occurred in
1999.
Total 484,794
312,186
9,049
163,559
Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C.,
Martin, J.A. (2000). Births Preliminary data for
1999. National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14).
8
Proportion of Teen Births to Unmarried Teens,
1999(Births to Teens Aged 15-19)
101,814
373,931
Data for 1999 are preliminary. Ventura, S.J.,
Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in
the United States, 1940-99. National Vital
Statistics Reports 48(16). Curtin, S.C.,
Martin, J.A. (2000). Births Preliminary data for
1999. National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14).
9
The Consequences of Teen Motherhood
  • Less likely to complete high school
  • Dependence on welfare
  • Single parenthood
  • More likely to have more children sooner on a
    limited income
  • More likely to abuse or neglect the child

National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.
(1997). Whatever Happened to Childhood? The
Problem of Teen Pregnancy in the United States.
Washington, DC Author.
10
Teen Mothers and High School Diploma by Age 30
68
32
National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.
(1997). Whatever Happened to Childhood? The
Problem of Teen Pregnancy in the United States.
Washington, DC Author.
11
Risks to Children of Teen Mothers
  • Growing up without a father
  • Low birth weight and prematurity
  • School failure
  • Mental retardation
  • Insufficient health care
  • Abuse and neglect
  • Poverty and welfare dependence
  • Females more likely to be teen moms themselves
  • Males more likely to be incarcerated

Source Maynard, R.A., (ed.), Kids Having Kids A
Robin Hood Foundation Special Report on the Costs
of Adolescent Childbearing, New York Robin Hood
Foundation, 1996.
12
The Children of Teen Mothers Are at Greater Risk
of Abuse and Neglect
110
51
29
18
National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.
(1997). Whatever Happened to Childhood? The
Problem of Teen Pregnancy in the United States.
Washington, DC Author.
13
Taxpayers Spent 6.9 Billion (2,831 Per Teen
Parent) on Teen Childbearing in 1996
1.0
1.4
2.7
1.7
0.1
National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.
(1997). Whatever Happened to Childhood? The
Problem of Teen Pregnancy in the United States.
Washington, DC Author.
14
Teen Pregnancy Rates, Girls Aged
15-19(Pregnancies Per 1,000 Girls)
The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1999). Special
report U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with
comparative statistics for women aged 20-24. New
York Author.
15
Teen Pregnancy Rates, Racial/Ethnic Subgroups
(Number of Pregnancies Per 1,000 Girls Aged
15-19)
Non-Hispanic Black
Hispanic (any race)
Non-Hispanic White
Darroch, J.E., Singh, S. (1999). Why is teenage
pregnancy declining? The roles of abstinence,
sexual activity and contraceptive use. Occasional
Report 1. New York The Alan Guttmacher Institute.
16
Teen Birth Rates, Girls Aged 15-19(number of
births per 1,000 girls)
The teen birth rate declined steadily from 1960
through the mid-1970s, stayed fairly constant for
the next decade, then increased 24 percent
between 1986 and 1991. Between 1991 and 1999,
the teen birth rate decreased 20 percent to a
record low.
Note data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin,
S.C., Martin, J.A. (2000). Births Preliminary
data for 1999. National Vital Statistics Reports
48(14). Ventura, S.J., Mathews, T.J., Curtin,
S.C. (1998). Declines in teenage birth rates,
1991-97 National and state patterns. National
Vital Statistics Reports 47(12).
17
Teen Birth Rates by Race/ethnicity, Girls
15-19(number of births per 1,000 girls)
Teen birth rates vary substantially among the
largest racial/ethnic subgroups. Between 1991
and 1999, the rate for African-American teens
declined 30 percent, the rate for all White teens
declined 16 percent and the rate for non-Hispanic
White teens declined 21 percent, the rate for
Hispanics decreased 13 percent, the rate for
Native Americans declined 20 percent, and the
rate for Asian/Pacific Islanders declined 17
percent.
Hispanic (any race)
African American
Native American
TOTAL
White (total)
Non-Hispanic White
Asian/Pacific Islander
Note data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin,
S.C., Martin, J.A. (2000). Births Preliminary
data for 1999. National Vital Statistics Reports
48(14). Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin,
S.C., Mathews, T.J., Park, M.M. (2000). Birth
Final data for 1998. National Vital Statistics
Reports 48(3).
18
Number of Teen Births, 1999
Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C.,
Martin, J.A. (2000). Births Preliminary data for
1999. National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14).
19
State Teen Birth Rates, 1998(births per 1,000
girls aged 15-19)
Teen birth rates vary widely by state, ranging
from 24.4 per 1,000 in Vermont to 73.0 per 1,000
in Mississippi.
Ventura, S.J., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J.
(2000). Variations in teenage birth rates,
1991-98 National and state trends. National
Vital Statistics Reports 48(6).
20
Changes in Teen Birth Rates, 1991-98(births per
1,000 girls aged 15-19)
Teen birth rates declined in all 50 state between
1991 and 1998 declines ranged from 9.7 percent
in Rhode Island to 37.8 percent in Vermont.
Ventura, S.J., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J.
(2000). Variations in teenage birth rates,
1991-98 National and state trends. National
Vital Statistics Reports 48(6).
21
Teen Births by Birth Order, 1999(births to
girls aged 15-19)
Total 475,745
(85,455)
(14,643)
(370,749)
(2,148)
(2,750)
Data for 1999 are preliminary. Curtin, S.C.,
Martin, J.A. (2000). Births Preliminary data for
1999. National Vital Statistics Reports 48(14).
22
Teen Pregnancy in the Military
  • Yes
  • Little data available for general consumption
  • Small projects within the military
  • Mostly anonymous to location
  • No intervention studies

23
Large Army Community Hospital
  • 40,000 troops
  • 38,000 dependents age 0-18
  • 55,000 retirees

24
Dependent of Dependent Deliveries July 2000-June
2001
  • 134 of total 2911deliveries
  • 4.6 of ALL deliveries (1 in every 21)
  • 46/1000 live births are dependents of dependents
  • Teen birth rate 48-67/1000 15-19 year olds (very
    conservative estimate)
  • Military teen birth rate same or higher than
    civilian rate

25
What Works to Prevent Teen Pregnancy?
  • No Simple Answer
  • State programs with data
  • Promoting Abstinence
  • Providing comprehensive sexuality education
  • Advocating youth development
  • Increasing access to health service
  • Public awareness
  • Male responsibility and involvement
  • Economic stimulus

26
Sexual Intercourse in Teen Girls
  • 25 Age 15
  • 40 Age 16
  • 55 Age 17
  • 70 Age 18
  • The average sexually active teenager has had 4
    partners by age 18

27
Why DO Girls have Intercourse?
  • Girls use sex to find love Boys use love to get
    sex (All men are pigs)
  • 3of 4 girls and over ½ of boys report that girls
    who have sex do so because their boyfriends want
    them to have sex.
  • 8 of 10 girls wish they had waited until they
    were older to have sex

28
Why Do Girls NOT have intercourse?
  • 1 Against my religious or moral values
  • 2 To avoid pregnancy
  • 3 Fear of contracting a sexual infection
  • 4 Have not met the right partner

29
What Protects Against Teen Sexual Debut and Teen
Pregnancy?
  • Two parent families (22 vs 44 of 16 yr olds are
    sexually active)
  • Strong emotional attachment to parents
  • School connectedness
  • Lack of free time
  • Access to contraception

30
A sexually active teen who does not use
contraception has a 90 percent chance of
pregnancy within one year
31
The Paradox of Teen Sex
  • Half of all teenage pregnancies occur within 6
    months of the onset of sexual activity
  • Most Teenagers look to the physician for
    protection against pregnancy
  • Average time from onset of sexual activity to
    presentation to the physician for contraception
    is 9.5-14 months

32
Office Techniques to Reduce Teen Pregnancy
  • Normalize history to include sexuality by the 6th
    gradeTeaches OK to discuss with the doctor
    before onset of activity
  • Promote Abstinencecongratulate smart decisions
  • Offer a safe environment for comprehensive
    discussion of sexuality and contraception BEFORE
    onset of sexual activity

33
Office Techniques to Reduce Teen Pregnancy
  • Promote communication about sexuality issues
    between parent and child
  • All Men Are Pigs (optional)

34
What Do Teens and Parents Think? Some survey
results
The majority of slides in this presentation are
from the National Campaign publication, With One
Voice Americas Adults and Teens Sound Off About
Teen Pregnancy. The publication has results from
a nationally-representative survey of over 1,000
adults over age 20 and 1,000 young people aged
12-19 conducted in January and February 2001.
The other results are from various nationally
polling of young people aged 12-17 conducted in
2000. For complete results, please visit the
National Campaigns website www.teenpregnancy.or
g.
35
How important do you think it is for teens to be
given a strong message from society that they
should abstain from sex until they are at least
out of high school?
Adults
Teens
93.3 6.6
94.5 4.7
Important Not important
36
Kids in your community are getting a clear
message from the adults in their lives that teen
pregnancy is wrong. Would you say you agree
strongly, agree somewhat, disagree somewhat, or
disagree strongly with that statement?
Question for adults Please react to the
following statement
37
Disagree net
32.8
63.0
Agree net
Adults
Agree net Agree strongly Agree
somewhat Disagree net Disagree
somewhat Disagree strongly
63.0 36.0 27.0 32.8 18.6 14.2
38
Im getting a clear message from the adults in
my life that teen pregnancy is wrong. Would you
say you agree strongly, agree somewhat, disagree
somewhat, or disagree strongly with this
statement?
Question for teens Please react to the following
statement
39
Disagree net
14.6
85.1
Agree net
Teens
Agree net Agree strongly Agree
somewhat Disagree net Disagree
somewhat Disagree strongly
85.1 57.2 27.9 14.6 10.7 3.9
40
Teens should not be sexually active, but teens
who are should have access to birth control (or
protection.)Teens should not be sexually
active and should not have access to birth
control (or protection)Its okay for teens to
be sexually active, as long as they have access
to birth control (or protection.)
Which of the following comes closest to your
view?
Adults
Teens
73.0 15.0 11.6
56.3 18.4 25.0
41
Suppose a parent or other adult tells a teenager
the following
I feel very strongly that not having sex at all
during your middle and high school years is your
best option and the right thing to do. I also
think it is important for you to receive
information about birth control or protection.
But, again, I think not having sex is your best
option.
42
Do you think this is a clear and specific
message or do you think this is a confusing or
mixed message?
Confusing or mixed message
24.3
28.3
74.7
70.6
Clear and specific message
Clear and specific message
Adults
Teens
43
When it comes to teens/your sexual
decision-making, which of the following is most
influential? Would you say
Adults
Teens
Parents Friends The media Teachers and sex
educators Brothers and sisters Religious
organizations
38.3 31.7 3.6 6.8 7.4 9.1
31.7 50.0 7.5 3.5 3.0 2.9
44
Other than teens themselves, who do you think is
most responsible for fixing the problem of teen
pregnancy? Would you say
Adults
Teens
Parents and adults The media Schools The
government Religious organizations
85.0 6.8 3.7 1.8 1.2
63.3 14.5 13.5 5.4 2.1
45
Have you had a helpful conversation with your
parents about sex?
More than one-third of teens say they have not
had even a single helpful conversation with their
parents about sex.
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