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Assessments for Guiding Classroom Instruction Aligning Items to the PA Assessment Anchors

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Title: Assessments for Guiding Classroom Instruction Aligning Items to the PA Assessment Anchors


1
Assessments for Guiding Classroom
Instruction Aligning Items to the PA Assessment
Anchors
  • Aligning PSSA Assessment Anchors
  • June 14-18, 2004
  • Intermediate Unit 1

2
Think, Pair, Share
  • Think to yourself about the question
  • Share with a partner. Turn to the person next to
    you. Take turns sharing your thoughts.
  • Share key points with a larger group.

3
Objectives of the Session
  • Identify key features of effective assessment
  • Identify participant knowledge and skills about
    types of assessment and writing test items
  • Increase knowledge and skills in the areas of
    selecting and designing tests and test items
  • Create assessment items aligned with the PA
    assessment anchors
  • After Design Steps Outside review of items and
    development into three tests for classroom use

4
Tests as Motivation
  • Think back to the assessments that you have
    taken.
  • What were the negative ones like? Why were
    they negative?
  • What were the positive ones like? What made
    them positive?

5
Assessments Motivate Students if…….
  • The tested and the taught curriculum are aligned
  • Students track their own progress - Graph It
  • Students lead conferences about their own work
  • Students are involved in designing the questions.

6
Participant Questions
  • What problems do your students have with
    assessments?
  • What concerns about designing assessment items do
    you have?
  • Do you pretest before teaching?

7
Assessment as Teaching and Learning
  • Open the assessment process to students
  • Students can comment on how to improve the
    assessment
  • Suggest possible assessment items

8
Ensuring Valid Reliable Tests
  • Identify the Learning Outcomes
  • Construct Test Items and Assessment Tasks
  • Assemble the Items and Tasks
  • Prepare Directions
  • Administer the Instrument
  • Score the Responses
  • Interpret Appraise the Results

9
The Teaching-Learning Assessing Model
  • Standards/Benchmarks/Anchors/Objectives
  • Assessing for Baseline
  • Differentiating Instruction/Assessing
    Performance(Formative)
  • Differentiating Instruction/Assessing
    Performance(Formative)
  • On-Demand Summative Assessment

10
The Backward Design Process Curriculum/Assessment
/Instruction
  • Identify Desired Results - What do students have
    to do? Use Eligible content to write items.
    Eligible content is based on anchors
  • Determine Acceptable Evidence - How do we know if
    they can do and understand? What does proficiency
    or competency look like?
  • Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction

11
Formative Assessment
  • Critical for teaching for understanding
  • Criterion-referenced and child-referenced
  • Supports further learning
  • Includes student self-assessment
  • Assessment data is used to give feedback,
    re-teach, or move to the next level

12
Summative Assessment
  • Designed to report achievement
  • Results for different students based on same
    criteria
  • Results can be compared
  • Results can be used to measure achievement

13
Assessments Have Different Purposes
  • Guide/Change Instruction
  • Communicate Learning Expectations
  • Document Progress/Provide Accountability Data
  • Gauge Program Effectiveness
  • Provide Guidance for Allocation of Resources
  • Provide the Basis for Planning Improvements
  • Motivate Focus Attention and Effort
  • Provide Information for Grading
  • Diagnose Student Strengths/Needs
  • Provide Practice with Knowledge and Skills

14
Assessments Have Different Audiences
  • Students
  • Parents
  • Teachers
  • Administration
  • Community
  • State
  • Nation
  • Who is the audience for the PSSA?

15
What Do Teachers Need to Know and Be Able to Do
  • Know What to Teach
  • Know What Good Student Performance Looks Like
  • Know How to Monitor Student Progress
  • Systematically and Regularly Collect and Analyze
    Data
  • Know What to Do if Students are Not Progressing

16
What Data to Collect
  • What Assessment Data Should Be Collected?
  • Who Should Collect It?
  • How Should We Manage the Data?
  • How Do We Analyze?

17
Follow-up to Check for Understanding After
Instruction
  • Why did you respond this way?
  • How did you come up with this answer?
  • Explain your thinking
  • Describe the process/procedure that you used
  • Can you defend your answer?
  • Is this a problem like any that you solved before?

18
Feedback Tips
  • Frequent and specific feedback should be provided
    - Teacher ? And A
  • Supply backup information so that students can
    troubleshoot their own performance - P
  • Relate specific aspects of poor performance to
    specific remedial actions

19
Key Concepts in Assessment
  • Assess Regularly
  • Use multiple sources of information
  • Take frequent samplings
  • Have students practice in the performance mode in
    which they will be tested
  • Plan for assistance and feedback to students
  • Students must reinvent concepts and make meaning
    from their learning

20
Declarative (Know) or Procedural (Do)
  • Democracy
  • The Rules of Basketball
  • Two-Column Addition
  • Writing
  • An Amoeba
  • Shooting Free Throws
  • Setting Up an Experiment

21
Formative and Summative Assessments include
Traditional and Performance Assessments
  • The assessment selected or developed should
    depend on the type of knowledge
  • Knowledge is Declarative or Procedural
  • Assessing Declarative Knowledge determines
    student understanding of persons, places, things,
    and events. It also assesses knowledge of
    concepts and generalizations
  • Assessing Procedural Knowledge determines whether
    students can perform skills and processes
    automatically.

22
Selected Response Items/Brief Constructed
Responses Assess Declarative Knowledge
  • Selected Response Multiple Choice, True/False,
    Matching
  • Brief Constructed Responses Fill in the blank,
    short answer, label a diagram, show your work,
    visual representation e.g. web, concept map, flow
    chart, graph/table illustration
  • Selected response items can test prerequisites of
    effective skill and product performance, but not
    performance itself

23
Five Keys to High Quality Classroom Assessment
  • What? Clear and Appropriate Targets
  • Why? Clearly Focused and Appropriate Purpose
  • How? Appropriate Match among Targets, Purposes,
    and Methods of Assessment
  • How Much? Sufficient Sampling of Student Work to
    Make Sound Inferences about Learning. Make sure
    there are enough items to cover key concepts
  • How Accurate? Fairness and Freedom from Biases
    that Distort the Picture of Learning
  • Have colleagues review assessments. Double check
    the answer key Source
    Stiggins, R.J. (2001)

24
General Assessment Guidelines for Traditional
Assessments
  • Students need to know the point value for each
    question or section. Helps them use their time
    wisely
  • Start each test with the easy items. Helps
    control anxiety
  • Be sure all parts of the question are on the same
    page
  • Make sure copies are clear and readable
  • Develop test item banks Write items on forms.
    Label as Easy, Medium, or Hard if possible.

25
Matching
  • Present sets of questions and answers in small
    sets (5-8) in a set.
  • Dont give the same number of questions as
    answers (Adapted Tests Same Number)
  • Underline Cue Words
  • Put the definitions on the left and the words on
    the right. Students read more difficult
    definitions first. Keep the definitions simple
    and short.
  • Avoid negative wording
  • Number of response options offered fits item
    context (grammar and syntax)

26
Matching
  • Provide Clear Directions. Do the first question
    as an example
  • Consider providing the page number for the
    students to self correct
  • Provide Word Banks
  • Keep the list of things to be matched
    homogeneous. Dont mix events with names

27
Sample Matching
  • A. A part of the sea that cuts into land ___1.
    colony
  • B. A trip taken to reach a goal ___2. pirate
  • C. Land that is ruled by another country ___3.
    expedition
  • D. A person who attacks and robs ships ___4. Bay
  • pirate expedition bay colony
  • Read the definition and write the proper term
    from the box above on the line.
  • 1. A part of the sea that cuts into the land is
    called _____ ( Page 9)

28
Multiple Choice
  • Provide only one choice per letter. No A and B or
    All of the above
  • Offer a minimum of three choices.
  • Use capital letters which are easier to write
  • Have only one correct answer. Dont use none of
    the above
  • Arrange answers vertically. Use white space
  • Put illustrations with the test items.

29
Sample Multiple Choice
  • List the letter of the correct answer on the
    space provided.
  • 1. An armada is a (page 16)
  • A. colony
  • B. group of armed ships
  • C. military governor

30
True and False
  • Construct true or false questions as declarative
    sentences.
  • Always use upper case letters T or F
  • Avoid negative or comparative working.
  • Be very specific and clear in the choice of words
  • Paraphrase from the textbook. Dont quote.

31
True and False
  • Avoid the use of always, never, and no
  • Make sure there are about the same number of true
    as false and that there is no pattern
  • Use an underline to mark the operative words in
    the questions
  • Elementary teachers may use Yes No
  • High School teachers may want to use not enough
    information given to form a conclusion

32
Sample True and False Test
  • TRUE FALSE 1. Quebec was the first colony in
    the Americas. P. 18
  • TRUE FALSE 2. Early missionaries trained
    horses to pull carts. P.20

33
Short Answer/Fill in the Blank
  • Be specific in the directions whether you want
    one word answers or phrases
  • Word the question for only one answer
  • Provide spaces for each word in the question
  • Provide a word bank and/or page number clues
  • Use wording parallel to the text.

34
Short Answer/Fill in the Blank
  • Place the blank near the end of the sentence.
    This allows students to read most of the question
    before answering. Also, rereading the question is
    not needed for answering
  • Consider not marking off for spelling (?)
  • Limit the number of blanks per item. One is best.
  • Ask a question (a complete thought)
  • The length of the line should not be a clue.
  • Frame questions that are similar to class, but
    not identical in order that original thinking is
    required

35
Item Analysis for Traditional Items The
effectiveness of each item can be determined by
analyzing student responses
  • Did the item function as intended? NR -CR
  • Were the test items of appropriate difficulty? NR
  • Were items free of clues and defects? NR CR
  • Were the distracters effective? NR - CR

36
Item Analysis
  • Can help identify objectives to re-teach
  • Can help eliminate unclear items

37
Grading Student Achievement
  • Multiple Assessments
  • Points for Each Quiz, Assessment, Task
  • Percentage Grades
  • No zeros
  • Drop Highest or Lowest
  • Retesting

38
Next Steps
  • Work in grade level groups
  • Review assessment sample items
  • Develop or select 24 assessment items for each
    grade level assessment anchor in reading and in
    math
  • Write one item on each item form.
  • Label each item easy, medium, and hard.
  • Turn in all items to your room facilitator
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