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Major Dates in Texas History

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1685, La Salle Fort St. Louis on Texas coast (Matagorda Bay) & claims for France. ... They were viewed as pirates, like E.J. Davis. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Major Dates in Texas History


1
Major Dates in Texas History
  • 10,000 B.C.
  • Indians 1st arrived in Texas.
  • Six flags flown over Texas
  • Spain 1519
  • France 1685
  • Spain 1690
  • Mexico 1821

2
Major Dates in Texas History
  • Republic of Texas 1836
  • United States 1845
  • Confederate States 1861
  • United States 1865 (end of civil war) to present
    but officially 1870 (south officially readmitted)
    to present.

3
Spanish Influence
  • 1519, explorer Pifieda mapped Texas' coast.
  • 1528, explorer Cabeza de Vaca Shipwrecked near
    Galveston. Hiked to Mexico City started tales
    of 7 Cities of Gold.

4
Spanish Influence
  • 1541, Coronado, explored New Mexico, West Texas,
    and up to Kansas.
  • 1682, 1st Spanish missions built near El Paso

5
French Influence
  • 1685, La Salle Fort St. Louis on Texas coast
    (Matagorda Bay) claims for France.
  • Killed by one of his own men, disease,
    starvation, Indian attacks kill all others.

6
Spain Returns
  • 1689, Spanish expedition sent to destroy Fort St.
    Louis. Found empty.
  • 1718, Mission San Antonio de Valero established
    as collection of huts.
  • Alamo compound built in 1727, and the present
    church in 1758

7
Mexican Independence
  • 1821, Mexico gains independence from Spain.
  • Texas territory called Coahuila y Tejas.
  • Stephen F. Austin received permission from Mexico
    to settle colony of 300 Anglo-American families.
    1826 forms Texas rangers.

8
Gathering Storm
  • Mexico offers free land to settlers. Required all
    to be Catholic, but most of 20,000 Protestant by
    1830.
  • Mexico orders freedom for 2,000 slaves. Texans
    evade by freeing slaves, then sign to lifetime
    contracts.
  • 1830, Mexico forbids further settlement leads
    to conflict.

9
War Revolution
  • 10/2/1835, Battle of Gonzales "Come and Take It!
  • US Revolution fresh in memory, French Revolution,
    Mexican revolution, America growing, Manifest
    Destiny idea of living free spreading like
    forest fire by fascinating men.
  • 1835, Stephen F. Austin announced war with Mexico
    (liberty/freedom!)
  • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, the president of
    Mexico, Napolean of the West leads Mexican 6019
    man army against Texas rebels.

10
Battle of the Alamo
  • 1836, Gov. Smith/Texas Council orders Col.
    William Travis to defend the Alamo beginning
    2/23/1836. Also led by Col. Jim Bowie.

11
Battle of the Alamo
  • 3/1/1836 Band of 32 including Issac Millsaps
    (Andrew Jacksons warrior from battle of New
    Orleans) from Gonzales broke through Mexican army
    to get into Alamo. Defenders now total 187.
  • 3/2/1836 Texas Declaration of Independence
    enacted by Council at Washington-on-the-Brazos
    (near Navasota).

12
Battle of the Alamo
  • 3/3/1836 Travis sends letter to the Council
    Victory or Death!
  • Col. Juan Seguin ordered to ride out to seek
    reinforcements.
  • 3/6/1836 Final pre-dawn battle of the Alamo.
    Santa Anna ordered band to play "Deguello"
    (signifies the act of beheading or
    throat-cutting) hoisted blood red flag of no
    quarter death to traitors. There will be no
    survivors.

13
Battle of the Alamo
  • Battle ended after 13 days. Texans had killed
    1,600 Mexicans wounded 500. All 187 in Alamo
    killed 13 civilians spared.

14
Millsaps Land Grant
15
Massacre at Coleto Creek
  • 3/20/1836 Massacre at Coleto Creek near Goliad.
    Col Fannin and 341 other Texans surrender to Gen.
    Urrea after battle, after promise they would be
    treated as prisoners of war. Urrea executed them,
    but 28 escape.

16
Battle Cries forTexas Independence
  • "Remember the Alamo!
  • Remember Goliad!"
  • "Thermopylae had its messenger of defeat ... the
    Alamo had none.
  • From the fire that burned their bodies, rose the
    eternal spirit of sublime human sacrifice that
    gave birth to an empire state...

17
Battle of San Jacinto
  • 4/21/1836, near the present city of Houston.
  • Texans' movements screened by trees and the
    rising ground. 330 PM Mexicans in siesta with no
    lookouts to observe the movement.
  • The battle line formed with Burleson's regiment
    in center, Sherman's on left wing, Hockleys
    artillery (The Twin Sisters) on Burleson's right,
    Millards Infantry at right of artillery, and
    Lamars cavalry on extreme right.
  • The whole line, led by Sherman's men, sprang
    forward on the run with the cry, "Remember the
    Alamo!" "Remember Goliad!

18
San Jacinto Houston
  • Battle lasted 18 minutes. 630 Mexicans killed
    and 730 prisoners. 9 of 910 Texans were killed
    30 wounded, including Houston whose ankle
    shattered by rifle ball.
  • President Houston, Republic of Texas, 1837-39
  • October 1836, 1st Congress convened at Columbia,
    now West Columbia (near Houston).
  • Stephen F. Austin "Father of Texas. Secretary of
    State for Republic only 2 months. Died Dec. 27,
    1836
  • Sam Houston moved capitol to Houston in 1837.

19
Lamar Houston
  • Mirabeau B. Lamar, 2nd president of the Republic
    of Texas ( 1839-41 ).
  • 1839, capitol moved to Austin. Lamar Houston
    hated each other.
  • Houston serves 1841-43.
  • Houston Lamar Burnett will be political
    opponents for years.

20
Black Bean Episode
  • Somervell Expedition ordered by Houston to punish
    Mexico raids on San Antonio. 700 volunteers
    departed 11/25/1842 captured Laredo and Guerreo
    along Rio Grande River 1/3 of force quit so
    Somervell ordered his men to disband and return
    to Texas.
  • 300 refused and continued raids. They crossed the
    river on 12/23/1842 and occupied town of Mier.
    Heavy fighting resulted. The Texans, outnumbered
    by about ten to one, killed 600 Mexicans
    wounded 200, while sustaining only 31 killed and
    wounded. But Texans now trapped, without
    supplies, and thus surrendered.
  • Santa Anna ordered execution, order changed, and
    prisoners marched toward capitol. They escaped.
    For 7 days Texans headed for the Rio Grande, but
    in the mountains during the dry season they
    became lost and were re-captured.
  • Santa Anna ordered their executions, but Governor
    Mexía of Coahuila refused. The foreign ministers
    in Mexico were able to get the decree modified.
    Santa Anna ordered every 10th man executed. The
    victims drew a black bean from an earthen jar
    signified death.
  • The doomed men were unshackled from their
    companions, placed in a separate courtyard, and
    shot at dusk on March 25, 1843.

21
Republic Annexed by U.S.
  • Became 28th state 12/29/1845 by Congress joint
    resolution instead of treaty 2/3 vote in Senate.
  • 1st governor of State of Texas, James Pinckney
    Henderson (1846-47).
  • Houston elected US Senator.
  • Governor, State of Texas from 1859 to 1861.

22
Secession War
  • 1/28/1861, Texas seceded from U.S.
  • 3/2/1861, Texas joined the Confederate States of
    America.
  • Gov. Houston refused to take oath to CSA
    resigned to avoid being thrown out of office.
  • Houstons granite statue is 67 high in
    Huntsville, the tallest of any American hero.
  • 50,000 Texans fought for CSA (1861-1865).
  • 1st blood spilled, 4/1/61, in war between the
    states when a Mexican (Ochoa) hanged by Texas
    county officials supporting the confederacy.
    Ranger Captain John Ford (R.I.P.) and his men
    captured and killed 20 of Ochoas men. Ford
    became Texas confederacy best known soldier. He
    commanded the 1500 man Calvary of the West.
  • Col. E.J. Davis began by leading the 1st Texas
    Union Cavalry. Was promoted to Brig Gen and
    commanded the Cavalry Division of Western
    Mississippi.

23
End of War
  • 4/9/1865, Lee surrenders to Grant. Texas refuses
    to surrender!
  • May 13, 1865, last land battle of Civil War
    fought at Palmito Hill, near mouth of Rio Grande
    River. Ranger Ford told Gen Slaughter, who was
    demoralized You can retreat and go to hell if
    you wish! These are my men and I am going to
    fight! On a nervous prancing horse he yelled at
    his Texans Men, we have never lost a fight and
    we can do it again! The troops cheered as he
    screamed Chaaaaarge!
  • Texas Confederates win with no dead, but the
    unions 34th Indiana alone lost 220 of its 300!
  • A few days later Union army sent flag of truce
    message about Appomattox. Ford cursed and said
    he would never surrender but would exchange
    courtesies. Gen. Slaughter also refused to
    surrender but sold Confederate artillery to
    Mexico for silver. Ford arrested him and
    distributed it to the troops for back pay and
    disbanded them on May 26, 1865.
  • Many Confederates fled to Mexico with general
    Sheridans army on the way.
  • There was never a formal surrender in Texas,
    unlike other states. The Texas Confederate Army
    government simply melted away. Tens of
    thousands of bluecoats arrived to restore order
    in Texas.

24
End of War
  • Reconstruction, known as the 2nd Civil War,
    begins. Any who hinted resistance were arrested,
    humiliated publicly, imprisoned.
  • The Radicals, both native Scalawags, and
    Carpetbaggers, were political buccaneers. They
    disliked old Southern order and wished to remake
    Texas like a northern state. They were viewed as
    pirates, like E.J. Davis.
  • Gen. Sheridan, in 1867 order, branded the Texans
    as an impediment to reconstruction.
  • Of 31 million population, 2.4 million served, 1.1
    million military casualties (623,026 killed).
    Perhaps another ¼ million civilian casualties.
    Equivalent of about 11 million in todays
    population. 1 in 10 killed/injured in north 1 in
    4 killed/injured in south.
  • On June 2, 1865, Gen. EJ Davis represented the
    Union at Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith's surrender of
    the Trans-Mississippi West Confederate Army --
    the only significant Confederate army left.

25
Official Readmission to US
  • Texas officially readmitted to the Union on March
    30, 1870 during Reconstruction that would not end
    until the Compromise of 1877 following the bitter
    Presidential election of 1876.
  • July 1870, Battle of Little Washita River. Jim
    Dosher, Texas Ranger and Confederate vet, now US
    Army scout, wins Medal of Honor against Chief
    Kicking Bird his Kiowa Apaches who had stolen
    US Mail about 40 miles from Jacksboro.

26
Did You Know About Texas?
  • 1901, Spindletop, near Beaumont, Texas' first
    oil gusher.
  • 1978, 71 million barrels of oil pumped in Yoakum
    County. Average 195,000 barrels per day.
  • 2004 Gross state product about .9 trillion
    gross national product about 10 trillion.

27
Did You Know About Texas?
  • 11/22/1963. President John F. Kennedy
    assassinated in Dallas. Vice-President Lyndon B.
    Johnson of Texas sworn in as President.
  • Tidewater coastline of Texas stretches 624 miles
    along the Gulf of Mexico
  • 600 historic shipwrecks.

28
Did You Know About Texas?
  • 70,000 miles of highways.
  • Texas has 6,300 square miles of inland lakes and
    streams,
  • 2nd only to Alaska.
  • Tallest point in Texas is Guadalupe Peak at 8,751
    feet.

29
Did You Know About Texas?
  • Governor's Mansion, built in 1856, is oldest
    public building in Austin.
  • Texas has 254 counties.
  • Rockwall County (147 square miles) is the
    smallest.
  • Brewster County (6,204 square miles) is the
    largest.

30
Did You Know About Texas?
  • 267,000 square miles, while Alaska has 591,004 sq
    miles and is 1/5th the size of lower 48.
  • 801 miles from NW corner of Panhandle to
    southern tip.
  • 773 miles from western tip near El Paso to Sabine
    River.
  • As large as all of New England, New York,
    Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois combined.

31
STATE SYMBOLS
  • "Texas" comes from Hasinai Indian word
    "tayshas," meaning friends, which Spanish
    pronounced Tejas, and Anglos pronounced Texas.

32
Texas flag
  • Flag Known as Lone Star Flag. Adopted 1/25/1836,
    as Republic of Texas flag.
  • The Texas flag is one of only two state flags to
    also serve as the symbol of an independent
    nation. The other is the state flag of Hawaii.
  • The red, white and blue colors of the Lone Star
    flag represent bravery, purity and loyalty. The
    phrases "clouds up" and "blood runs down" are
    often used as reminders that the Texas flag's
    white stripe appears at the top and the red
    stripe appears at the bottom.
  • Despite popular legend, the Texas flag is not the
    only state flag that may be displayed at the same
    height as the U.S. flag. All state flags may fly
    at the same height as the U.S. flag when
    displayed on an adjacent staff, according to U.S.
    flag code (Title 4, USC, Chap. 1), but if in a
    cluster of state flags, it must be in the center
    higher than the others. http//www.legion.org/word
    /flagcode.doc
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