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Physical Oceanography

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Lava flows have been dated at 4.6 b.y. Ocean origins. Oceans are as ... Lava flows have been dated at 4.6 b.y. These formed rocks by cooling quickly (in water) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical Oceanography


1
Physical Oceanography
  • Chap. 15

The Oceans Sea Water Ocean Movements
2
The Oceans 15.1
Objectives
  • identify methods used by scientists to study
    Earths oceans
  • discuss the origin and composition of the
    oceans.
  • describe the distribution of oceans and major
    seas

3
  • Introduction

4
  • Introduction
  • Uses

What are some useful features of oceans?
5
  • Introduction
  • Uses
  • travel
  • fishing/food
  • recreation

6
  • Introduction
  • Uses
  • Studying

7
  • Introduction
  • Uses
  • Studying
  • H.M.S. Challenger

Measured depth, water temperature, fauna,
current, and other data. First measured Mariana
trench (26,890 ft.)
8
  • Introduction
  • Uses
  • Studying
  • H.M.S. Challenger
  • Meteor

Used sonar to map undersea topography
9
Example Calculation
A sonar signal travels about 1500 m/s in ocean
water. If it takes 6 seconds for a signal to
return to the ship after it is emitted what is
the distance to the ocean floor?
10
  • Introduction
  • Uses
  • Studying
  • H.M.S. Challenger
  • Meteor
  • TOPEX-Poseidon

NASA satellite that measures ocean data
11
TOPEX/Poseidon
  • tracks ocean tides
  • measures sea levels (to 5 cm accuracy)
  • monitors climates by measuring ocean
    temperatures.

12
  • Ocean origins

13
  • Ocean origins
  • Oceans are as old as Earths rocks

14
  • Ocean origins
  • Oceans are as old as Earths rocks
  • Lava flows have been dated at 4.6 b.y.

15
  • Ocean origins
  • Oceans are as old as Earths rocks
  • Lava flows have been dated at 4.6 b.y.
  • These formed rocks by cooling quickly (in water)

16
  • Ocean origins
  • Oceans are as old as Earths rocks
  • Source of water

17
  • Ocean origins
  • Oceans are as old as Earths rocks
  • Source of water
  • Comets (dirty snow balls)

18
  • Ocean origins
  • Oceans are as old as Earths rocks
  • Source of water
  • Comets (dirty snow balls)
  • Water was trapped in Earth when it formed.
    Volcanoes released this into the atmosphere.

19
  • Earths Water

This is also called the hydrosphere
20
  • Earths Water
  • Location

Where is the Earths water found?
21
The Hydrosphere
22
The Hydrosphere
23
The Hydrosphere
24
The Hydrosphere
25
The Hydrosphere
26
The Hydrosphere
27
  • Earths Water
  • Location
  • Amount of frozen water has varied

28
  • Earths Water
  • Location
  • Amount of frozen water has varied
  • During ice ages as much as 10 of hydrosphere was
    frozen.

29
  • Earths Water
  • Location
  • Amount of frozen water has varied
  • During ice ages as much as 10 of hydrosphere was
    frozen.
  • Sea level varied by hundreds of meters.

Due to melting of glaciers and tectonic forces
altering sea floor.
30
  • Earths Water
  • Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71)

31
  • Earths Water
  • Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71)
  • The hemisphere contains higher
    percentage of water.

32
  • Earths Water
  • Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71)
  • The southern hemisphere contains higher
    percentage of water.
  • All oceans are connected.

33
  • Earths Water
  • Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71)
  • The southern hemisphere contains higher
    percentage of water.
  • All oceans are connected.
  • Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main
    oceans.

34
  • Earths Water
  • Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71)
  • The southern hemisphere contains higher
    percentage of water.
  • All oceans are connected.
  • Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main
    oceans.
  • Seas are partly or mostly surrounded by land.

35
  • Earths Water
  • Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71)
  • The southern hemisphere contains higher
    percentage of water.
  • All oceans are connected.
  • Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main
    oceans.
  • Seas are partly or mostly surrounded by land.
  • Sea ice forms in the Arctic and Antarctic seas.

36
The End
37
Seawater - 15.2
Objectives
  • compare contrast physical and chemical
    properties of seawater
  • explain ocean layering
  • describe the formation of deep-water masses

38
  • Chemical Properties

39
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity

A measure of the dissolved salts in water.
40
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • Sea water is about 35 parts per thousand (ppt)
    salts

41
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • Sea water is about 35 parts per thousand (ppt)
    salts
  • Salts include Na, Cl- , SO42-, Mg2, Ca2, K,
    HCO3-, and others

42
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is .
    . .

43
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is .
    . .
  • a lot of precipitation

44
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is .
    . .
  • a lot of precipitation
  • an estuary/river delta

45
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • The salinity varies and is lower where there is .
    . .
  • a lot of precipitation
  • an estuary/river delta
  • melting of glaciers

46
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt

47
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • the atmosphere (Cl- and SO42-)

48
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • the atmosphere (Cl- and SO42-)
  • weathering rocks (Na, K, Ca2 from feldspar)

49
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • Removing sea salt

50
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • Removing sea salt
  • deposited when water evaporates

51
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • Removing sea salt
  • deposited when water evaporates
  • carried via sea spray

52
  • Chemical Properties
  • Salinity
  • Source of sea salt
  • Removing sea salt
  • deposited when water evaporates
  • carried via sea spray
  • marine organisms use it in building shells,
    bones, and teeth

53
  • Physical Properties

54
  • Physical Properties
  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3

Density of fresh water is 1.00 g/cm3
55
  • Physical Properties
  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3
  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC

Can be as low as -2ºC
56
  • Physical Properties
  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3
  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC
  • Light absorption

57
  • Physical Properties
  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3
  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC
  • Light absorption
  • Water absorbs light

The ocean is completely dark at depths gt 100 m
58
  • Physical Properties
  • Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm3
  • Freezing point is less than 0ºC
  • Light absorption
  • Water absorbs light
  • Some colors penetrate further than others

59
  • Physical Properties
  • Layers

60
  • Physical Properties
  • Layers
  • The deeper you go the _____ the temp.

61
  • Physical Properties
  • Layers
  • The deeper you go the cooler the temp.
  • Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature
    relationship

62
  • Physical Properties
  • Layers
  • The deeper you go the cooler the temp.
  • Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature
    relationship
  • The thermocline is a layer in which the
    temperature decreases linearly with depth

63
  • Physical Properties
  • Layers
  • The deeper you go the cooler the temp.
  • Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature
    relationship
  • The thermocline is a layer in which the
    temperature decreases linearly with depth
  • There is no thermocline for polar seas

64
  • Physical Properties
  • Water masses

65
  • Physical Properties
  • Water masses
  • Cold water comes from polar seas

66
  • Physical Properties
  • Water masses
  • Cold water comes from polar seas
  • Surface water sinks as salinity increases due to
    sea ice formation

67
  • Physical Properties
  • Water masses
  • Cold water comes from polar seas
  • Surface water sinks as salinity increases due to
    sea ice formation
  • Deep currents carry water to the equator

68
The End
69
Ocean Movements 15.3
Objectives
  • describe the physical properties of waves
  • explain how tides form
  • compare and contrast various ocean currents

http//tv-antenna.com/heavy-seas/3/
70
  • Waves

Periodic movement that carries energy from one
place to another.
71
  • Waves
  • Wave characteristics

72
  • Waves
  • Wave characteristics
  • Crest

http//ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/
The peak of a wave
73
  • Waves
  • Wave characteristics
  • Crest
  • Trough

http//ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/
Lowest part of a wave
74
  • Waves
  • Wave characteristics
  • Crest
  • Trough
  • Wavelength

http//ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/
Distance between successive wave crests (or
troughs)
75
  • Waves
  • Wave characteristics
  • Crest
  • Trough
  • Wavelength
  • Wave height

Depends on wind speed, wind duration, and fetch.
76
  • Waves
  • Wave characteristics
  • Breakers

Collapsing waves
77
  • Waves
  • Wave characteristics
  • Breakers
  • Waves slow down

More friction with ocean bottom causes waves to
slow.
78
  • Waves
  • Wave characteristics
  • Breakers
  • Waves slow down
  • Waves become unstable

The tops of the waves collapse forward because
the bottoms are being slowed
79
  • Waves
  • Tides

Periodic rise and fall of sea level.
80
  • Waves
  • Tides
  • High tide

Highest level to which water rises (a bulge of
water)
81
  • Waves
  • Tides
  • High tide
  • Low tide

Lowest level water rises (caused by lack of water)
82
  • Waves
  • Tides
  • Types of daily cycles

Caused by topography and latitude
83
  • Waves
  • Tides
  • Types of daily cycles
  • Semidiurnal

Characterized by __ high tides each day
84
  • Waves
  • Tides
  • Types of daily cycles
  • Semidiurnal
  • Mixed

Have one pronounced high tide and one _____ high
tide
85
  • Waves
  • Tides
  • Types of daily cycles
  • Semidiurnal
  • Mixed
  • Diurnal

Characterized by one ____ ____ each day
86
  • Waves
  • Tides

tutorial
  • Cause of tides

87
  • Waves
  • Tides
  • Cause of tides
  • Gravity from the moon pulls on earth/oceans

88
  • Waves
  • Tides
  • Cause of tides
  • Gravity from the moon pulls on earth/oceans
  • Centrifugal motion moves the water away from Earth

89
  • Waves
  • Tides
  • Cause of tides
  • During spring tide (unrelated to the season) high
    tides are highest

90
  • Waves
  • Tides
  • Cause of tides
  • During spring tide (unrelated to the season) high
    tides are highest
  • During neap tide high tides are lower and low
    tides are higher than normal

91
  • Waves
  • Tides
  • Cause of tides
  • The sun influences tides to a smaller degree

This is because of the greater distance between
Earth and the sun (compared to Earth and the moon)
92
  • Ocean Currents
  • Density currents

Move bottom water according to temperature and
salinity differences
93
  • Ocean Currents
  • Density currents
  • Surface currents

Driven by surface wind.
94
  • Ocean Currents
  • Density currents
  • Surface currents
  • Follow global wind patterns

Trade winds, prevailing westerlies, polar
easterly winds. Coriolis effect alters directions
95
  • Ocean Currents
  • Density currents
  • Surface currents
  • Follow global wind patterns
  • Currents from the poles bring colder water, while
    currents from equator bring warmer water

96
  • Ocean Currents
  • Density currents
  • Surface currents
  • Follow global wind patterns
  • Currents from the poles bring colder water, while
    currents from equator bring warmer water
  • Gyres develop due to landmasses interacting with
    current flow

Circular surface ocean currents
97
Major Ocean Currents
98
  • Ocean Currents
  • Upwelling brings nutrient-rich water.

Movement of cold water upward as surface water is
blown by offshore winds
99
The End
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