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History of Slavery

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In most of the world, slavery, or involuntary human servitude, was practiced ... Female slaves also traded cotton spinning and dyeing. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Slavery


1
History of Slavery
  • Take Cornell Notes

2
Early Slavery
  • In most of the world, slavery, or involuntary
    human servitude, was practiced across Africa from
    prehistoric times to the modern era.
  • Think-Pair-Share (write 5 examples in Notes)
  • What value does slavery have for the slave owner?

3
Early African Slavery
  • In Africa, many societies recognized slaves
    merely as property, but others would eventually
    integrated slaves into their families.
  • Most often, both slave owners and slaves were
    black Africans, although they were frequently of
    different ethnic groups (tribes). Traditionally,
    African slaves were bought to perform menial or
    domestic labor, to serve as wives or concubines,
    or to enhance the status of the slave owner.

4
Egyptian Slavery
  • Slavery existed in some of Africa's earliest
    organized societies. More than 3,500 years ago,
    ancient Egyptians raided neighboring societies
    for slaves, and the buying and selling of slaves
    were regular activities in cities along the Nile
    River.

5
Roles of Slaves
  • Women constituted the majority of early African
    slaves.
  • Male Female slaves would do agricultural work.
  • Female slaves also traded cotton spinning and
    dyeing. They also performed domestic chores, such
    as preparing food, washing clothes, and cleaning.

6
Slavery by Non-Africans
  • After the 5th century BCE, the Greeks and Romans
    came to dominate the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Both of these slave-owning powers raided North
    Africa extensively for slaves.
  • This practice of using Africa as a source of
    slaves would be adopted and expanded first by
    Arab Muslims and later by Europeans.

7
Islamic Expansion and Slavery
  • Traditional African practices of slavery were
    altered beginning in the 7th century by Arab
    Muslims.
  • From the 7th to the 20th century, Arab Muslims
    raided and traded for black African slaves in
    West, Central, and East Africa, sending thousands
    of slaves each year to North Africa and parts of
    Asia.

8
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9
Islam and Slavery
  • The Qur'an (Koran) and Islamic religious law
    served to codify and justify the existence of
    slavery.
  • The Berbers (North Africans) were enslaved by
    Arab Muslims and eventually converted to Islam.
  • Muslim Arabs expanded the slave trade, buying or
    seizing increasing numbers of black Africans in
    West Africa, leading them across the Sahara
    Desert, and selling them in North Africa.
  • From there, most of these slaves were exported to
    far-off Asian destinations such as Anatolia (in
    present-day Turkey), Arabia, Persia (present-day
    Iran), and India.

10
Effects of Slave Trade
  • The slave trades contributed to the development
    of powerful African states.
  • The economies of these states were dependent on
    slave trading. Neighboring states competed with
    one another for trade, leading to wars, which in
    turn led to the capture of more slaves.
  • When European explorers and traders arrived in
    West Africa beginning in the 15th century, they
    found and began using well-established
    slave-trade networks.

11
European Slave Trade
  • The Atlantic slave trade developed after
    Europeans began exploring and establishing
    trading posts on the Atlantic (west) coast of
    Africa in the mid-15th century. The first major
    group of European traders in West Africa was the
    Portuguese, followed by the British and the
    French.

12
Need for Slavery in New World
  • In the 16th and 17th centuries, European colonial
    powers began needed slavery for their plantation
    agriculture in the New World. (North, Central,
    and South America, and the Caribbean islands).
  • Slaver labor was needed for labor intensive crops
    like sugar, tobacco, rice, indigo, and cotton.

13
  • From the mid-15th to the late-19th century,
    European and American slave traders purchased
    approximately 12 million slaves from West and
    west central Africa.
  • Reflection What impact has the massive human
    importation for slavery have on the U.S. today?

14
The Middle Passage
  • The crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by slave
    trading ships was called the Middle Passage.
  • Conditions on the ships were horrible with slaves
    been fed small amounts of food and there being a
    high spread of disease on the ships.
  • It is estimated that between 1.5 and 2 million
    slaves died during the journey to the New World.

15
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16
Ending of the Slave Trade
  • In 1807 the slave trade was outlawed in Britain
    and the United States. Britain outlawed the
    practice of slavery in all British territory in
    1833 France did the same in its colonies in
    1848. In 1865, following the American Civil War,
    the U.S. government adopted the 13th Amendment to
    the Constitution, ending slavery in the United
    States. The Atlantic slave trade continued,
    however, until 1888, when Brazil abolished
    slavery.
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