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Constitutionalism in England


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Title: Constitutionalism in England

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Constitutionalism in England
  • 1603-1689

Things to think about
  • What is the difference between a revolt and a
  • How was the English Civil War part of the Age of
    Religious Wars?
  • How were trends revealed by the new monarchies
    realized in the English experience?
  • How much power did the monarchy and Parliament
  • What was restored when Charles II took the
    throne? What was not restored?

  • A government limited by law
  • Can be a monarchy or a republic
  • Not necessarily democratic
  • England (Great Britain) and Netherlands

17th Century England
  • Divine Right of Kings
  • Secular and Religious Power in the Monarchy
  • Disputes- Monarchy v. Parliament
  • War, Taxes and Religion
  • Demand for More Rights - Petition of Right
  • Power of Religious Strife
  • English Civil War
  • Puritans v. Church of England
  • Oliver Cromwell v. King Charles I
  • Roundheads v. Cavaliers
  • Age of Intolerance- Military Dictatorship
  • Oliver Cromwell- Military Dictator
  • Restoration-
  • Protestantism v. Catholicism Part II
  • Demand for more Rights (Writ of Habeas Corpus)
  • Fear of Religion??? (power of Catholicism)
  • Glorious Revolution
  • Power of Parliament v. King
  • English Bill of Rights

James (Stuart) I (England) 1603-1625
  • Son of Mary, Queen of Scots
  • Early in Term- Gunpowder Catholic Plot Guy
  • Protestant (Church of England)
  • Church of England was Very Catholic
  • Rose to the throne on the Death of Elizabeth, who
    was childless
  • Major Accomplishment- King James Bible
  • Written in English, it is the dominant English
    language Bible to this day
  • Book of Sports! (alienates Puritans)
  • Argued with Parliament - Hated to ask Parliament
    for Money for Wars (he felt above that type of
  • Duke of Buckingham lover?
  • Salary 30,000 pounds
  • Artisan 300 pounds

James I and the Puritans
  • Wife Anne is Catholic
  • Puritans
  • Dislike sports
  • James writes a Book of Sports
  • Initially tried to line up a marriage w/Spain
  • King James Bible- Puritans demanded changes,
    ultimately led to commission

King of ScotlandJames I of England was also
James VI of Scotland (Presbyterian)
  • Edinburgh Castle

Charles I (Stuart) 1625- 1649 (Tried and
  • Son of James I
  • Saw himself as placed on earth to be King by God
  • Problems led to laws limiting the Kings rights
  • Dispute caused the English Civil War (1642-1649)
  • Charles Tried and Executed 1649- Family escaped
    to France

Charles I (r. 1625-1649)
  • Son of James I
  • Catholic sympathies (wife French-Catholic)
  • Unpopular ruler
  • Arrested opponents, quartered troops
  • Finances
  • Forced loans

Charles I and Parliament
  • Parliament
  • Parliament had gained power through the
    Reformation sanctioning King Henry VIIIs
    divorce and remarriage
  • Charles called it in 1628 to fund 30 Years War
  • Petition of Right need Parliament to raise
    taxes, can be no forced loans, habeus corpus, no
    quartering troops
  • Accepted by Charles I, but ignored
  • Dissolved 1629 Charles ruled alone

Petition of RightIdeas that later became part of
the US Constitution
  • The King May Not
  • Imprison people without due Cause (6th Amend. US
  • No taxation without Representation (Decl. of
  • No Quartering of Troops in Houses (3rd Amend. US
  • No Martial Law in Peacetime (US Constitution

Charles without Parliament
  • Ship money tax applied throughout England,
    not just port cities
  • Archbishop William Laud
  • High church practices (Catholic-like)
  • Barred Puritans
  • Imposed Episcopal system and Book of Common
    Prayer on Scotland, so the Scots rebelled

Charles and Parliament Fight!
  • Charles fought Wars with Spain and France
  • Wars Cost the Government LOTS of money- (Iraq has
    cost the US over 500 Billion Dollars !!!!)
  • How does Government pay for Wars!!! Taxes!
  • Charles thought he was too BIG for Parliament but
    needed Parliament for (to authorize taxes)
  • Parliament struck a deal with Charles-
  • Theyd give him Money if he protected their
    rights Petition of Right
  • Afterward Charles made sure Parliament didnt
    meet for the next 11 years (1629-1640)

Charles and Parliament
  • Needed to raise funds for war with Scotland
  • Short Parliament agreed only if terms met,
    dissolved, Scots won a battle, need new
  • Short Parliament (1640)- Pym Escapes
  • Long Parliament (1640-1649?) Charles in Hampton
  • Divided religiously made up of Anglicans and
  • Earl Sheffield Executed
  • Laud imprisoned and executed
  • Abolished Court of the Star Chamber and ship
  • Triennial Act Parliament must meet every 3

Charles fought with Puritans , Irish Catholics
and Presbyterians
  • Puritans- Puritans sought to PURIfy the Church of
    England of anything that seemed Roman Catholic
  • Charles alienated(upset) Puritans by picking
    William Laud (Archbishop)
  • Upset Scots- Presbyterians- demanded they follow
    the Church of Englands rituals
  • James and Charles establishing settlements
    Plantations in Ireland

The Interregnum (1649-1660)
  • Puritan republic
  • Military dictatorship led by Oliver Cromwell
  • Conquered Ireland and Scotland created Great
  • Army was expensive Parliament tried to stop it
    Cromwell invaded and disbanded Parliament
    (1653) created the Protectorate and he was Lord
  • Prohibited drunkenness, sport, dancing, theaters

English Civil War1642-1649
  • Cromwells New Model Army v. Kings Forces
  • 100s of Thousands Died
  • Cromwell later alienated Parliament-
  • Military Control despite Parliaments Protest
  • Puritans majority of Cromwells Army
  • Nobles and Church Officials majority of Kings
  • Charles I- Tried and Executed
  • Cromwell Wins!

Civil War
  • Irish rebelled (earlier there were Scot
    rebellions-gtBishops War
  • January 1642 Parliament divided, so King
  • Charles left London to raise an army - Cavaliers
  • Parliament raised an army
  • Roundheads
  • led by Oliver Cromwells New Model Army
  • King captured (twice)

Cavaliers and Roundheads
  • Cavaliers- Kings Forces
  • Roundheads (due to their Haircuts (similar to Jim
    Carey in dumb and dumber)

The Warrant to Execute of Charles I
Execution of Charles I
  • Rump Parliament (1648-49)
  • Made up of extremist Puritans
  • Tried and executed Charles I for treason
  • Abolished the monarchy
  • England became a republic or a commonwealth

Oliver Cromwell
  • Puritan
  • Led the New Model Army
  • Fought Charles I
  • Disrespected Parliament
  • Became Military Dictator- LORD PROTECTOR

It aint over till its Over
  • Constant Shifting alliances
  • Charles II allies w/Scots, but quickly defeated
  • Irish uprising put down by Cromwell- Beginning of
    300 years of problems!
  • Levellers Radicalized Soldiers
  • Rioted against enclosure who 'levelled' fences
    erected by landlords around former common lands.
  • Supported extension of voting rights,
  • abolition of censorship,
  • disestablishment of the Church of England.
  • 'the poorest he that is in England hath a life to
    live as the greatest!

Thomas HobbesPolitical Writer and Philosophe
Leviathan- Sea Monster
All Powerful Monarch
  • 1651 Wrote Leviathan (political book)
  • Leaders are given Power by the People (Social
  • Therefore, Leaders need to be incredibly Powerful
  • If two people, individually go out to hunt a
    deer, they are more likely to kill each other
    than work together to capture a deer
  • Hobbes saw people at their worst- He lived in a
    very bloody and murderous time (English Civil
  • He saw little cooperation and lots of competition
    amongst people

Cromwell ran a strict ship
  • Ran a Strict Govt.
  • Believed in Religious Liberty (people can choose
    their religion)
  • Allowed Jews to return to England (thrown out in
    the 14th Century)
  • People could practice various religions, except
    Catholics, Episcopalians and Quakers!
  • Raised Taxes w/out Parliament
  • Disbanded Parliament, created his own government
  • Imprisoned people w/out Trial
  • Fought and defeated Irish Catholics in Ireland
  • Strict social laws in London (no dancing, theatre
  • His Son, Richard, took over the Protectorate on
    Olivers death

Richard Cromwell
  • 1658 -Took over from his Father, Oliver
  • Lord Protector
  • Unable to effectively rule- Parliament forced him
    out (1660)

Charles II (1660-1685)and the Interregnum-gtRestora
tion -
  • Charles II (fought briefly w/Cromwell) and his
    brother James lived in France
  • They secretly agreed to become Catholic (deal
    with French King, Louis XIV who was secretly
    giving him money)
  • Parliament brought back Charles II and restored
    his family to the Throne- Restoration

The Restoration
  • Charles II (r. 1660-1685)
  • Restored monarchy and imposed Anglicanism
  • Treaty of Dover
  • Fought w/Holland- established alliances w/France
  • Catholic sympathies
  • Secret agreement with Louis XIV
  • James (brother) openly Catholic

Charles II as a Ruler
  • Reasonable ruler, sought to give more religious
  • Upset Parliament, that didnt like Catholicism
  • Arts flourished- Drama and Comedy, John Milton
    wrote Paradise Lost
  • Law providing for Habeas Corpus (see US
    Constitution) Passed by Parliament
  • People could no longer be placed in Jail and not
    given a trial
  • Charles dies w/out an heir (childless)- always a

Charles II
  • Test Act (1673)- not his own doing
  • Division in Parliament
  • Whigs exclude James
  • Tories right of succession
  • Corn Laws (Navigation Acts-gtMercantilism)
  • Passed w/Parliament
  • Died 1685 (converted to Catholicism on death

James II (1685-1688)
  • Brother of Charles II
  • Whigs and Tories combine to oust James II from
  • His 1st daughter, Mary, (Protestant) living in
    the Netherlands with her husband, William, is
    brought over to rule. (William and Mary, the
    school in Va. Is named for them.)

(what American city was named for James II???
Hint Before he was James II he was the Duke of
__ ___ ___ ___). Because there was already a
city with the same name in England this American
citys name begins with the word New)
James II (r. 1685-1688) (Catholic)
  • Alienated Parliament
  • Ignored Test Act and appointed Catholics
  • Suspended law at will
  • Parliament feared Louis XIV-like England
  • James re-married and produced a male heir

A Catholic on the Throne is Dangerous!
  • James was Catholic, but when made King his oldest
    child was Protestant
  • Has another child (a son) while King- This Child
    is Catholic
  • Causes Fear that Catholicism will be restored
  • James appointed Catholics to high office- Upset
  • Like Charles I he suspends Parliament from
    meeting-gt Demands for James removal

  • Little Bloodshed during the removal of James II
  • Main bloodshed is in Ireland- where Irish
    Catholics are overwhelmingly defeated.
  • William and Mary- will have less power than James
    II and his brother Charles II John Locke writes
    the English Bill of Rights. This places more
    limits on the power of the King and Queen
  • Winners Parliament and Protestantism
  • Losers- Monarchy, Catholicism, Irish and James II

John Locke Political Writer and Philosophe
  • Optimistic about Man and Society
  • In his life he experienced a revolution where few
    people died.
  • Society did not need an Absolute Monarch, the
    best government is a limited Government.
  • Essays on Government (1690)
  • Government is subject to the People (Social
  • People have Natural Rights- Include Life and
  • Government should protect Life, Liberty and
  • Power of Government should be LIMITED
  • Revolution is justified if Government fails to
    properly Govern
  • Wrote the English Bill of Rights (also called the
    Declaration of Rights)

New Laws
  • Bill of Rights
  • Limited powers of monarchy call Parliament
    every 3 years
  • Guaranteed civil liberties
  • No Catholics to throne
  • Toleration of all (except Catholics and
  • No standing army in peace-time
  • Act of Settlement- Throne to Hanover family of

English (Bill of Rights) 1688Declaration of
  • King cant suspend the laws of Parliament (see
    Declaration of Independence)
  • Parliament had to meet frequently (US
  • Elections should be free and fair (US
  • Debates in parliament should be subject to
    freedom of speech (US Constitution
  • No Taxes without approval of Parliament (see US
  • No Standing Army without approval of Parliament
    (See US Constitution)
  • No excessive Bail (see US 8th Amendment)
  • (These and other laws provide the foundation for
    the US
  • Declaration of Independence and the US

Tower of London-Where the Kings and Queens lived
Today, the crown jewels are kept there
William and Mary
  • Parliament invited William (of Orange) and Mary
    (Protestant daughter of James) to take throne

Act of Settlement passed 1701- lead to Hanover
John Milton Paradise Lost
  • One of the most famous books in English History.
  • Why man must endure such suffering and pain

St. Pauls Cathedralbuilt after the Great Fire
of 1666
Christopher Wren
The English Emblem at Buckingham Palace (built in
the 18C)