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Dysfunctional Foods: How the Contemporary American Food System Creates Imbalanced Bodies, Minds and

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Title: Dysfunctional Foods: How the Contemporary American Food System Creates Imbalanced Bodies, Minds and


1
Dysfunctional FoodsHow the Contemporary
American Food System Creates Imbalanced Bodies,
Minds and Behaviors
  • Margaret Adamek

2
(No Transcript)
3
How many of you know someone
  • Who has struggled with alcoholism?
  • Who suffers from depression or anxiety?
  • Who has chronic issues with their weight or
    struggles with eating disorders?
  • Who has a child with hyperactivity or attention
    deficit issues?
  • Who has been diagnosed with diabetes?
  • Who has a family with one or more of these issues?

4
Solving weight issues
  • Standard Approach Individual Responsibility
  • Cut calories
  • Increase activity
  • Reduce soft drink and fast food consumption
  • Reduce time spent watching television and playing
    video games

5
Solving depression, anxiety, diabetes, addiction,
ADHD
  • Medicate
  • Anti-depressants
  • Insulin
  • Anti-anxiety
  • Amphetamines
  • Counsel
  • Twelve step
  • Individual counseling

6
from branches to roots the effects of diet on
people
7
neurochemical roots of the problem
  • Volatile blood sugar
  • Low serotonin
  • Low beta endorphin
  • Low dopamine

Glucose molecule
8
..the unraveling web
caffeine
sugar amphetamine
9
Volatile blood sugar
  • Tired all the time for little reason
  • Restless and edgy
  • Confused/foggy/spacey
  • Irritable and easily frustrated
  • Cranky
  • Short-fused

10
Low serotonin
  • Depressed
  • Impulsive
  • Short attention span
  • Scattered
  • Aggressive
  • Reactive
  • Craving sweets and carbohydrates

Serotonin peptide
11
Low beta endorphin
  • Low pain tolerance
  • Low self-esteem and feels inadequate
  • Tearful
  • Sensitive to criticism
  • Feels isolated
  • Seeks crisis
  • Feels victimized
  • Craves sugar and fat

Beta endorphin peptide
12
Low dopamine
  • Correlated with unhappiness
  • Linked to aggressive behavior and violence
  • Lack of positive emotionality

dopamine peptide
13
Theory of Sugar SensitivityKathleen DesMaisons,
Ph.D
  • DBA/C57 mice inherited suite of biochemical
    deficits that give rise to a set of emotional and
    physical symptoms
  • Individuals who suffer from this profile seek out
    foods or substances that elevate these deficits
  • Sugar, fat, alcohol and other drugs cause the
    brain to produce opiates

C57
DBA
14
Sugar Sensitive Eating Habits
  • Skip breakfast
  • Low protein intake
  • Erratic mealtimes
  • High intake of refined carbohydrates and sugars
  • Frequent meal skipping
  • High consumption of caffeine
  • True of alcoholics and of C57 sugar sensitive
    types

15
Research Base
  • Sugar and alcohol evokes beta endorphin
    (Gianoulakis 1994, 1996 Blass 1991, 1995)
  • Low serotonin, carbohydrate craving, obesity and
    depression (Wurtman 1986, 1995)
  • Fat consumption and beta endorphin release
    (Drewnoski 1983, 1987, 1992)
  • Serotonin inversely related to fat and sugar
    intake (Fernstrom 1971, 1986, 1987, 1995)

16
More Research
  • Sugar induces physical dependency (Colantuoni and
    Hoebel 2002)
  • Sugar is a gateway substance that increases
    likelihood of addiction to other substances, e.g.
    amphetamines (Hoebel 2003)
  • Sugar dependency is indicator of alcohol intake
    (Hoebel 2005)
  • Sugar and fat together create significantly
    increased consumption behavior (Kelley 2003)

17
More research
  • Palatability/sweet taste alone will evoke opiate
    response (Hoebel)
  • High fructose corn syrup does not metabolize in
    ways that other sugars do, creating biochemical
    reactions that alter metabolism (Bray 2003)

18
Further research.
  • Too much fructose alters metabolism (Teff, 2004)
  • One serving of soft drink per day increases a
    womens chances of Type II diabetes by 85
    (Schulze, 2004)

19
and yet more!!
  • Addiction mechanism in the rat is similar to
    humans (Deroche-Gamonet et al., 2004)
  • Areas in brain activated in food craving are also
    activated in drug craving (Raglund et al 2004)

20
what do you get?
21
Steps toward StabilityKathleen DesMaisons, Ph.D.
  • Eat breakfast everyday within one hour of
    waking adequate protein complex carbohydrates
  • 2. Journal what and when you eat/how you
    physically and emotionally feel

22
Steps toward StabilityKathleen DesMaisons, Ph.D.
  • Eat three meals a day spaced 5 6 hours apart
    adequate protein, complex carbohydrates and
    vegetables move sugar consumption to meals
  • 4. Vitamins and Nightly Potato vitamin C (free
    radical scavenger) B-complex aids in
    detoxification and restoration zinc omega 3
    fatty acids//potato for serotonin synthesis

23
Steps toward Stability
  • 5. Whites to Browns slowly move refined grains
    to whole grains
  • 6. Remove Sugars slowly remove overt and
    covert sweeteners

24
Steps Toward Stability
  • Stabilize beta endorphin receptor increase and
    stabilization explore food allergy issues
    adequate fatty acids consumption increase
    insulin receptor sites to heal insulin resistance
  • Prayer, meditation, play, ceremony, spiritual
    deepening,

25
Effects of diet
  • Regulates blood sugar no dips and spikes
  • No sleepies less irritability not moody
  • Elevates serotonin
  • Able to say no and no impulsive behavior
  • Increases beta endorphin
  • Secure sense of self strong self-esteem and
    self-acceptance
  • Increases dopamine
  • Less aggressive, diminished violence and anger

26
How do you feel?
  • Consistent, steady energy without fits of fatigue
    or drowsiness
  • Happy, upbeat, not feeling done to
  • Secure and relaxed not anxious
  • Productive and able to concentrate
  • Compassionate and patient
  • Good at self-care

27
What are we seeing?
  • 92 long term success rate with alcoholism
    recovery
  • Drastic improvement in depression, ADHD, OCD,
    ODD, anxiety, weight, self-esteem, diabetes
  • Improved triglycerides, lipids, blood glucose
    levels, cholesterol

28
Where are we today?
29
Obesity Where are we today?
  • 64 of U.S. adults are estimated obese or
    overweight (NHANES 1999-2000)
  • 31 of Americans are estimated obese - (NHANES
    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    19992000)
  • 106 increase in obesity nationwide since 1981
    (French et al. 2001)
  • 5 7 increase in obesity each year (CDC)
  • All but one state has 15 or greater rate of
    population as overweight (CDC)
  • 58 of Minnesotans are overweight or obese (CDC)

30
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1985
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
31
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1986
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
32
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1987
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
33
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1988
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
34
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1989
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
35
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1990
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
36
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1991
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
37
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1992
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
38
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1993
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
39
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1994
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
40
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1995
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
41
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1996
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
42
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1997
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
43
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1998
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
44
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1999
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
45
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2000
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
46
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2001
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data 2024 25
47
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2002
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
(BMI ?30, or 30 lbs overweight for 54 person)
No Data 1519 2024 25
48
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2003
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4
person)
No Data 1519 2024 25
49
Obesity Trends Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1991-2002
(BMI 30, or 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 woman)
2002
No Data 1519 2024 25
50
Diabetes where are we now?
  • 70 of diagnosed Type II diabetes is attributable
    to obesity (NIDDK NIH)
  • 6.3 of American population is diabetic
    (NIDDK-NIH)
  • 6 increase in diabetes per year (NIDDK-NIH)
  • Between 1990 -1998, prevalence of diagnosed
    diabetes increased 33 (CDC 2002)

51
Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes Trends Among
Adults in the U.S., BRFSS 1990, 1995 and 2000
1990
1995
2000
Source Mokdad et al., Diabetes Care
2000231278-83 J Am Med Assoc 2001286(10).
52
Depression anxiety today
  • 9.5 of American adults suffers from depression
    each year (National Institutes of Mental Health -
    NIH Publication No. 01-4584 )
  • 13.3 of American adults suffer from anxiety
    disorders (National Institutes of Mental Health -
    NIH Publication No. 01-4584 )

53
Alcoholism
  • More than 50 of American adults have a close
    relative who has/had a drinking problem (Dawson
    1998)
  • 7.4 of American adults are dependent or abuse
    alcohol in 2000 (Grant 1994)
  • 20 of individuals seeking primary healthcare are
    alcoholic (Bellas, Rand Corporation, 2000)
  • 6.3 of adult Minnesotans report chronic drinking
    (NIAAA 1984-2002)
  • 90 of alcoholics are likely to experience at
    least one relapse during the four years after
    treatment (NIAAA 1989)

54
impact on our children
  • 27 of children are overweight (Centers for
    Disease Control)
  • Obesity rates among children have doubled in the
    last ten years and tripled for adolescents
    (Troiano, 1998)
  • Children born in the year 2000 have a 33 chance
    of becoming diabetic if theyre boys 39 if
    theyre girls (Venkat Narayan et al, 2004)
  • Childhood tantrums are positively correlated with
    obesity (Agras et al. 2004)

55
Attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
  • 7.5 of children exhibit this disorder 3 times
    as many boys as girls (data taken from Minnesota
    Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
    2002)
  • 80 of prescriptions for amphetamines are written
    for children diagnosed with ADHD (DEA
    Congressional Testimony, 2000)
  • Administration of amphetamines to children has
    risen 3000 in the last ten years (DEA
    Congressional Testimony, 2000)

56
Economic Impact - Obesity
  • 78.5 billion in healthcare costs for obesity
    (National Health Accounts, CDC)
  • 7 of US healthcare costs are obesity-related
    (French, 2003)
  • 1.307 billion in healthcare costs for Minnesota
    (CDC)
  • Obesity-related disability claims up 130 between
    1984 and 1996 for ages 30 49 (Rand Corporation)
  • By 2020, 20 of healthcare expenditures would be
    for obesity-related issues.

57
Economic Impact - Obesity
  • Obesity is associated with a 36 increase in
    inpatient and outpatient spending
  • Obesity is associated with a 77 increase in
    medications (Sturm 2002)

58
Economic impact depression/anxiety/alcoholism
  • Cost of depression is 83.1 billion (Greenberg et
    al. 2003)
  • For diabetes.98 billion per year (premature
    mortality, disability, healthcare costs,
    workloss)
  • For alcoholism, estimated productivity loss is
    134.2 billion (NIAAA 2001)
  • Alcohol-related illness costs 87.6 billion
    premature death 36.5 billion (NIAAA 2001)
  • For alcoholism, estimated cost of alcohol abuse
    is 185 billion for 1998 (NIAAA 2001)

59
How do these public health issues relate to diet?
Public Health Crisis
60
Change in Carbohydrate Consumption
  • Increase of 50 in refined carbohydrates from
    1970 (USDA Economic Research Service)
  • Americans consume less than one serving per day
    of whole grains (USDA Economic Research Service)
  • 4000 increase in consumption per annum per
    person of high fructose corn syrup (USDA Economic
    Research Service)
  • Additional average 300 daily calories consumed
    attributed to increase in carbohydrate
    consumption (CDC 2004)

61
U.S. Sugar Intake
  • Sugar intake rose 30 percent between 1983 and
    1999 and was at 158 pounds per person/year
    (Center for Science in Public Interest
    222.cspinet.org/new/sugar_limit.html)

62
Candy and Other Confectionary Products US Per
Capita Consumption, 1966 2000, Pounds/ Year
63
(No Transcript)
64
US Per Capita High Fructose Corn Syrup
Disappearance 1967 2000, Pounds / Year
65
Introduction of new, larger portions, 19701999
Number of Large-Size Portions Introduced
Year
Young Nestle 2002
66
Portion sizes
  • Energy dense, nutrient poor foods comprise 27 of
    diet ( 4 alcohol) (Kant 2000)
  • Standard portion size for factory-made cookies
    exceeds USDA standards by 700 muffins by 333,
    and bagels by 195
  • French fries, hamburgers and sodas increased 2
    5 times since 1970
  • 7-11 Big Gulp contains the caloric equivalent of
    more than one third the energy requirement of
    large segments of American population
  • (Young and Nestle 2002)

67
Our love affair with fast food
  • One in four adults eats fast food everyday in the
    United States
  • One in three children eats fast food everyday in
    the United States
  • Soft drink consumption up 135 since 1977

68
Media Attention
  • The Sunday Telegraph UK Food Industry has
    known for years that foods high in fat and sugar
    impact consumption (August 2003)
  • Atlanta Constitution Sugar Nation Series
    (November 2002)
  • New York Times Sunday Magazine What if Its
    All Been a Big, Fat Lie? (July 2002)
  • World Health Organization Diet, Nutrition and
    the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (February
    2003)

69
Political Pressure
  • Suppression of WHO information and federal
    recommendations on reduction of refined
    carbohydrates
  • Congressional ban on litigation against food
    corporations

70
A complex system of addiction
71
with complex consequences
72
with complex consequences
73
with complex consequences
74
Connecting the body to community
  • How we produce food
  • What we produce
  • How we process food
  • How we consume food
  • What are the economic, ecological, cultural and
    health impacts?
  • Healing the sacred web of life

75
The Sugar Project
  • Healing culture from the molecular to the social
  • Mending the sacred web of life
  • Generating wellness creation, NOT wealth creation

culture
76
a complex system of change
  • Economic development
  • Healthcare Policy
  • Child and Youth Nutrition
  • Ecological renewal
  • Agricultural Policy
  • Re-emergence of local food systems and economies
  • Restoration of community health

77
What is currently happening?
  • Appleton School district
  • Hopkins Schools
  • South Dakota School Districts
  • Edible Schoolyard, Berkeley CA
  • Hawaiian Charter Schools
  • Hopi Nation
  • St. Paul Public Schools
  • Food Studies Institute

78
caffeine
drug-free
sugar amphetamine
mending the web of life
79
For further information
  • www.radiantrecovery.com or radiantkd_at_mindspring.co
    m
  • Sugar Addicts Recovery Program, by Kathleen
    DesMaisons
  • Maggi Adamek
  • madamek_at_umn.edu
  • 651-334-6895

80
Sources
  • Obesity and related healthcare costs statistics
    http//www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/economic_c
    onsequences.htmNational20Estimated20Cost20of2
    0Obesity
  • http//www.rand.org/publications/RB/RB9043/
  • http//nutrition.about.com/library/weekly/aa010503
    a.htm
  • Troiano, Richard P., Flegal, Katherine M. (1998,
    March). Overweight children and adolescents
    description, epidemiology, and demographics.
    Pediatrics, 101, 497-504.
  • Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2001,
    unpublished data. National Center for Health
    Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and
    Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human
    Services.

81
Sources (contd)
  • http//www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statisti
    cs/index.htm
  • http//www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/statob
    es.htm
  • http//www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statisti
    cs/index.htm
  • http//www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/statob
    es.htm

82
Sources (contd)
  • http//www.ajc.com/living/content/living/special/s
    ugar/18sugarsouth.html
  • http//www.who.int/nut/documents/trs_916.pdf
  • http//www.psychiatrist.com/issues/greenberg.pdf
  • http//www.ers.usda.gov/publications/FoodReview/DE
    C2002/frvol25i3a.pdf
  • http//www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v03n06/v03n
    0611.pdf
  • http//www.niaaa.nih.gov/databases/abdep2.htm
  • http//www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1280/mr1280.
    ch2.pdf

83
Sources (contd)
  • http//www.nyu.edu/education/nutrition/PDFS/young-
    nestle.pdf
  • http//www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/numbers.cfm
  • http//www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v03n06/v03n
    0611.pdf
  • Grant B.F., et al. Prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol
    abuse and dependence United States, 1992.
    Alcohol Health Research World 18(3)243-248,
    1994.
  • Dawson, D.A., Grant, B.F. Family history of
    alcoholism and gender Their combined effects on
    DSM-IV alcohol dependence and major depression.
    Journal of Studies on Alcohol 59(1)97-106, 1998.
  • Harwood, H., et al. The Economic Costs of Alcohol
    and Drug Abuse in the United States, 1992.
    Rockville, MD National Institute on Drug Abuse,
    1998. http//www.naaso.org/news/19980902.asp
  • Sturm, R. 2002. The effects of obesity, smoking,
    and drinking on medical problems and costs.
    Health Affairs.
  • Centers for Disease Control (2002). Major
    increase in diabetes among adults occurred
    nationwide between 1990 and 1998.
    http//www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/press/archive/diab
    etes_increase.htm

84
Sources (contd)
  • http//www.ajc.com/living/content/living/special/s
    ugar/18sugarsouth.html
  • http//www.who.int/nut/documents/trs_916.pdf
  • http//www.psychiatrist.com/issues/greenberg.pdf
  • http//www.ers.usda.gov/publications/FoodReview/DE
    C2002/frvol25i3a.pdf
  • http//www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v03n06/v03n
    0611.pdf
  • http//www.niaaa.nih.gov/databases/abdep2.htm
  • http//www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1280/mr1280.
    ch2.pdf

85
Sources (contd)
  • NIAAA (2001). Economic perspectives in alcoholism
    research. Alcohol Alert. http//wwww.niaaa.nih.gov
    /publications/aa51-text.htm
  • NIAAA (1989). Relapse and craving. Alcohol Alert.
    http//www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa06.htm
  • Kant, A. (2000) Consumption of energy-dense,
    nutrient-poor foods by adult Americans
    nutritional and health implications. The third
    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,
    1988-1994. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Oct72(4)929-36.
  • Young, L. and Nestle, M. (2002) The contribution
    of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity
    epidemic. American Journal of Public Health.
    February 92(2)246-249.
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