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GIS Software


... New Millenium, MS Encarta, National Geographic Picture Atlas ... geographic format (datum, ... NDS (National Decision Systems): marketing data supplier ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GIS Software

GIS Software Hardware Overview
  • POEC 6383 GIS Implementation Management
  • Ronald Briggs
  • University of Texas at Dallas

  • From the discussion of Fundamental GIS Concepts
    we noted
  • two types of data spatial data (where) and
    attribute data (what)
  • two models for data representation raster model
    and vector model
  • two computing environments traditional
    relational data base model and object-oriented
  • as we search for software for our GIS project,
    ideally we seek implementations which
  • handle both spatial and attribute data, and pay
    commensurate attention to each
  • support vector and raster formats, including
  • conversion between the two
  • analytic capabilities for both
  • utilize relational data base or object-oriented
    computing models
  • how do software vendors in the market place meet
    these needs?

Software Categorization
  • Professional/industrial
  • capable of supporting on-going operational
    processes and management needs of the enterprise
  • permits programming of business processes and
    geospatial applications
  • Desktop/Presentation
  • support the analytical needs of professionals
    processing geospatial data
  • Business and other Niche Applications targeted
    toward specific subsets of applications
  • to business for site selection and market area
  • to specific industries e.g. transportation,
    telecomm, oil gas exploration,
  • to specific applications e.g. rectification,
    thematic mapping
  • Mass Market
  • general public personal productivity

Software for GIS Mass Market differences (based
on Thrall and Thrall, 1998)
Least Complex
Most Users
  • Digital atlas
  • e.g Rand McNally New Millenium, MS Encarta,
    National Geographic Picture Atlas
  • Interactive street display route planning
  • e.g. De Lorme, MS Streets98, AAA
  • Internet Mapping geocoding and routing
  • urban yellow pages
  • Spreadsheet and Database Mapping
  • Lotus Ver. 5 (Atlas Mapmaker)
  • Excel for Windows 95/97 (Mapinfo)
  • Clip Art and ready-made maps
  • Thematic Mapping
  • Desktop GIS Business/Niche Applications
  • Prof./Industrial Geographically-enabled

Least Users
Most Complex
Professional Desktop versus Mass Market The
capabilities of mass market (display,
single-point geocoding, thematic mapping) plus
  • support for raster as well as vector data (and
    perhaps also images)
  • user-selected (rather than proprietary) spatial
    data input
  • digital format (shape files, TIGER files, etc)
  • geographic format (datum, projection)
  • variety of standard attribute data input formats
    (spreedsheets, comma delimited text, dBase, etc.)
  • external data base access/connectivity via SQL,
    ODBC, etc.
  • internal data customization and query (e.g
    calculating new variables and querying all)
  • selective overlay of input spatial data
  • comprehensive support for spatial query and logic
  • polygon joins and overlay
  • point in polygon
  • intersection of lines and polygons
  • buffering around points, lines and polygons
  • batch geocoding with variety of user-selectable
  • topological editing of input (or new) spatial
  • customization of maps and graphics for display
    and hardcopy
  • variety of digital data output formats for
    graphic (e.g. gif, tif, jpeg) and non-graphic
  • macro, scripting or programming capability

Software for GIS professional/industrial The
Industry Leaders
  • ARC/INFO (ESRI, Inc., Redlands, CA)
  • privately owned by Jack Dangermond, a legend in
    the field and former Harvard prof.
  • originated commercial GIS
  • still clear market leader with about a third of
    the market
  • Intergraph (Huntsville, AL)
  • origins in proprietary CAD hardware/software
  • strong in design and FM (facilities mapping), and
    running hard to match ESRI in GIS
  • its UNIX-based MGE (Modular GIS Environment)
    product evolved from its older CAD products
  • after split with Bentley, courageously committed
    to NT and object technology in 1995 and first
    released new generation GeoMedia product in
    March 1997
  • Bentley Systems (Exton, PA)
  • Bentley brothers (Barry Ray) originally
    developed the PC-based Micro-Station product
    under contract with Intergraph, but split in 1995
  • have very successfully continued to develop and
    sell MicroStation GeoGraphics since then.

Software for GIS professional/industrial The
Also-Rans and Wannabes
  • Smallworld Systems (Englewood, CO)
  • origins in Oxford, England
  • emphasis on FM utilities
  • The first to use OO (in early 1990s) but can it
    now compete as established vendors do the same?
  • Autodesks AutoCAD Map
  • dominant CAD supplier and worlds 4th largest
    software company
  • fully topological AutoCAD Map introduced in 1996
    (but no raster)
  • illustrates convergence of CAD/GIS.
  • possible industry leader since many places
    already use standard AutoCad for mapping
  • GDS (Graphic Data Systems, Englewood CO)
  • originated as McDonnel Douglas in-house system
  • owned now by Convergent Group and EDS
  • closure in 1997 left its customers in the lurch
    (e.g. City of Irving)
  • ERDAS/Imagine, ER MAPPER, PCI, Envi, Genasys II,
  • origins in remote sensing thus raster oriented
    but now include vector support
  • ERDAS long established leader
  • ER MAPPER very agressive newcomer originating in
  • Envi, another relative newcomer
  • PCI long-term Canadian player
  • Genasys II older and fading US player
  • new satellite data products enhance their
  • GRASS (Rutgers Univ.)
  • raster oriented, but some vector routines
  • originally developed by US Army Construction
    Engineering Research Lab(CERL) in Champaign, IL
  • army ended dev. support in 1996 but assumed by
    Baylor University.

Software for GIS Desktop/Presentation
  • stand-alone GIS, or user front-end to ARC/INFO
  • strong customization (via AVENUE language)
  • Mapinfo (Troy, NY)
  • very aggressive and successful newcomer
  • Atlas/GIS (from Strategic Mapping, Santa Clara,
  • one of the originators of PC-based mapping
  • purchased by ESRI in 1996
  • Other Commercial Entrants
  • Maptitude (Caliper Corp, Newton, MA) cheap--one
    of the best deals around
  • WinGIS (Progis Corp, Austria) European entry
  • SAS/GIS (at last, SAS tries to catch up)
  • IDRSI (Clark Univ)
  • one of the pioneering, university developed
    packages, but limited commercial penetration
    altho trying hard
  • raster orientation with some vector capabilities

Software for GIS Business Niche
  • BusinessMAP (from ESRI) 99 choropleth and pin
    mapping (originally Maplinx)
  • Tactician specialist product for market
    analysis, site selection, etc.
  • NDS (National Decision Systems) marketing data
    supplier released I-Mark software in 1999,
    combining older Infomark Express (reporting) and
    I-Map (maps) products
  • GeoQuery (Naperville, IL) a mapping product
    based on Intergraph GeoMedia
  • Surfer (Golden Software) contour creation
    spatial interpolation
  • Map Viewer (Golden Software) thematic map
  • Blue Marble Geographic Calculator projections,
    conversions, etc.
  • EDX, Planet (from MSI), Cell CAD II wireless
    telephony planning

Software for GIS Leading Vendors Products
  • Autodesk
  • ESRI
  • Intergraph
  • MapInfo

Autodesk World Autodesk MapGuide AutoCAD
Map ArcView (AV) Arc/Info AV Business Analyst AV
Internet Map Server BusinessMap
Pro GeoMedia Geomedia Pro Geomedia Web
Map Geomedia Network MapInfo Pro Mapinfo
MapXtreme MapXtreme Java MapInfoData Target Pro
Desktop GIS Web-based GIS CAD mapping Desktop
GIS Prof./Indus. GIS Business GIS Web GIS Entry
business maps Desktop GIS Prof./Indus.
GIS Web-based GIS Networking modules Desktop
GIS GIS apps. Server Web-based Server GIS for
  • 1,995
  • 9,990
  • 4,250
  • 1,195
  • 10,000
  • 11,995
  • 10,500
  • 149
  • 1,500
  • 7,500
  • 10,000
  • 2,000
  • 1,295
  • 24,495
  • 24,495
  • 695

Source PC Week 1/4/99
GIS Market Share ()
GIS World, July 97, p. 12 quoting Daratech
Software Selection Considerations and Trade-offs
  • Price ()
  • you generally pay for capability, but do you need
  • cost doesnt always equate to capability, but
    theres usually some catch
  • Learning curve
  • simplicity of use for limited function products
  • consistency of interface for multi-function
  • Market share
  • will it be around in the future?
  • experienced workers available
  • third party services add-ons, training,
    consultants, etc.
  • Future needs
  • analytic capabilities
  • data types
  • conversion expensive
  • retraining
  • data conversion
  • application conversion
  • Organizational needs
  • consistent software
  • info sharing
  • lower support training costs
  • lower costs via mass licenses
  • targeted software
  • lower train/support via simpler interface
  • lower cost via targeted function
  • best of both via add-ins or object orientation.

ESRI Product Line-up (main products)
  • ArcView (multiple operating systems PC, UNIX,
    VMS, MAC)
  • desktop GIS for end-user visualization, analysis
    and query
  • GUI driven, with extensive customization
    capability via AVENUE scripting
  • generally presumes inputted data developed
    elsewhere e.g with ARC/Info (Data Automation Kit
    released 1996 essentially a subset of
  • ARC/INFO (workstation operating systems UNIX,
  • comprehensive tool kit for geographic data input,
    analysis and management
  • A/I Version 8 Workstation same as A/I v. 7
    earlier command driven, with GUI dev. capability
    via AML (ARC Macro Language) both NT and UNIX
  • A/I Version 8 Desktop is complete re-write with
    GUI interface using MS COM objects only runs on
    NT, not available under UNIX
  • PC ARC/INFO is a DOS/Windows subset of
    workstation ARC/INFO (dieing)
  • MapObjects (PC only)
  • set of OLE automation objects for mapping and
    GIS to incorporate into OO application
    development environments such as VB, Powerbuilder
    and Composer
  • SDE (Spatial Database Engine)
  • extensions to ORACLE (and other) to support
    spatial data and geographical analysis
  • ArcCAD (PC operating system only)
  • bridges CAD and GIS, thus useful for integrating
    data between the two

ArcInfo Version 8
  • With Version 8, now have two flavors
  • Workstation
  • classic, command-line ArcInfo
  • same as version 7 and earlier, with minor
  • the only option for UNIX, but also on NT
  • Desktop
  • Largest Microsoft COM/ActiveX application to date
  • Full GUI interface
  • Customization via Visual Basic for Applications
    (altho must have ArcInfo to run custom apps)
  • New data base concepts Geodatabase
  • Available on NT only no UNIX version

ArcInfo Desktop
  • ArcCatalog (schema editor, with VISIO
  • The base application for ArcInfo Desk
  • Windows Explorer-like interface
  • for organizing access to data and metadata
  • For launching other Desktop apps MAP and TOOLBOX
  • ArcMap (object editor)
  • Powerful GUI for spatial data editing and map
  • ArcPlot/ArcEdit ArcView View/Layout combined
  • Map projections on the fly (not via conversion as
    in AV)
  • ArcToolbox
  • GUI interface to GIS tools via wizards
  • Classic ArcInfo runs underneath
  • Supports execution on remote machines
  • v. 8.0 does not support Geodatabases, ImageCats,
    Map librarian, or GRID data

ARC/INFO Workstation Line-up Base Components
  • ARC
  • entry point to ARC/INFO, and ARCEDIT and ARCPLOT
    in particular
  • geographic data maintenance and processing
  • INFO
  • the relational data base system (RDBMS)
    foundation for ARC/INFO
  • for editing geographic data
  • supports input from wide variety of sources
    including keyboard, mouse, digitizer, other GIS
  • graphic subsystem for database display and map

ARC/INFO Workstation Line-up Other Components
  • ARC/EDIT/PLOT Extensions
  • COGO (Coordinate Geometry)
  • supports surveying data, plat preparation, etc.
    for suveyors and civil engineers
  • TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network)
  • vector-based surface modelling
  • network analysis, such as shortest route
  • ArcScan
  • raster to vector conversion
  • ArcExpress (optional product)
  • graphic display optimization
  • Semi Independent Modules
  • GRID
  • analysis of raster data
  • includes vector/raster raster/vector conversion
  • ArcPress
  • enhances printing on raster devices
  • ArcStorm (storage management)
  • geog. data manager for large data systems

Choices, Choices, Choices!!
  • Where is my bus? DART service manager. Want
    application to display real time location of
    buses on touch-screen terminal to passengers
    waiting at Richardson Transit Center
  • use MAP Objects incorporated into Visual Basic
  • Council, get off my back! Planner for Plano. Need
    faster, easier, jazzier way of answering
    council member queries.
  • use ArcView, since city has extensive ArcInfo
    coverages write Avenue scripts to automate most
    common queries
  • Keep the water flowing. Manager for North Texas
    Municipal Water Supply District. Swamped by
    growth. Needs help to manage his infrastructure.
  • select Arc/Info 8
  • Keep the Taxes Coming In. Director of IS for Big
    City. Must tie all my data together--land
    ownership, tax rolls, utility lines, roads, 911
    calls etc. Needs enterprise solution.
  • SDE with ORACLE data base, accessed with
    ArcExplorer (free), ArcView, and ArcInfo 8

Hardware and Platforms for GIS
  • CPU (Pentium or RISC) powerful with lots of
    memory (128MB min for AI8)
  • Disk storage lots--especially for images
  • Input devices Digitizer, Scanner, CD-ROM/DVD,
  • Output devices
  • Large, high-res. display (relatively expensive)
  • Wide-bed color plotter (now usually inkjet, and
  • Operating System
  • NT is eclipsing UNIX on the Desktop
  • MAC and UNIX supported by fewer and fewer vendors
  • Platforms
  • PC or RISC Workstation
  • Mainframe--gone
  • Minicomputernow also gone
  • Networks and Distributed Systems now the norm

The Religious Tenets of GIS
  • ArcInfo is the only true GIS
  • Intergraph is the only used GIS
  • MAPINFO is the only useable GIS

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The GIS Market
  • In 1992, according to Dataquest, GIS growth rate
    estimated at 35 per year
  • GIS related hardware 0.5 Billion
  • GIS related software 1.1 Billion
  • GIS Consulting services 2.4 Billion
  • The big money is in consulting, not software or
    hardware (although much consulting is software