Event Safety: Traffic, Crowd, and - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Event Safety: Traffic, Crowd, and


Instructional signs for visitors. Entrance and egress procedures. General Safety Checklist ... Crowds move in the direction of an attraction or source of curiosity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Event Safety: Traffic, Crowd, and

Chapter 14
  • Event Safety Traffic, Crowd, and
  • Parking Strategies

General Safety Considerations
  • Conducting an environmental scan to assess the
    safety needs of your event will have a positive
    impact on all facets of your event planning and
  • This process will determine the viability of
    existing resources to handle increased demands in
    vehicular and pedestrian traffic associated with
    your event
  • This assessment for customer and environmental
    safety should also include a consideration of the
    general and specific supervision of all event

General Safety Considerations
  • General supervision addresses the overall
    supervision strategy for the event and includes
    the placement of event staff and security
    personnel in key positions, as well as assigning
    others to move about your site
  • Specific supervision is an increased level of
    monitoring visitors in areas that require a
    greater level of supervision. Traffic crossings,
    backstage areas, food preparation areas,
    mechanical operations, and amusements such as
    rides, require assigned staff to be present at
    all times the public is on site

General Safety Checklist
  • First aid and emergency response procedures
  • On-site safety procedures
  • Communication and control measures
  • Crowd management and crowd control strategies
  • Federal, state and local permits, codes and
  • Instructional signs for visitors
  • Entrance and egress procedures

General Safety Checklist
  • Food and beverage handling practices
  • Accident reporting procedures
  • Security and public safety interventions
  • Tent safety codes and assembly procedures
  • Severe weather forecasting and evacuation
  • Seating strategies
  • Media relations

General Safety Checklist
  • Public address announcements
  • Special needs populations
  • Use of participation waivers on tickets
  • Sanitation, waste management, and recycling
    policies and procedures
  • Hazardous materials management
  • Machinery and equipment operation guidelines

Crowd Management and Crowd Control
  • Crowd management, defined as the facilitation,
    employment and movement of crowds, considers the
    role of crowds in the planning of the event
  • Crowd control differs in that it involves
    creating specific procedures to handle a crowd
    that is creating a threat to the safety of others

Crowd Characteristics
  • Consideration of the numbers of people that
    attend an event, the density or spatial
    parameters of the gathering (what we commonly
    refer to as crowding) and the behavioral
    attributes of the group
  • Crowds behave differently dependent upon their
    demographics, their motivations, and the
    environmental issues particular to the site

Crowd Characteristics
  • Crowds create a form of equality of status
    amongst themselves
  • Curiosity causes crowds to grow
  • Crowds move in the direction of an attraction or
    source of curiosity
  • Crowds become denser until safety is threatened
  • Stagnant crowds seek discharge or release in
    order to break existing patterns
  • Tarlow (2002)

The Psychology of Waiting in Line
  • Unoccupied time seems longer than occupied time
  • People want to get started
  • Preprocess waits seem longer
  • Uncertain and unexplained waits seem longer than
    known finite waits
  • Unfair waits are longer than equitable waits
  • The more valuable the service the longer people
    will wait
  • Solo waits feel longer than group waits
  • David Maister (2005)

Crowd Management
  • Crowd management is the facilitation, employment
    and movement of crowds
  • Understanding your event
  • Attractions and demographics
  • Time and space
  • Control and flow
  • Functional crowding

Crowd Control
  • Designing specific procedures to handle a crowd
    that is creating a threat to the safety of others
  • Control Process
  • pre-crisis stage
  • crisis stage
  • post crisis stage

Travel-Related Characteristics
  • Travel demand, magnitude, rate and modal split
  • Background traffic, transit and parking capacity
  • Event market area and staging requirements
  • Available personnel and equipment resources for
    planning and day-of-event operations
  • Weather, security and other contingencies
  • Other concurrent events

Traffic Management Plan Goals
  • Achieving Predictability
  • Ensuring Safety
  • Maximizing Efficiency
  • Minimize Negative Effects

(No Transcript)
TMP Event Specific Components
  • Pedestrian access plan
  • Traffic flow plan
  • Traffic control plan
  • Traveler information plan
  • Traffic surveillance plan
  • Incident and safety plan
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