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TRAFFICKING The silent slavery

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Title: TRAFFICKING The silent slavery


1
TRAFFICKINGThe silent slavery
2
  • Slavery has been abolished in most countries in
    the 1800s, but it still exists in the world today
    in different forms.
  • After drug trafficking, human trafficking is tied
    with the illegal arms trade as the second largest
    criminal industry in the world
  • and
  • is the fastest growing.

3
WHAT IS HUMAN TRAFFICKING?
  • Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery
  • Sexual, Labour, forced Marriage, organ
    Transplant, Camel Jockey.
  • Victims exploited for commercial sex or labor
    purposes
  • Traffickers use force, fraud, and coercion
  • Victims are young children, teenagers men and
    women.

4
Trafficking in Persons Defined The United
Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish
Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and
Children defines trafficking in persons as
  • The recruitment, transportation, transfer,
    harboring or receipt of persons, by means of
    threat or use of force or other forms of
    coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception,
    of the abuse of power or of a position of
    vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of
    payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a
    person having control over another person, for
    the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall
    include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the
    prostitution of others or other forms of sexual
    exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery
    or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the
    removal of organs.

5
DEFINITION OF "SEVERE FORMS OF TRAFFICKING IN
PERSONS"
  • The Trafficking Victims Protection Act defines
    "severe form of trafficking in persons" as
  • (a) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act
    is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in
    which the person induced to perform such an act
    has not attained 18 years of age or
  • (b) the recruitment, harboring, transportation,
    provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or
    services, through the use of force, fraud, or
    coercion for the purpose of subjection to
    involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or
    slavery.

6
Definition of Terms Used in the Term "Severe
Forms of Trafficking in Persons"
  • "Sex trafficking" means the recruitment,
    harboring, transportation, provision, or
    obtaining of a person for the purpose of a
    commercial sex act.
  • "Commercial sex act" means any sex act on account
    of which anything of value is given to or
    received by any person.

7
  • "Involuntary servitude" includes a condition of
    servitude induced by means of
  • (a) any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to
    cause a person to believe that, if the person did
    not enter into or continue in such condition,
    that person or another person would suffer
    serious harm or physical restraint
  • or
  • (b) the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal
    process.

8
  • "Debt bondage. Victims trafficking are often
    subjected to debt-bondage, usually in the context
    of paying off transportation fees into the
    destination countries.
  • Victims do not realize that their debts are
    often legally unenforceable.
  • In many cases the victims are trapped into a
    cycle of debt because they have to pay for all
    living expenses in addition to the initial
    transportation expenses.
  • Most victims rarely see the money they are
    supposedly earning and many they dont know the
    specific amount of debt.

9
  • "Coercion" means
  • (a) threats of serious harm to or physical
    restraint against any person
  • (b) any scheme, plan or pattern intended to
    cause a person to believe that failure to perform
    an act would result in serious harm to or
    physical restraint against any person or,
  • (c) the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal
    process.

10
Forms of exploitation in the country of
destination
  • Sexual exploitation
  • Economic exploitation
  • Domestic workers
  • Sweatshops (garment and textiles sectors, etc.)
  • Catering and services sector
  • Begging and street peddling
  • Sports

11
Other forms..?
  • Illegal adoption, baby selling and trafficking
  • Child sex tourist
  • (Each year more than a million children are
    exploited in the global commercial sex trade.
    Child sex tourism involves people who travel from
    their own country to another and engage in
    commercial sex acts with children)

12
WHAT IS SEX TRAFFICKING?
  • The recruitment, harboring, transporting,
    provision or obtaining of a person of a
    commercial sex act, in which the commercial sex
    act is inducted by force, fraud or coercion, or
    in which the person forced to perform such an act
    is under the age of 18 years

13
WHAT IS LABOR TRAFFICKING?
  • The recruitment, harboring, transporting,
    provision or obtaining of a person for labor or
    services, through the use of force, fraud or
    coercion for the purpose of subjection to
    involuntary servitude, debt bondage or slavery.
  • Victims can be found in domestic situations as
    nannies or maids, sweatshop factories,
    construction sites, farm work, restaurants, etc

14
VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
  • Estimations of the number of people trafficked
    each year vary from tens of thousands to
    millions.
  • Such variation are due to the nature of
    trafficking and the methodological difficulties
    in collection data, statistics and information on
    the issue.
  • Some researches estimate that every year 1 to 2
    million women men and children are trafficked
    worldwide, around 225,000 of them are from South
    Asia (India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri
    Lanka, Afghanistan and Bhutan).
  • Other estimates show that over the last 30 years,
    trafficking for sexual exploitation alone has
    victimized some 30 million Asian women and
    children.

15
VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
  • 12 million Africans slaves moved to America in
    400 years
  • 30 million trafficked women in South East Asia in
    the last 10 years
  • USA estimates that 75,000 women and children are
    illegally brought into the US annually for forced
    prostitution and other forma of slave labor (from
    all over the world including Africa, Asia, India,
    Eastern Europe, Latin America, Russia, Canada,
    etc).
  • INDIA Est. 2-3 million people trafficked
  • More than 17,000 women and children are victims
    of trafficking in Greece today. Most victims come
    from Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria
    and Albania.

16
HOW VICTIMS ARE TRAFFICKED?
  • Traffickers use force, fraud and coercion to
    compel women, men and children to engage in these
    activities
  • FORCE Involves the use of rape, beatings and
    confinement to control victims.
  • Forceful violence is used especially during
    the early stages of victimization, known as the
    seasoning process, which is used to break
    victims resistant to make them easier to control

17
  • COERCION
  • Involves threats of serious harm to, or
    physical restrain of, any person,
  • - any scheme plan or pattern intended to cause
    a person to believe that failure to performer an
    act would result in serious harm to or physical
    restrain against any person or
  • - the abuse threatened abuse of the legal
    process.

18
  • FRAUD Involves false offers that include people
    into trafficking situations.
  • For example women and children will reply to
    advertisements promising jobs as waitresses,
    maids and dancers in other countries and are then
    trafficked for purposes of prostitution once they
    arrive at their destinations

19
Trafficking Vs. Migrant Smuggling
  • TRAFFICKING
  • Victims either do not consent to their situation
  • Ongoing exploitation of victims to generate
    illicit profits for the traffickers
  • Trafficking need not entail the physical movement
    of a person (entail the exploitation for labor or
    commercial sex)
  • SMUGGLING
  • Migrant smuggling includes those who consent to
    being smuggled
  • Smuggling Is a breach of the integrity of a
    nation's borders
  • Smuggling is always transnational

20
Factors for trafficking
  • The factors underlying the decision to leave home
    may be classified into two groups.
  • Firstly, the role of the 'push' factors, in other
    words factors in the home country such as
    poverty, unemployment, repression, natural
    disasters and war, which should not be
    underestimated.
  • Secondly, there are 'pull' factors in Western
    countries that attract people, such as
    democracy freedom and employment
    opportunities.

21
The causes of trafficking
  • The causes of human trafficking are complex and
    often reinforce each other.
  • poverty
  • the attraction of perceived higher standards of
    living elsewhere
  • lack of employment opportunities
  • organized crime
  • violence against women and children
  • discrimination against women
  • government corruption
  • political instability
  • armed conflict

22
  • Low levels of education
  • Family and social pressures
  • Natural disasters (the case of Indian Ocean
    Tsunami,2004)
  • In the aftermath of December 26, 2004 Indian
    Ocean Tsunami, there were sporadic reports of
    sexual abuse, kidnapping, and trafficking in
    persons in the countries devastated by the
    tsunami.
  • Thousands of orphanage children where vulnerable
    to exploitation by criminal elements seeking
    profite from their misery.

23
The victims and their problems ..
  • They dont speak the language of the country of
    destination
  • They are often confined to room or small space
    where they eat, work and sleep.
  • They fear and dont trust many providers, the
    government or the police.  Often traffickers tell
    their victims that they are in the United States
    illegally, and they will be arrested and deported
    if they try to get help. 
  • Victims may feel that their current situation is
    their fault, and they are guilty about it.

24
  • Trafficking victims may develop loyalties and
    positive feelings toward their trafficker as way
    to cope with their situation known as the
    Stockholm or Syndrome. 
  • Traffickers frequently move their victims to
    escape detection.  As a result, trafficking
    victims may not even know what city or country
    theyre in.
  • Victims of trafficking also fear for the safety
    of their family members in their native country,
    who are often threatened by the traffickers.

25
CONCLUSION
  • It is hard to imagine that in the twenty first
    century human beings could be exploited and force
    to work in the sex industry and other industries.
  • Human trafficking is a crime against the basic
    dignity and the rights of the human person.
  • All efforts must be expended to end it.
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