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Title: William Kritsonis, Clarence Johnson, Dissertation Proposal


1
IMPACT OF HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS CURRICULA ON
THE MATHEMATICS TAKS EXIT-LEVEL PERFORMANCE OF
AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS
  • Presented By
  • Clarence Johnson
  • September, 2007
  • Dissertation Proposal Defense

2
Committee Members
  • William A. Kritsonis, Ph.D.
  • (Dissertation Chair)
  • Douglas Hermond, Ph.D.
  • (Member)
  • David Herrington, Ph.D.
  • (Member)
  • Pamela Barber-Freeman, Ph.D.
  • (Member)
  • Veda Brown, Ph.D.
  • (Outside Member)

3
Proposal Defense Outline
  1. The Problem
  2. Purpose of Study
  3. Research Questions
  4. Hypotheses
  5. Importance of Study
  6. Review of Literature
  7. Research Design

4
The Problem
  • In the United States, remedial mathematics
    classrooms contain large number of African
    American students however, advanced mathematics
    classes mainly served White students (Snipes
    Waters, 2005).
  • Luebienski (2001) reported that, in both 1990 and
    1996, White students in the lowest socioeconomic
    subgroup scored equal to or higher than African
    American students in the highest socioeconomic
    subgroup.

5
The Problem
  • In a summary of four national surveys reported
    between 1969 and 1987, Horn (1990) found that
    Asians earned twice the number of mathematics and
    science credits than did Whites, and Whites
    earned twice the number of credits for those
    subjects than did African Americans or Hispanics.

6
The Problem
  • Forty-three percent of African American high
    school students failed the Texas Assessment of
    Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exit-Level
    Mathematics Test in 2005. Current documentation
    indicates the failure rate is higher among
    African American students than any other ethnic
    groups (TEA Accountability System State Data
    Table, 2005).

7
New Jersey Mathematics Curriculum Framework
8
New Jersey Mathematics Curriculum Framework
9
Purpose of the Study
  • Investigate the relationship of high school
    mathematics curricula on the mathematics TAKS
    Exit-Level performance of African American
    students using the New Jersey Mathematics
    Curriculum Framework.

10
Purpose of the Study
  • Investigate high expectations in mathematics for
    all students using the New Jersey Mathematics
    Curriculum Framework.

11
Research Questions
  • Quantitative
  • 1. What is the impact of the decision of African
    American students to enroll in track one or track
    two in the eighth and ninth grades mathematics
    and the pass/fail status on the eleventh grade
    Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)
    Exit-Level Mathematics Test?

12
Research Questions
  • Quantitative
  • 2. What is the impact of African American eighth
    and ninth grade mathematics students pass/fail
    status on the eleventh grade Texas Assessment of
    Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exit-Level
    Mathematics Test among six high school campuses
    within a large urban school district?

13
Research Questions
  • Quantitative
  • 3. What is the impact of African American eighth
    and ninth grade students enrolled in track 1 or
    track 2 mathematics and advancing in mathematics
    learning by entering in chemistry, physics,
    pre-calculus, AP Physics, or AP Calculus in the
    eleventh and twelfth grades?

14
Research Questions
  • Quantitative
  • 4. What factors do counselors identify as
    influential on African American students
    placement in track 1 or track 2 in eighth and
    ninth grades mathematics?

15
Hypotheses
  • Ho1 There is no statistically significant
    relationship between the decision to enroll in
    track 1 or track 2 in the eighth and ninth grades
    mathematics and pass/fail status of African
    American students on the eleventh grade Texas
    Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)
    Exit-Level Mathematics Test.

16
Hypotheses
  • Ho2 There is no statistically significant
    relationship between African American eighth and
    ninth grades mathematics students pass/fail
    status on the eleventh grade Texas Assessment of
    Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exit-Level
    Mathematics Test among six high school campuses
    within a large urban school district .

17
Hypotheses
  • Ho3 There is no statistically significant
    relationship between the African American eighth
    and ninth grade students enrolled in track 1 or
    track 2 mathematics and advancing in mathematics
    learning by entering in chemistry, physics,
    pre-calculus, AP Physics, or AP Calculus in the
    eleventh and twelfth grades.

18
Importance of Study
  • Results of the study could provide a learning
    foundation for educational leadership in areas
    where the increased success of African American
    students on the mathematics exit-level tests has
    been identified.

19
Review of Literature
  • No Child Left Behind
  • On January 8, 2002, President Bush signed the No
    Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) into law to begin
    educational reform designed to improve student
    achievement and change American school culture
    (Jones Hancock, 2005).

20
Review of Literature
  • Eighth-Grade Mathematics as the Gate-keeper to
    Advanced Mathematics Learning
  • In 1996, the National Assessment of Educational
    Progress (NAEP) revealed that for Grade 4, 8, and
    12, less than one third of U.S. students were
    proficient or above in mathematics and science
    (Glenn, 2000).

21
Review of Literature
  • African American Students in Advanced
    Mathematics Courses
  • Unfortunately, African American students in
    education today often experience a low-level,
    watered-down curriculum, negative perceptions
    about their ability, and low expectations
    regarding their achievement (Russell, 2005).

22
Review of Literature
  • Middle School Course Selection Patterns
  • In their analysis of American students
    achievement in the Third International
    Mathematics and Science Study, William Schmidt
    and his colleagues (1999) noticed how tracking
    creates differences in students opportunities to
    study mathematics and how reduced opportunities
    result in lower achievement.

23
Review of Literature
  • Disparities in Mathematics Achievement and
    Instruction
  • National Assessment of Educational Progress
    (NAEP) data suggest that most African American
    students are not experiencing instructional
    practices consistent with the recommendations
    suggested by the National Council of Teachers of
    Mathematics (NCTM), whereas more white students
    are experiencing NCTM standards-based instruction
    (Lubienski, 2001).

24
Review of Literature
  • Minority Gap in Mathematics
  • According to a 2004 report from the California
    Teacher Association (CTA), the widening
    achievement gap in Californias public schools
    raises many questions about educational equality.
  • The report further indicated that in 1990, there
    was a 33 point gap between the scores of Black
    and White students on the National Assessment of
    Educational Progress (NEAP) mathematics test at
    the eighth grade level as compared to 2000
    scores, the gap had grown to a 39 point gap.

25
Review of Literature
  • Impact of the Mathematics Curricula on the
    Success of African American Students
  • As Warren Simmons of the Casey Foundation
    observed, the nation entered the 1990s with twin
    goals for education reform. One of the goals was
    to create curricula and instructional approaches
    that would help all students attain world-class
    levels of achievement (Futrell Brown, 2000).

26
Research Design
  • The research design for this study is in two
    phases. Phase one is a correlational study based
    on post hoc data. The Pearsons r statistic will
    be used to determine whether various factors are
    related to academic success in mathematics as
    measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and
    Skills Exit-Level Mathematics Test. Phase two is
    a survey of 27 counselors to determine factors
    for mathematics placement of African American
    students in the eighth and ninth grade. These
    data will be reported as descriptive data.

27
Subjects of the Study
  • Participants for the study will include 262
    African American eleventh grade students and 27
    eighth grade counselors. The students will be
    identified from the population of 827 eleventh
    grade students enrolled in mathematics courses in
    six high schools in a large urban school
    district.

28
Simple Random Sampling
  • The targeted population of 827 African American
    eleventh grade students enrolled in the
    eleventh grade in 2006-2007 will be involved in
    the random sample.
  • Krejcie and Morgan in 1970 generated a model of
    appropriate sample size (Barlett, Kotrick,
    Higgins, 2001).

29
Instruments
  • In the study the dependent variables, exit-level
    tests achievement, will be measured by the
    mathematics portion of the Texas Assessment of
    Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exit-Level
    Mathematics Test scores. Texas Assessment of
    Knowledge and Skill (TAKS) Exit-Level Mathematics
    Test has been found valid and reliable in the
    Texas Education Agency. The Texas Assessment of
    Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exit-Level Test is
    also a criterion-referenced test, and was found
    to be reliable and valid for measuring the
    achievement in the mathematics courses as
    outlined by the Texas Essential Knowledge and
    Skills curriculum.

30
Instruments
  • A survey containing 15 questions will be given to
    27 eighth grade counselors. The 15 questions on
    the counselors survey will be field tested. The
    dependent variables, documentation of the
    counselors survey will be reported as
    descriptive data.

31
Data Collection
  • Quantitative
  • A letter from the superintendent of schools will
    be requested for an approval of retrieving
    students data. School district archived data
    that include student identification number,
    demographic data, course requirements, course
    selections, program participation, and at-risk
    identification will be collected and kept under
    locked files by the investigator.
  • A master-schedule from 2003-2004 will be printed,
    and the classes will be counted. Students
    records will be accessed through Schools
    Administrative Student Information Systems
    (SASIxp). These records will be used to track
    student progress from eighth grade to high
    school.

32
Data Analysis
Independent Variables Dependent Variables Statistic
Eighth and Ninth Grades Students enrolled in track 1 or track 2 TAKS Raw Scores Correlational Method using Post Hoc Data
33
Data Analysis
  • School master schedules will be utilized to match
    the eighth grade and ninth grades students
    enrolled in track 1 or track 2 with the
    respective TAKS Exit-Level raw scores.

34
Data Analysis
  • 1. State the null hypothesis There is no
    statistically significant relationship between
    the decision to enroll in track 1 or track 2 in
    the eighth and ninth grades mathematics and
    pass/fail status of African American students on
    the eleventh grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge
    and Skills (TAKS) Exit-Level Mathematics Test.
  • 2. Use Correlational Method Use Pearsons r

35
Data Analysis
  • 3. Use the Alpha Level P lt 0.05.
  • 4. Compute statistic using SPSS.
  • 5. Apply the rejection rule P lt 0.05 reject the
    null hypothesis
  • Analyze your Descriptive Statistics Table and
    your Correlations Table.

36
Data Analysis
Independent Variables Dependent Variables Statistic
Survey Questions Counselors Responses Descriptive Documentation
37
Data Analysis
  • Develop matrix for data gathering.
  • Develop protocol
  • Arrange a meeting with each counselor to meet for
    60 minutes to retrieve responses.
  • Meet with 27 counselors and deliver instructions
    on the process of responding to the 15 questions
    on the survey.
  • Document all responses by the 27 counselors.
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