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Program Planning Models


Planning Models ... Some models are linear, in these, the planner is expected to start at step one ... proven best practices, empirically tested models, etc. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Program Planning Models

Program Planning Models
  • AEE 521
  • Fall 2006

Developed by Dr. Deborah Boone Revised by Dr.
Lisa Guion
Planning Models
  • Boone (1985) defines model as
  • a representation of a particular situation, for
    use in structuring an attack on new questions and
    old questions that still need satisfactory
    answers or solutions.

Planning Models
  • Caffarella (1994) states that program planning
    models consist of ideas about how programs should
    be put together and what ingredients are
    necessary to ensure successful outcomes.

Program Planning Models
  • Program Planning models come in all shapes and
    sizes. Planning models can be very simplistic
    with steps 1-5 for example, or very complex,
    using highly developed flow charts or in-depth
    qualitative descriptions.
  • Some models are linear, in these, the planner is
    expected to start at step one and follow each
    step in order until the process is completed.
    This may be helpful to newcomers, but soon loses
    its appeal because it does not represent the day
    to day working reality of most program planners.

Program Planning Models
  • An alternative to the linear approach is to
    conceptualize program planning as a process that
    consists of a set of interacting and dynamic
    elements or components. This non-sequential
    model allows program planners to address a number
    of the components simultaneously, to rearrange
    components to suit the demands of different
    situations. (Source Cafferella, 2002)

Usefulness of Planning Models
  • Resources are used more efficiently
  • Including people, time and money
  • Daily work is made easier
  • Provides a guide for continuing action
  • Fosters teamwork
  • Provides a means for clarifying

Usefulness of Planning Models (Continued)
  • More effective supervision and control
  • Planner has a clear, detailed process outlined
  • Development of better programs
  • Models dictate proactive thinking

Why Models are not used
  • Time Pressures
  • Organizational Climate
  • Lack of Knowledge About Models
  • Belief That Models are Too Confining

Boones Conceptual Programming Model
  • Consists of 3 interconnected and related
    subprocesses 1) Planning, 2) Design and
    Implementation and 3) Evaluation and
  • Each subprocess includes sequenced and
    action-driven processual tasks that should be

Importance of Processual Tasks
  • Unique to Boones Model
  • Approach programming from a conceptual, process
    oriented point of view RATHER THAN a trial and
    error standpoint
  • Actions (tasks) are conceptually driven
  • Actions (tasks) are logical and are well thought
  • Actions (tasks) based on theory, proven best
    practices, empirically tested models, etc.

  • Planning
  • The organization and its renewal process
  • Linking the organization to its publics
  • Design and implementation
  • Designing the planned program
  • Implementing the planned program
  • Evaluation and Accountability
  • Formative/process and summative evaluation
  • Accountability

Boones Conceptual Programming Model
  • Planning encompasses several processes that
    influence the formation of a program
  • Plan program that help fulfill organizational
  • Understand the culture, context, and structure of
    the organization that the program will operate in
  • Commit to organizational renewal (using feedback
    to improve organizational effectiveness and

Design and Implementation
  • Determining needs
  • Identification of target audiences
  • Development of program objectives
  • Setting program priorities
  • Includes selection and/or development of
  • Program content
  • Delivery methods
  • Resource materials
  • Time line for implementation evaluation
  • Conducting program
  • Etc.

  • Includes planning procedures to measure program
    success (outcomes) and impact.
  • Determine how to measure short, midrange and
    long-term change in target learners (what will
    indicate that they learned) - OUTCOMES
  • Determine how to measure changes in societal,
    economic or environmental conditions as a result
    of the program IMPACTS
  • Determine how to measure any changes in policy
    that may result
  • Report outcomes and impacts to key stakeholders

Using evaluation findings for
  • program revisions
  • organization renewal
  • accounting to the publics, the organization,
    funding sources, governance body
  • advance the profession (model program)

Some Guiding Principles for My Program Planning
Work Based on Boones Programming Model
  • Must have commitment at all levels of the
    organization. Must commit to organizational
  • Study, analyze and prioritize target
  • Identify formal and informal leaders who will aid
    in identifying and assessing specific needs of
    target learners
  • Different types of needs, focus on felt and
    expressed needs
  • Translating expressed needs into outcome-based
    objectives then develop a planned program to
    achieve objectives (planned change)

  • What are some general principles for planning
    your community-based program(s) that you can take
    from Boones Conceptual Programming Model?

  • Boone, D. (2005). Course Materials from Program
    Planning in Agricultural and Extension Education
    offered Fall, 2005, at North Carolina State
  • Boone, J. B. Safrit, R. D. and Jones, J.
    (2002). Developing Programs in Adult Education
    A conceptual Programming Model. Prospect
    Heights, IL Waveland Press, Inc.