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SOLVING THE CRISIS IN DARFUR EU AND INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES

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Assistance by the International Community. Massive humanitarian operation. Food and medicine assistance to the camps ... EC's assistance to AMIS has so far ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SOLVING THE CRISIS IN DARFUR EU AND INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES


1
SOLVING THE CRISISIN DARFUR EU AND
INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES
  • Pekka Haavisto
  • 5 April 2006
  • Directors Forum, Woodrow Wilson Center

2
What are the goals in Darfur?
  • End of conflict
  • Security, safe return of IDPs and refugees
  • Disarmament, reconstruction, reconciliation
  • Human rights
  • Freedom of expression, free press
  • Census (to prepare the elections)
  • Forming of political parties
  • Free elections
  • End of (inofficial) security organisations
  • Transparency in administration and budgeting

3
Importance of Sudan
  • Biggest country in Africa
  • 40 million inhabitants
  • Arab and African population
  • Muslim, Christian and traditional religions
  • Oil resources

4
Sudan has many neighbours
5
Three conflict areas in Sudan
  • North-South Civil War 1983-2005
  • Peace Agreement in Naivasha 2005
  • Slow implemenation of CPA
  • Conflict in Darfur
  • Peace talks in Abuja, Nigeria
  • Violence continuing on the ground
  • Eastern Sudan
  • Rebel movements supported by Eritrea
  • Beja Congress, Free Lions

6
North-South peace agreement
  • 21 years of war
  • 1,5 million casualties, 4 million refugees
  • Comprehensive Peace Agreement
  • Wealth sharing, including oil revenues
  • Power sharing, e.g. First Vice-President for
    Southerners
  • Security, JIU and SPLA

7
Tragic beginning for the peace
  • First Vice-President John Garang dies in July 2005

8
CPA challenges
  • Presence of Southern Sudan in Khartoum
  • Transparency of oil income
  • Forming of Joint Integrated Units
  • Referendum in 2011
  • Safe return of IDPs and refugees
  • Reconstruction (or construction)

9
Elements in Darfur conflict
  • Population in villages versus nomads
  • Government of Sudan has armed arab nomads,
    Janjaweed
  • GoS and Janjaweed joint attacks against villages
  • 2 million IDPs/refugees

10
Darfur is the size of France
11
The Challenges of the Comprehensive Peace
Agreement
  • Visibility of South-Sudan in Khartoum
  • Transparency of the oil revenues
  • Forming of the common army
  • Refrendum in 2011
  • Attitudes
  • Safe return of the refugees and IDPs to South
    Sudan

12
The Darfur Conflict
  • Traditional conflict between farmers and nomads
  • The Arab-nomads, Janjaweeds, armed by the
    Government of Sudan (GoS)
  • The attack by the GoS and Janjaweeds to the
    villages
  • 2 million refugees

13
Assistance by the International Community
  • Massive humanitarian operation
  • Food and medicine assistance to the camps
  • The peascetalks led by the African Union in
    Abuja, Nigeria
  • African Union peacekeeping operation with 7000
    men
  • EUs support to African Union

14
EU Support to Darfur
  • EU humanitarian assiatance to Darfur EUR 289
    million
  • EUR 136 million directed through ECHO, including
    EUR 39.5 million for refugees in Chad
  • EUR 153 million for food aid/food security

15
EU support to AMIS
  • EC's assistance to AMIS has so far amounted to
    EUR 162 million
  • 4 Military Observers, 29 CivPol in Darfur
  • 15 Military Experts deployed in Addis

16
  • EU police supporting the African Union police
    operation in Darfur

17
African Union Peacekeepers in Darfur
18
African Union AMIS helicopter
Masking attempt by the Govenment of Sudan
19
Darfurian rebel movements
  • JEM (Justice and Equality Movement)
  • Khalil Ibrahim
  • SLM/A (Sudan Liberation Movement/Army)
  • Minni Minawi
  • Abdul Wahid

20
Negotiations with SLA rebels in Darfur
21
Janjaweed
  • Arab nomads armed by the Government of Sudan
  • Attacks to the Darfur villages with the GoS
    airforce
  • Human rights violations

22
Violations against Human Rights and War Crimes
  • Genocide or not?
  • UN has listed 51 potential criminals
  • UN sanctions against individuals?
  • ICC, International Criminal Court (5 leaders from
    Lord Resistance Army, LRA listed)

23
Refugee situation
  • 2 million refugees in the camps in Darfur
  • Return to villages often impossible
  • In camps there are schools and medical care
  • Camps as recruitment area of the rebels
  • Urbanization process

24
Demostrations agains the UN in Nyala, Darfur
25
Peace talks in Abuja
  • African Union in lead (Amb. Salim Ahmed Salim)
  • EU supporting
  • 3 sectors
  • wealth
  • power
  • security

26
Abuja talks Wealth sharing
  • Draft protocol almost ready
  • Pending issues include
  • Compensations (individual?)
  • Allocation formula
  • Percentages

27
Abuja talks Power sharing
  • Region (3 states or 1 region)
  • Borders (1.1.1956 boundaries)
  • Presidency (Vice-President)
  • Representation in Khartoum State
  • Ministers / Parliamentarias
  • Darurian representation in civil service

28
Abuja talks Security I
  • Enhanced Humanitarian Cease-Fire Agreement
  • Disengagement (maps of areas of control)
  • Redeployment (areas where troops can be monitored
    by AMIS)
  • Janjaweed (GoS to have responsibility)

29
Abuja talks Security II
  • Protection of Civilians (more robust)
  • Security of Humanitarian Supply Routes
    (demilitarized routes)
  • Bridging Provisions (bridge to final security
    arrangements, like integration of comabatants,
    disarmament, demobilization and reintegration
    (DDR)

30
Abuja talks Challenges
  • Disarming Janjaweed (GoS)
  • Zones of Redeployment (rebels)
  • Controlling IDP camps (GoS)
  • Sudan and Chad border (GoS)
  • Merging of the rebel troops to Sudan Armed Forces
    (GoS)
  • Darfur-Darfur talks (GoS, rebels)

31
Sudan challenges
  • Implementation of the North-South Peace-agreement
  • New areas of conclict East, Lord Resistance Army
    LRA
  • Darfur Peace-agreement and its implementation, UN
    operation
  • Equal sharing of the wealth

32
What can we do?
  • Humanitarian Assistance
  • Development cooperation
  • NGOs
  • EUs support to AU and UN peacekeeping and police
    operations
  • EUs support to Abuja Process
  • Pressure to the parties to comply with peace
    agreements

33
Thank you.
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