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How Patients Perceive Caring at the Dawn of a Technological Revolution


Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) have evolved from a novelty item to a ... Tests with Nursing Implications, Taber's Enyclopedic Medical Dictionary ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How Patients Perceive Caring at the Dawn of a Technological Revolution

How Patients Perceive Caring at the Dawn of a
Technological Revolution
  • Research Proposal

Created by J. Bourque, A. Bourre, B. DelGuidise,
F. Duffy S. Fitzgerald, A. Labonte, A. Mitchell,
J. Ubhi, E. Walker
  • Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) have evolved
    from a novelty item to a potentially significant
    tool in the field of nursing.

Have been used by nurses to
  • Store patient records
  • Store assessment data
  • Store diagnostic manuals
  • Store drug manuals
  • Store Med/Surg text books

Literature Review
  • Limited research regarding the use of PDAs by
    nurses in the clinical setting
  • Many opinion based articles that outline the
    advantages and disadvantages of using PDAs in
  • Two main themes nurses perceptions, use by
    undergraduate nursing students

A study of personal digital assistance to
enhance undergraduate clinical nursing
education. Miller, et al (2005)
  • Comparative group design of second degree
    students using PDAs vs. students not using PDAs
  • Looked at how PDAs affected information seeking
    behaviours and clinical performance
  • Showed that those with PDAs made use of them
    reducing the amount of time needed with text
    books, placed greater value on the credibility of
    the PDA
  • Supports PDAs as an effective learning tool

Medication Error Reduction and the Use of PDA
Technology Greenfield (2007)
  • Non-randomized quazi-experimental study
  • Determine whether the use of PDAs reduces the
    incidents of medication errors in clinical
    testing and providing more efficient nursing care
  • Control group used text references/experimental
    group used PDAs alone
  • Findings found that the use of a PDA decreased
    the number of errors and increased the efficiency
    in a case study scenario

Adopting a Personal Digital Assistant System
Application of Lewins Change Theory Lee (2006)
  • Descriptive exploratory qualitative approach with
    in depth interviews
  • Revealed four adaptive stages
  • Unfreezing stage
  • Moving stage
  • Refreezing stage
  • Anticipatory stage
  • Nurses are adaptive professionals and PDAs are a
    valuable tool for their practice

Data Gaps
  • Many gaps due to the lack of research in the area
    of nursing and the role of the PDA, and most
    importantly how patients perceive the care
    associated with them
  • The lack of research has prevented the
    implementation of PDAs into the main stream
    nursing profession

Research Question Hypothesis
The patients will perceive greater satisfaction
with their care from nurses who utilize PDAs, due
to their ability to access accurate and up to
date information, provide effective teaching via
multi media applications, and spend more time
with the patient at the bedside.
  • Do patients perceive a difference in the care
    given by nurses who do not use a PDA vs. nurses
    who do?

  • Determine if the use of PDAs hinders or enhances
    the quality of care provided by nurses

  • Non-Randomized quasi-experimental approach
  • Used to make relationships clear, to explain why
    an occurrence has taken place and to observe
    causal relationships
  • The patient will not know what is being tested
    and the nurse will not know how they are being

  • Two samples
  • Self selected nurses
  • Self selected patients
  • Poster will be hung on all the acute care units
  • Participation is voluntary without remuneration
  • Goal is to recruit 50 acute care nurses

Inclusion Criteria
  • RNs
  • Must be a full time RN
  • Patients
  • Must speak English at an 8th grade level
  • Be over the age of 18
  • Be admitted for at least 24hours

  • Patients
  • Being cognitively or sensory impaired

  • Tungsten E2 by Palm
  • Nursing Central
  • Ultimate Anatomy Organ Systems Flash Cards

  • 11 week period (4-3-4)
  • Nurses will ask patients if they would like to
    participate and provide patients with
  • Nurses will never see the blank or completed

Proposed Budget A
Proposed Budget B
Data Collection
  • Validate the Amended Caring Assessment Tool
  • Patients fill out the 5 point Likert type scale
    based on their perceived satisfaction

Data Analysis
  • Results will be run through a statistical program
    and results compared to see if there is a
    statistical difference between the control group
    and experimental group

Implications for Research
  • Benefit the advancement in scientific knowledge
    in many ways
  • Contribution to recent literature
  • Replication
  • Implementation of PDAs

Implications to Nursing
  • The results from this study will
  • Enhance/Hinder
  • Resolve apprehensions
  • Promote peer education

  • Duffy, J.R., Hoskins, L., Skifert, R.F. (2007).
    Dimensions of Caring Psychometric Evaluation of
    the Caring Assessment Tool Electronic version.
    Advances in Nursing Science. 30(3), 235-245.
  • Enger, J.C. (2001). PDAs A hands-down winner
    Electronic version. Nurse Practitioner.
  • Greenfield, S. (2007). Medication Error
    Reduction and the use of PDA technology
    Electronic version. Journal of Nursing
    Education. 46(3), 127-132.
  • Hardwick, M.E, Pulido, P.A., Adelson, W.S.
    (2007). The use of handheld technology in
    nursing research and practice Electronic
    version. Orthopaedic Nursing. 26(4), 251-255.
  • Krauskopf, P.B. (2004). Accuracy and efficiency
    as outcomes of clinical scenarios by novice nurse
    practitioners using personal digital assistants.
    Ph.D. dissertation. Virginia University. United
    States, Virginia.
  • Lee, T. (2006). Adopting a personal digital
    assistant system application of Lewins change
    theory Electronic version. Journal of Advanced
    Nursing. 55(4), 487-496.
  • Lee, T., Lin, K., Lin, J. (2007). Development
    and testing of an evaluation scale of personal
    digital assistants Electronic version.
    Computers Informatics Nursing. 25(3), 171-179.
  • Miller, J., Shaw-Kokot, J.R., Arnold, M.S.,
    Boggin, T., Crowell, K.E., Allegri, F., Blue,
    J.H. Berrier, S.B. (2005). A study of
    personal digital assistants to enhance
    undergraduate clinical nursing education
    Electronic version. Journal of Nursing
    Education. 44(1), 19-26.