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Mars. Jovian. Jupiter. Saturn. Uranus. Neptune. Overal

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Mars. Jovian. Jupiter. Saturn. Uranus. Neptune. Overall System Properties. Orbits coplanar ... Mars f. Jupiter g. Saturn h. Uranus i. Asteroids. 384 388 38.8 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mars. Jovian. Jupiter. Saturn. Uranus. Neptune. Overal


1
The Solar System
2
The Suns Family - the Giants
3
The Suns Family - the Dwarfs
4
(No Transcript)
5
Planet Types
  • Terrestrial
  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • Earth
  • Mars
  • Jovian
  • Jupiter
  • Saturn
  • Uranus
  • Neptune

6
Overall System Properties
  • Orbits coplanar
  • Orbit in same direction
  • Most rotate in same direction
  • Moons tend to orbit parent body in the same
    direction
  • Lenticular laws
  • Diameter
  • Number of moons

7
Orbital Inclinations
8
Comparing the Planet Types
  • Distance from Sun
  • Diameter
  • Mass
  • Density
  • Composition
  • Rotation Rate

Close
Far
Small
Large
Large
Small
Small
Large
Solar
Rocky
Slow
Rapid
9
Planetary Observations
  • Mass
  • Follow the orbit of a moon.
  • Follow the trajectory of a spacecraft.
  • Perturbations in the orbit of a nearby planet.

10
Planetary Observations
  • Radius
  • Angular Diameter and Distance

11
Angular Diameter and Distance
12
Planetary Observations
  • Radius
  • Angular Diameter and Distance
  • Stellar Occultations

13
Stellar Occultations
14
Rings of Uranus
15
The Discovery of Uranus
  • William Hershel 1781
  • Perturbations in the orbit discovered
  • Must be due to another planet
  • Fg ? M/d2
  • Mass from trends in the outer solar system
  • Assumed about the mass of Uranus
  • Distance from Bodes Law

16
Bode-Titius Law
Mercury d Venus e Earth ? Mars
f Jupiter g Saturn h Uranus i
0.4 0.7 1.0 1.6 2.8 5.2 10.0 19.6
4 7 10 16 28 52 100 196
0 3 6 12 24 48 96 192
Asteroids
384 388 38.8
17
Neptune Found
  • Position predicted by John Couch Adams and Urbain
    Jean Joseph Le Verrier
  • Observed by Johann Gottfried Galle and Heinrich
    Louis dArrest on Sept 23, 1846
  • Two moons found quickly
  • Mass 17.2 M?
  • Distance 30 AU

18
The search for Planet IX
  • Soon became apparent that Neptune didnt solve
    all the problems
  • New search conducted by Percival Lowell
  • Looking for a small Jovian planet
  • Mass 6.6 M?
  • Magnitude 10
  • Clyde Tombaugh succeeds in 1930
  • Named Pluto
  • Fainter than expected

19
Pluto Found
20
The Mass of Pluto
  • Pre-discovery 6.6 M?

1968 0.91
1976 0.11
1978 0.0002
21
More Planets?
  • Reanalysis of Voyager 2 data suggests that all
    perturbations are accounted for
  • In fact the hunt for Pluto need not have been
    conducted if more accurate data had been available

22
The Kuiper Belt
23
Planetary Observations
  • Radius
  • Angular Diameter and Distance
  • Stellar Occultations
  • Radar

24
Radar
25
Radius by Radar
  • Send out very short pulse
  • One nanosecond is typical
  • Signal reflects off of different parts of the
    planet at different times
  • Returned signal spread out in time

26
Planetary Observations
  • Rotational Period
  • Radar

27
Rotational Rate by Radar
  • Send out signal of only one wavelength
  • Signal is Doppler shifted by surface of a
    rotating planet
  • Signal received spread out in wavelength

Blue Shift here
Red Shift here
28
Rotation of Mercury
29
Rotation of Venus
  • Orbital Period224.7d
  • Rotational period243d retrograde
  • always presents the same face toward Earth when
    the two planets are at their closest approach.

30
Radar Map of Mercury
31
Comparing Twins
32
Venus
33
Other Radar Findings
  • Jupiter
  • No solid surface
  • Saturn
  • Nature of Rings

34
Planetary Observations
  • Rotational Period
  • Radar
  • Surface features

35
(No Transcript)
36
Planetary Observations
  • Rotational Period
  • Radar
  • Surface features
  • Slant of spectral lines

37
Spectrum of Saturn
Slit of Spectrograph
38
Planetary Observations
  • Rotational Period
  • Radar
  • Surface features
  • Slant of spectral lines
  • Light variations

39
Asteroid Ida
40
Planetary Observations
  • Albedo
  • Information required
  • Sun-Planet distance
  • Planet-Earth distance
  • Brightness of Sun
  • Brightness of Planet
  • Basic Information on surface, atmosphere,
    clouds, ice caps

41
Albedos
  • Mercury 0.11
  • Venus 0.65
  • Earth 0.37
  • Mars 0.15
  • Jupiter 0.52
  • Saturn 0.47
  • Uranus 0.50
  • Neptune 0.5
  • Pluto 0.6

42
End of Section
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