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PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development


Multidimensional Intelligence. Fluid Intelligence: flexible reasoning and is made up of the basic mental ... People's performance on tests might improve with practice. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development

PSYC 2314Lifespan Development
  • Chapter 21
  • Middle Adulthood
  • Cognitive Development

Multidimensional Intelligence
  • Fluid Intelligence flexible reasoning and is
    made up of the basic mental abilities such as
    inductive reasoning, abstract thinking, and speed
    of thinking required for understanding any
  • Crystallized intelligence the accumulation of
    facts, information, and knowledge that comes with
    education and experience within a particular

Multidimensional Intelligence
  • Robert Sternbergs 3 Fundamental Forms of
  • Analytic
  • Creative
  • Practical

Multidimensional Intelligence
  • Paul Baltes Selective Optimization with
  • The ability to strategically use ones
    intellectual strengths to compensate for the
    declining capacities associated with age.

Multidimensional Intelligence
  • Howard Gardners Theory of Intelligence
  • Linguistic
  • Logical-mathematical
  • Musical
  • Spatial
  • Body-kinesthetic
  • Naturalistic
  • Self-understanding
  • Social-understanding

Multidirectional Intelligence
  • Contemporary researchers also believe that since
    intellectual abilities are multidirectional, it
    is misleading to ask whether intelligence, in
    general, either increases or decreases.

Earlier Studies
  • Cross-sectional
  • Impossible to match subjects in every aspect
    except age, cohort effects are inevitable.
  • Longitudinal
  • Peoples performance on tests might improve with
  • Some people leave the study those who remain are
    usu. the most stable, well-functioning adults.

Schaies Cross-Sequential Study
  • Each time his original subjects were retested
    (longitudinal design), he also tested a group of
    adults at each age interval and then followed
    them longitudinally as well, thus controlling for
    the possible effects of retesting as well as
    uncovering the impact of cohort differences.

Schaies Cross-Sequential Study
  • Findings indicate that from age 20 until the late
    50s, cognitive abilities are more likely to
    increase than decrease, with the exception of
    arithmetic skills, which begin to shift slightly
    downward by age 40.
  • Not until the 80s does performance fall below the
    middle range of performance for young adults.

Contextual Intelligence
  • Intellectual development is greatly influenced by
    interindividual variation
  • Genetic uniqueness
  • Changes in family and career responsibilities
  • Cohort
  • Educational level
  • Income
  • Marital status
  • Physical and mental health

Plasticity of Intelligence
  • Abilities can be molded in many ways. It can be
    enhanced or diminished, depending on how, when,
    and why a person uses them.
  • As we age, our intelligence increases in specific
    areas that are of importance to us that is, each
    of us becomes an expert in particular area.

Expert vs. Novice
  • Experts tend to rely more on their accumulated
    experience than on rules to guide them and are
    thus more intuitive and less stereotyped in their
  • Many elements of expert performance are automatic

Expert vs. Novice
  • The expert has more, and better, strategies for
    accomplishing a particular task.
  • Experts are more flexible in their work