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Contingency Planning for Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief

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Title: Contingency Planning for Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief


1
Contingency Planning for Foreign Humanitarian
Assistance and Disaster Relief
SOUTHCOM Lessons Learned From Recent Crises in
Latin America
Dr Nancy Mock LTC J.E. McGovern
2
Overview of Session
  • The Lessons Learned model
  • Case studies of SOUTHCOMs experiences
  • Observations
  • Identification
  • Analysis
  • Actions
  • Organizational Changes
  • The way ahead

3
Reasons for Slow Organizational Learning among
the Institutions
(Civilian and Military)
  • Rapid turnover in personnel at the strategic and
    operational levels
  • Lack of standards/norms of practice
  • Ad hoc training strategies
  • Limited empirical knowledge base

4
Reasons for Slow Organizational Learning among
the Institutions
(Civilian and Military)
  • The traditional vertical structure of the FHA/DR
    Community prohibits information exchange
  • Laterally
  • Rapidly
  • Organizational Cultures
  • Time

5
Dimensions of Lessons Learned Framework
  • Agency Type
  • SOUTHCOM
  • DoD
  • Others (USG Agencies, Regional Organizations,
    PVOS and Host Country Organizations)
  • Level of Organization
  • Strategic
  • Operational
  • Tactical
  • Subject Matter
  • Nature of Problem
  • Response
  • Resources Management
  • Information/Communications Management
  • Coordination and Collaboration
  • Task Organization

6
Issues in Assessing the Lessons Learning Process
  • Who is
  • Observing
  • Analyzing and
  • Using information
  • How are they
  • Observing
  • Analyzing and
  • Using information

7
How are Lessons Identified
  • Internal information systems
  • Forums/consensus groups
  • Delphi methods
  • Evaluations/assessments
  • Expert analysis
  • After Action Reviews
  • Debriefings

8
Observation
Lessons Identified
Organizational Change
Analysis
Actions
9
  • Hurricane Mitch
  • The worst natural disaster ever to strike the
    Western Hemisphere
  • 8,200 dead, 9,300 missing
  • Millions left homeless
  • More than 8.5 billion dollars in damages

In historic context, thats 17,000 lives lost,
which is equals to the total United States losses
during the Korean War. General Wilhelm, CINCSO
10
MITCH - Indiscriminate KILLER
Most deadly hurricane in the Atlantic in over
200 years -- National Hurricane
Center
11
Hurricane Mitch
GUATEMALA DEAD 258 MISSING 120 DISPLACED
109,000
HURRICANE MITCH
26 OCT
28 OCT
GUATEMALA
HONDURAS
HONDURAS DEAD 7,000 MISSING 12,000 DISPLACED
1,900,000
GUATEMALA CITY
SOTO CANO
31 OCT
Tegucigalpa
EL SALVADOR DEAD 240 MISSING 135 DISPLACED
50,000
NICARAGUA
SAN SALVADOR
NICARAGUA
NICARAGUA DEAD 2,362 MISSING 970 DISPLACED
868,000
MANAGUA
12
Affected Areas And Impact
GUATEMALA 98 Bridges Damaged 60 Roads Impacted
HONDURAS 170 Bridges Damaged 70 Roads Impacted
San Pedro Sula
GUATEMALA CITY
SOTO CANO
TEGUCIGALPA
EL SALVADOR 17 Bridges Damaged 20 Roads Impacted
SAN SALVADOR
NICARAGUA 71 Bridges Damaged 70 Roads Impacted
Managua
AFFECTED AREAS
13
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
FUERTE APOYO
  • THREE PHASE OPERATION
  • Emergency
  • Rehabilitation
  • Restoration

14
Challenges
  • Large Geographical Area
  • No pre-existing medical plan
  • Initial information extremely sketchy
  • Synchronizing the flow of forces into the
    theater to counter the health threats
  • Provide HSS to US forces and disaster relief to
    indigenous personnel
  • Desert Fox

15
Phase I - Emergency
16
Health Service Support
  • Priority of effort
  • Controlling the outbreak of diseases
  • Vector control
  • Sanitation
  • Domestic animal care
  • Food and water quality
  • Restoration of general public health programs
  • Consultation on the disposal of remains
  • Disease surveillance
  • Functional HN Medical Infrastructure

17
HSS Missions CENTAM Hurricane Relief
  • Supplement medical infrastructure
  • National Disease Surveillance Program
  • Post Traumatic Stress
  • Entomology
  • Sanitation
  • Health Facility Planning
  • Veterinary

HONDURAS NICARAGUA
EL SALVADOR
  • Water surety
  • Entomology
  • Med Asst Tms

GUATEMALA
18
Phase I - Emergency
Life saving missions and emergency delivery of
relief supplies and medical assistance
26-Nov-98.
2,102
San Pedro Sula
La Ceiba
Guatemala City
39 A/C 440 Sorties 1686 hrs
Soto Cano
6 A/C 200 Sorties 385 hrs
Lives Saved
1,052 Food Distributed
3,245,100 Lbs Medical Supplies
Distributed 131,000 Lbs
Water Distributed
120,000 Gals
Managua
42,500,000
19
Lessons Identified
  • Get the plan and information out to the forces
    as soon as possible
  • Define capabilities, be as detailed as possible
  • Defining the chain of command for medical forces
  • Providing sufficient transportation for medical
    elements
  • Utilization of the Internet

20
Lessons Identified
  • Assessments
  • Training forces on how to conduct assessments
  • Pre-identifying organizations best suited to do
    this mission and getting them on the ground early
  • Linking the teams with MOH and National EOCs
  • Obtaining information rapidly
  • Posting it so that it is accessible to all

21
Phase II - Rehabilitation
22
Phase II - Rehabilitation
  • US medical force structure fully operational
  • USA Health Facility Planning Agency (HFPA)
    conducted site surveys to assess restorability of
    host nation medical treatment facilities
  • Center of Health Promotion and Prevention
    Medicine (CHPPM) assisted in disease surveillance
    programs

The goal - restore HN facility to preexisting
levels.
23
Phase II - Rehabilitation
  • HSS Priorities
  • Sanitation
  • Safe water
  • Vector control
  • The prevention of disease outbreaks
  • Revamp, reinforce and reestablish health care to
    a minimum of preexisting levels working through
    the local health care system, utilizing local
    labor and/or facilities, where ever possible.
  •  

24
Phase II - Rehabilitation
  • HSS Objectives
  • Reduce health related suffering of HN populations
  • Provide force health protection to US Forces
  • Reduce risk of disease epidemics throughout
    region
  • Reduce HNs dependency on JTFs
  • Prepare infrastructure for transition to
    GO/IO/NGO/PVO operations.

25
Medical Liaison
  • JTF Surgeon must establish liaison with
    medical contacts within OFDA, USAID, the
    Ministries of Health, PAHO, and other key medical
    IO/NGO/PVOs operating within their JOA. It is
    critical to set the stage for transition early in
    the operations. Duplication of efforts must be
    avoided. HSS resources must safeguard the heath
    of the effected population. This cant be done
    if these resources are wasted. Efforts must be
    synchronized as much as possible.

26
Phase II - Rehabilitation
Repairs to infrastructure required to reestablish
national capabilities to provide for health and
basic welfare of the populace
5,400
San Pedro Sula
La Ceiba
219 (Sorties)
Guatemala City
11
Soto Cano
Comalapa
53
Managua
10
112,500,000
4
27
Lessons Identified
  • Needs of the countries changed
  • Use of pesticides/insecticides
  • Class VIII issues
  • Reporting procedures
  • SMART

28
Lessons Identified
  • Pan American Health Organization
  • Working together with Country Teams, USAID, and
    Ministries of Health and Agriculture
  • Joint Operations
  • Use of the Internet

29
Transition

30
Transition
  • HSS Priorities Assess HSS conditions within
    JOA transition HSS programs to GO/IO/NGO/PVOs
    initiate Humanitarian Civic Actions (HCA) in the
    region prepare major end items for
    re-deployment.
  • HSS Objectives While continuing to provide
    health care for JTF and HN personnel, US Force
    medical personnel will begin disengaging from the
    infrastructure support and assimilate GO/IO/NGO/
    PVO to continue long term rehabilitation efforts.

31
GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA
OPERATION NEW HORIZONSHONDURAS
MARCH - SEPTEMBER 1999
32
Jan Feb Mar Apr
May Jun Jul Aug
Sep
Transition Disaster Relief to Expanded New
Horizons
Honduras 01 13 Feb -- 30 Jun
Guatemala 01 8 Feb- 3 May
Honduras 02 20 Feb - 21 Aug
Nicaragua 1 Apr - 15 Aug
JTF Operations
El Salvador 30 Mar -1 Aug
Dominican Republic 1 Apr - 7 Aug
Guatemala 02 1 May - 30 Aug
33
Phase III - Restoration Mission
US Southern Command conduct expanded New Horizon
Exercises in Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador in
Nicaragua from March 1999-September 1999 in order
to assist in the restoration of Central America
as a result of its devastation from
Hurricane Mitch.

34
Phase III - Restoration
  • 23,000 Guardsmen and Reservists from 45 states
  • Build 33 schools
  • Build 12 clinics
  • Repair 52 more roads and bridges.
  • Drill 27 high capacity wells
  • Conduct 40 very large medical outreach programs
    during which we expect that we will establish
    somewhere between 70,000 and 100,000 patient
    contacts.

35
Phase III - Restoration
  • This exercise is significant for two reasons
  • This was the premier training event of the year
    for our Guardsmen and Reservists.
  • The work that our engineers, medics, and
    logisticians did remained long after they left,
    benefiting the populations of these four
    countries.

36
Lessons Identified
  • Contingency planning must consider worst case
    scenarios
  • Lack of professionalism still plagues the relief
    system
  • One entity in charge is a myth but unity of
    effort is key to effective and efficient
    preparedness, response and recovery

37
Lessons Identified
  • SOUTHCOM needed to strengthen its relationship
    and understanding with the IO/NGO/PVO community
  • Preparedness as well as response had to be
    addressed
  • A mechanism for sharing data among various
    countries, organizations and institutions had to
    be established
  • Training at the local, regional hemispheric
    levels had to be strengthened

38
Key lessons Identified from Mitch
  • Information management remains a great constraint
    to effective planning
  • Planning activities must encompass preparedness,
    mitigation, response and recovery
  • Measures of effectiveness (MOE)
  • Focus on outcome
  • Unity of effort
  • Policy
  • Decision Points

39
Venezuela Floods
  • On December 16 and 17, 1999 Venezuela
    suffered its historys worst national disaster as
    torrential rains caused wide spread flooding and
    mudslides along its northern coast. As a result
    of this catastrophe more than 400,000 people were
    displaced, most of them left homeless and an
    estimated 30,000 to 50,000 people loss their
    lives.

40
The Venezuelan Floods
  • An estimated 30,000-50,000 dead
  • 15,000 injured
  • 150,000 left homeless
  • 600,000 without water

41
The Geodynamic Effects Along The Coast Of Central
Venezuela, December, 1999
42
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45
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46
Lessons Identified
  • Impact modeling
  • Call back capabilities
  • Site identification

47
International Cooperation
48
Key Lessons Identified at the Strategic Level
  • Nature of problem
  • All hazards analysis is critical in the AOR, this
    should be incorporated in to initial assessments
  • Underdevelopment and poor development contributed
    to the great loss of life resulting from natural
    hazards Shaping activities must engage the
    regional community in promoting policies/programs
    to prepare for and mitigate hazard impacts
  • Population vulnerability and local infrastructure
    information base is weak, all partners should
    support a plan to improve the regional
    information base

49
Key Lessons Identified at the Strategic Level
  • Rapid deployment of subject matter experts and
    experienced staff was critical to mission
    success, identify and develop mechanisms for
    accessing and deploying these resources
  • Staffs were deployed with little preparation,
    improve core competencies and just-in-time
    training
  • Unity of effort among the various agencies, to
    include the military, was poor, develop
    mechanisms for collaboration, coordination and
    cooperation

50
Key Lessons Identified at the Strategic Level
  • Information management/communications
  • MOEs focusing on outcomes are essential to
    rational planning and management of DR/HR
  • Facilitate interagency development of indicators
    for use in the AOR
  • Information base for planning and management is
    weak and conflicted due to lack of standards of
    practice within and between agencies
  • Facilitate the identification of standards of
    practice relating to disaster management
    information

51
Key Lessons Identified at the Strategic Level
(cont)
  • Information management/communications
  • The internet was a key tool for planning
  • Develop tools and training to increase the
    effectiveness and access of internet tools
  • Information sharing among agencies was a
    constraint to effective planning and management
  • Develop mechanisms for enhancing interagency
    information sharing

52
The Way Ahead…….
  • Plans
  • Changes to the Theater Engagement Plan
  • Update of 6150
  • A Disaster Preparedness Strategy
  • Training and Seminars
  • The Integrated Regional Humanitarian Disaster
    Relief Seminars (INTERHANDS)
  • FA HUME
  • Regional Disaster Seminars
  • Subject Matter Expert Exchanges

53
The Way Ahead...
  • Improving the information base for HA/DR
  • Facilitating the standardization of indicators
    (including MOEs) data formats among regional
    players
  • Development of geo-spatial and multi-media
    information systems for storage, analysis and
    display of disaster case information, including
    population vulnerability/capabilities and
    disaster resource management information
  • Building a human resources data base of regional
    and subject matter expertise

54
Potential Measures of Effectiveness for Disasters
  • Compared to Rates Prior to the Disaster
  • Mortality rates
  • Morbidity Rates
  • Evacuation times
  • Daily outpatient statistics
  • Daily inpatient statistics
  • Area coverage
  • Rate of Post Traumatic Stress
  • Medical stocks
  • Nutritional Status

55
The Way Ahead………
  • Improving information sharing and dissemination
  • Development of real-time dissemination of lessons
    identified
  • WWW and CDROM based full-text search digital
    libraries of SOUTHCOM non-classified data
  • Support of ALERTAR as an open source information
    portal for HA/DR in the region

56
The Way Ahead……..
  • Developing just in time training tools
  • Smart books
  • ECLASS tailored training

57
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58
ALERTAR
  • Humanitarian Assistance Database (HADB)
  • Multimedia Documentation Kit
  • Other software tools
  • Computer-Based Training

59
Humanitarian Assistance Database
  • Used to store a list of important organizations
    and contacts in the region
  • All information can be indexed by country or
    disaster type, allowing for highly-focused
    searches
  • Completely web-based, users can view from the
    web, authors can edit from the web
  • Windows-based editor in development

60
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61
HADB - Country Search
By clicking on any country on this map, you can
get a listing of contacts and documents related
to that country.
62
HADB - Contact Information Form
63
Multimedia Documentation Kit
  • A Reference Library for Disaster Professionals
    in the Field
  • Contains Country and Subject/Disaster Specific
    Resources (manuals, contacts, articles, maps,
    publications) Available on CD-ROM or the Web
  • Prototype Currently in Development

64
Libraries
65
Technology Assisted Learning Modules (TALM)
  • TALM toolkit for developing online courses,
    includes freeware software
  • E-Class (our in house software) and tutorials
  • Image editors
  • Video editors
  • Sound Editors
  • Has been used successfully by professors and
    leaders with no previous technical background
  • Examples in many different domains and settings
  • Currently being used to develop GIS training
    modules for the LAC region

View E-Class Examples
66
Computer-Based Training
  • Used to Facilitate the Development of Easily and
    Widely Accessible Training Materials
  • Using E-Class Designer, Creates Multimedia Web
    and CD-ROM Friendly Training Courses
  • Prototype in Development

67
E-Class Features Content Management
  • Take course materials, including textual, video
    and audio, and combine them into a web-based
    e-Book
  • Creates a navigation system automatically so
    instructors can focus on content instead of
    technical issues
  • Create clickable terms (hotwords) so that
    students can find out more about important terms

68
Computer-Based Training Prototype
69
Private Sector Initiative
  • Background revival of OFDA Private Sector
    Committee
  • Activities to date
  • Post Mitch private company pilot survey completed
  • IDB private sector seminar in March 2000
  • Nicaragua action planning workshop being
    developed
  • Expected outcomes include
  • Database on private sector readiness and
    resources in Central America
  • Working group formulated (Private sector advisory
    committee)
  • Training materials development
  • American Chambers of Commerce training seminars
  • Collaborating partners PADF, OAS, PAHO, US
    Chamber of Commerce

70
Disaster Preparedness Strategy
  • Develop regional capabilities and collaboration.
  • Encourage cooperation and training between
    USSOUTHCOM, national authorities, relief agencies
    and multilateral institutions.
  • Establish a mechanism that supports disaster
    preparedness and response within the theater.

71
Disaster Preparedness Mission
US SOUTHCOM shapes the environment within its
area of responsibility in part through disaster
preparedness in order to promote democracy,
stability and collective approaches to regional
security when required, responds unilaterally or
multilaterally to crises.
72
Disaster Preparedness Vision
  • A community of democratic, stable, and
    prosperous nations properly prepared for
    transnational disasters served by professional ,
    modernized, interoperable security forces in
    support of civilian agencies, and capable of
    multilateral, regional, and hemispheric responses
    to challenges.

73
PAHO
OFDA
  • Partnership
  • Regional Cooperation
  • Regional Collaboration
  • Self sufficiency

CDMHA
FEMA
74
  • Our ultimate goal is to establish programs and
    infrastructure that eliminate the need for
    external assistance and resources.

75
Disaster Preparedness Objectives
  • Information
  • Technology
  • Methodology

Promote the rapid exchange of critical
information among military forces and civilian
agencies in the region.
76
Influence the roles, missions, and modernization
efforts of the response communities in the region
through affiliations with other agencies,
institutions and organizations
Disaster Preparedness Objectives
PAHO
OFDA
77
Provide a rapidly deployable disaster response
capability
Disaster Preparedness Objectives
78
Disaster Preparedness Objectives
Develop a comprehensive and coordinated
multilateral plans
79
Develop a theater disaster preparedness
logistics' support system
Disaster Preparedness Objectives
80
Provide situational awareness and force
protection for U.S. military and civilian
personnel in the region
Disaster Preparedness Objectives
81
Its not a matter of if but only a question of
when, where and how bad
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