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Morphology

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How is it different from a word? What are the 4 different ways of classifying ... 6) borrowing: Tofu, Kungfu, mahjong. 7) morphological misanalysis: chocoholic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Morphology


1
Morphology
  • Indv101
  • Section 7
  • 10/3/2005
  • Rong Liu

2
Review questions
  • 1.How do we classify words? Define and give
    examples.
  • 2. What is a morpheme? How is it different from a
    word? What are the 4 different ways of
    classifying morphemes? What are the differences?
    Give examples.
  • 3. How do new words enter a language? Provide
    one example for each.

3
1.How do we classify words? Define and give
examples.
  • Content words (open class )
  • noun, verb, adjective, adverb
  • function words (closed class )
  • prepositions, articles, conjunctions etc.
  • on, of, the, although, at etc.

4
  • Underline function words (closed class) in the
    following sentence.
  • Thus, a morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit
    that has a meaning or grammatical function.
  • Thus, a, is, the, that, a, or.

5
2.
  • A ______ is the smallest meaningful unit of a
    language.
  • morpheme
  • Classification
  • C1)free morphemes vs Bound morphemes
  • Test Given a morpheme,can it stand alone as a
    word?
  • YES          it's a free morpheme (e.g., bubble)
  • NO            it's a bound morpheme (e.g., -er in
    beater, -s in oranges)

6
C2)Inflectional or derivational morphemes?
  • Morphemes that change the meaning or part of
    speech of a word they attach to are called _____
    morphemes.
  • The morphemes that serve a purely grammatical
    function, never creating a new word but only a
    different form of the same word, are called
    _______ morphemes.
  • Test Does it create a new word by changing the
    meaning or part of speech or both?
  • YES            it's a derivational m (e.g., re-
    in rewind, -ist in artist)
  • NO             it's an inflectional m (e.g., -est
    in smartest)

7
C3)stem(root) or affix?
  • Test Does it have the principal meaning of the
    word it's in?
  • YES            it's the stem (e.g., happy in
    unhappiness)
  • NO             it's an affix (e.g., -un and -ness
    in unhappiness)

8
C4)Content or function morpheme?
  • Test Does it have a meaning or cause a change in
    meaning when added to a word?
  •  
  • YES            it's a content morpheme (e.g., un-
    in untrue)
  • NO             it's a function morpheme (e.g., -s
    in books)

9
Practice 1
  • unhappiest
  • Whats the root?
  • What are the bound morphemes?
  • Are they derivational or inflectional?
  • What are their functions?

10
unhappiest
  • Whats the root?
  • happy
  • What are the bound morphemes?
  • Are they derivational or inflectional?
  • un- (derivational) -est (inflectional)
  • What are their functions?
  • un- change meaning to opposite
  • -est change meaning to superlative

11
thickeners
  • Root?
  • Bound morphemes?
  • inflectional or derivational?
  • Function?
  • thick (root/free) -en (b and d)
  • -er (b and d) -s (b and i)

12
antidisestablishmentarianism
  • Whats the root?
  • What are the bound morphemes?
  • Are they derivational or inflectional?
  • What are their functions?

13
antidisestablishmentarianism
  • What are the bound morphemes?
  • anti- (der.) chg. meaning against
  • dis- (der.) chg. meaning not
  • -ment (der.) chg. to noun (thing)
  • -arian (der.) chg to noun (person)
  • -ism (der.) chg. to noun(philosophy)

14
3.How do new words enter a language? Provide one
example for each.
  • ''The problem with defending the purity of the
    English language is that English is about as pure
    as a cribhouse whore. We don't just borrow words
    on occasion, English has pursued other languages
    down alleyways to beat them unconscious and rifle
    their pockets for new vocabulary.'' (James
    Nicoll, 1990)

15
  • 1) derivation Hallmarky
  • 2) compounding download
  • 3) clipping dormitory dorm
  • 4) blending and clipping brunch
  • 5) generification kleenex
  • 6) borrowing Tofu, Kungfu, mahjong
  • 7) morphological misanalysis chocoholic
  • 8) dictionary dolarization
  • 9) acronyms USA

16
Practice 2T or F
  • 1. Words are the basic meaningful elements of a
    language.
  • 2. A morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit
    that has a meaning or grammatical function.
  • 3. Morphology is the study of how sounds are
    structured and how they are put together.
  • 4. In English, bound morphemes are also referred
    to as affixes.
  • 5. Morphemes that change the meaning or part of
    speech of a word they attach to are called
    inflectional morphemes.

17
Practice 2
  • 6. In English, every word has at least one free
    morpheme.
  • 7. In English all inflectional morphemes are
    suffixes.
  • 8. The ending sounds in played and kicked belong
    to the same morpheme.
  • 9. English plural marker has three sound
    realizations but they belong to one morpheme.
  • 10. The process of making a new word orientate
    from orientation is called clipping.
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