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Introduction to Counseling And Guidance


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Title: Introduction to Counseling And Guidance

Introduction to CounselingAnd Guidance
  • Instructor Steve Ray III
  • Contact Me
  • OfficeED210
  • Phone 580-774-7128
  • E-Mail

If you were writing a job description for a
school counselor, what duties would it include?
What is your role in the school
counseling/guidance program?
Chapter 1Historic Perspectives
  • Underlying Theme
  • Occupations and professions, especially
    counseling, have developed over time as a
    response to human need.

Historical Beginnings
  • Early Civilizations Priests, Chieftans,
    Philosophers, or other Religious Representatives
    assumed the function of advice giver/counselor.

  • Ancient Greek Philosophers
  • recognized the concept of developing ones
    potential forces inside to guide and stimulate
    individual toward beneficial goals.
  • Platoorganized psychological insights into
    systematic theory.
  • Aristotlestudied people interacting with their
    environment and others.
  • Hippocratesphysician who recognized mental
    illness may be caused by internal causes.

  • Educators
  • Luis Vives (1492-1540)recognized that people
    should be guided toward occupations according to
    attitudes and aptitudes.

  • Middle Ages
  • Churches Priests assumed major responsibility
    of educating
  • Descartes began to study the human body as an
    organism that reacted or behaved to various
  • Rousseau suggested that the growing individual
    can best learn when free to develop according to
    his or her natural impulses advocated learning
    through doing.

  • Mental illness was treated in the home, for the
    wealthy, with many retreating to the underground.
  • First 75 years, there were very few facilities
    for the treatment of the mentally ill.

  • United States Historical Progression
  • Thomas Jefferson called for a plan to recognize
    and educate its male youth as a source of
    national leadership.
  • John Adams called for laws for the liberal
    education of youths, especially lower class no
    expense should be spared.
  • Horace Mann stressed the importance of school
    systems as a response for educating the abandoned
    and outcast children for the betterment of

  • A. D. Mayo advocated morality and good
    citizenship as an integral part of education.
  • Herbert Spencer, a biologist, introduced the
    concept of adjustment adaptive behavior
    essential for biological adjustment and survival.
  • Physicists and physiologists began conducting
    experiments on the physical and physiological
    aspects of behavior launched the field of
    psychology as a separate science in the late

  • Wundt opened the first institute of Psychology
    the beginning of movement toward systematic
    investigation in human behavior.
  • Rise in psychiatry as a specialty of medicine
    supported the organic treatment of mental
  • Mental hospital movement provided care for the
    seriously mentally ill.
  • Sigmund Freud (early 1900s) introduced
    psychoanalytic theory frequently referred to as
    father of psychology.

  • 20th Century - Growing need for individuals to
    seek help because the society had become so
    complex began scientific approach to meeting
    human need - counseling/guidance.

Development of Counseling and Guidance in US
  • The Guidance Movement
  • 1908Parsons established Boston Vocational
    Bureau father of guidance movement.
  • Purpose of Bureau was to provide young people
    with vocational assistance in schools.
  • Parsons trained teachers to serve as vocational
  • Parsons believed that vocational counselors
    should have 6 specific traits.

1909, Published Choosing a Vocation 3 factors
necessary for wise choice of a vocation1.
Clear understanding of self, aptitudes,
abilities, interests, ambitions, resources,
limitations, and other causes.2. Knowledge of
requirements and conditions of success,
advantages and disadvantages, compensation,opportu
nities, and prospects in different lines of
work.3. True reasoning on the relations of
these two groups of facts.
  • 1913organization of the National Guidance
    Association the term guidance was adopted and
    referred to vocational choice, preparation, and
  • Jessie B. DavisThe Call Approach students
    should be preached to about moral value of hard
    work, ambition, honesty

  • Anna ReedPlaced emphasis on business needs above
    individual needs guidance program based on
    employability of individual.
  • Eli Weaverestablished teacher guidance
    committees in every HS in NYC based on discovery
    of individual capabilities and training to
    utilize talents.
  • David S. HillUsed Scientific methods to study
    people established diversified curriculum
    complemented by vocational guidance.

  • Standardized Testing Movement
  • Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon introduced the
    first general intelligence test in 1905.
  • Used to test draftees for WWI
  • Army Alpha Test
  • Translated and Revised in 1916 by Lewis Terman
    and his colleagues at Stanford University began
    to be used in the schools.

  • The Progressive Movement1920s
  • People-oriented philosophy--Stressed the
    uniqueness of child and dignity of the individual
  • Teachers and students plan together, childs
    social environment improved, developmental needs
    of student considered, psychological environment
    positive and encouraging.

  • Organized guidance programs emerge with
    increasing frequency in secondary schools in
  • Modeled after college student personnel programs
    - Deans.
  • Remedial Emphasis - students with academic and
    personal difficulties sent to Deans for help
    modifying behavior.

  • Elementary Counseling Movement-mid-1920s and
    early 1930s
  • William Burnhamemphasized role of teacher in
    mental health of children in elementary school.

  • Colleges began using standardized testing for
    admission and placement some offered vocational
  • 1935NY State Teachers Association published
    report guidance defined as
  • the process of assisting individuals in making
    life adjustment. It is needed in the home,
    school, community, and in all other phases of the
    individuals environment.

  • Late 1930s and early 1940strait-factor
    approach to counseling became increasingly
  • Child Study Movement (1930s)took position that
    it was the teachers role to provide guidance for
    each pupil in the self-contained classroom.
  • Found some following in secondary schools
  • Led to every teacher as a guidance worker

  • Carl Rogers (1951)Developed a new counseling
    theoryClient-Centered Therapy
  • Client assumed major responsibility for solving
    his/her own problem.
  • Counseling became a larger part of the guidance
    program than guidance itself.
  • His methods did not use testing as the key
    guidance function.
  • Also a significant contributor to group

  • Feingold - called for guidance of the whole
    childguidance beyond educational direction
    outgrowth of child study movement of 1930s

  • 1957Soviet Union launched Sputnik I
  • Stimulated legislation to improve personnel for
    providing guidance toward careers deemed vital
    for national well-being - National Defense
    Education Act of 1958.
  • NDEA - lift-off of Counseling And Guidance
    Movement provided
  • Grants to state Colleges for establishment,
    training and maintenance of guidance programs.

  • Certification standards for school counselors,
    and criteria for school guidance program
    evaluation was established.
  • Counseling personnel became viewed as
    indispensable to administrators.
  • Expanded role for HS counselor. New approaches
  • Small discussion groups , and group counseling.
  • Consideration of the total learning of the child,
    including personal and social relations of the

  • 1964American School Counselor Association
    approved an official policy statement to
  • Specify the role and function of the school
  • Concept that counselors influence society
  • Counselors need to function as consultant and
    agent for change.

  • 1970s - School Counselors Inherit Stereotypes
  • Stereotype of Responsibility - parents and others
    believe counselor has responsibility to ensure
    students take the right courses, select
    appropriate college, etc.
  • Stereotype of Failure - counselor is responsible
    for keeping students from failing.
  • Stereotype of Occupational Choice - counselor is
    the person who can tell a student what occupation
    to enter.

  • 1973National Commission on the Reform of
    Secondary Education published report with 32
    recommendations for the improvement of secondary
  • Accountability Movement of 1970s and 1980s
    required school counseling programs to develop
    more relevant data-based programs, and objective

  • 1983A Nation at Risk
  • Reported decline in standardized testing.
  • Recommendations
  • Longer school days
  • More effective school discipline
  • Return to Basics
  • 1980s and 1990sSocial Concerns stimulated
    growth in elementary school counseling
  • Substance abuse, child abuse, sexual abuse,
    latchkey children.
  • Led to mandated elementary school counseling
    programs in 16 states.

  • School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994
  • Provides framework for creating school-to-work
    systems in all states.
  • Career Counseling and Guidance are high priority.
  • By 1997 44 states had passed legislation to
    license counselors.

Development of Institutional and Agency
Counseling Programs
  • 1908Clifford Beers
  • Patient in mental health institution for several
    years suffered from schizophrenia.
  • Initiated humanitarian reforms and scientific
    inquiry into the problems of mental illnesses and

  • Mental Hygiene Movementpurpose was to educate
    general public to appreciate the plight and
    treatment of disturbed persons.
  • Major psychological concept emergedpeople are
    products of environment and heredity.
  • Community Mental Health Center began as response
    to this movement. Other results
  • Psychopathic hospitals
  • Community aftercare services
  • Local hospitals developed diagnostic and
    outpatient clinics

  • Standards were raised for treatment and
  • Local clinics for children
  • Preventive and early treatment
  • After WWII - Rehabilitation required
  • Veterans Bureau provided a continuation of
    vocational rehabilitation services or veterans
    included counseling and guidance.
  • Included rehab. for physical, as well as social
    and emotional problems.

  • 1904-1929Rapid growth in solid scientific
    research in many different areas
  • Statistical analysis
  • Test theory
  • Physiological and sensory psychology
  • Human and animal learning
  • Social and abnormal psychology
  • Empirical bases of psychology as a science
  • 1930s--Alfred Adler, student of Freud, pioneered
    family counseling and treatment of children.

  • 1940s and 1950s
  • National Mental Health Act established Institute
    of Mental Health (1946) initiated state level
    services provided to people with mental illness.
  • Veterans Admin. Provided services under the GI
    Bill provided counseling, training and
    education, rehab and educational services for
    ex-service personnel.
  • Division 17 (Counseling Psychology) of the
    American Psychological Association was
    established counseling recognized as specialty
    field of psychology.

  • Carl RogersClient-Centered Theory
  • Marriage and Family Counseling began to emerge in
  • Mental Health Study Act (1955)established a
    joint commission on mental illness and health
    report in 1961Action for Mental Health
  • 1955first decline in the number of patients in
    mental institutions due to community mental
    health centers

  • 1960s and 1970sCommunity Mental Health
  • 1963Community Mental Health Centers Act in
    response to Action for Mental Health report
  • Established 5 essential services centers must
  • Inpatient
  • Outpatient
  • Partial Hospitalization
  • Emergency Care
  • Consultation

  • Vietnam War created another population in need of
    mental health counseling.
  • Rise in substance abuse
  • Public awareness of the extent and seriousness of
    mental health problems led to more research.
  • Specialists for correctional counseling.

  • Specialists for the elderly.
  • Community Mental Health Center Amendments of
    1975mandated 12 services (p. 18)
  • Bloom (1984) differentiated between mental health
    services from traditional clinical practice. (p.
  • Mental Health Systems Actbroadened the scope of
    care for disturbed children and adolescents.

  • 1980s and 1990s
  • State and Local communities were called upon to
    provide financial support of their mental health
    care facilities and programs.
  • New societal problems
  • AIDS
  • Drug Addiction
  • Abused Children
  • Domestic Violence
  • School Dropout Problems
  • Homeless
  • Resurfacing of Prejudice
  • Bankruptcy
  • Career Needs (Technology?)

  • Answers to societal needs in the new century?
  • Prevention
  • Early Intervention
  • Treatment

Traditional and Current Activities of Counselors
  • Chapter Two

Counseling as a Helping Profession
  • Helping Profession
  • Members are specially trained and licensed or
    certified to perform a unique and needed service
    for fellow human beings.
  • Includes medicine, law, dentistry, education,
    psychology, and social work.

Distinguishing Characteristics
  • Humans are among the weakest species at birth.
  • Depend on others for survival
  • Humankind has the greatest potential for growth
    and development of all the species.
  • Brain power and energy give us limitless

Distinguishing Characteristics
  • Humankind has the highest level of communication
    skills, skills that enable us to express our
    thoughts in detail to many others
  • Humans exhibit a wider range of differences than
    any other species.
  • Individual differences provides rationale for
    client analysis.

Distinguishing Characteristics
  • Human beings manipulate and are manipulated by
    their environment.
  • Behavior cannot be adequately understood apart
    from environmental context.
  • Humankind is the only living organism that
    captures the time stream.
  • Capability to build on past experiences, avoid
    past mistakes, anticipate future, and plan for
    development of potential.

Distinguishing Characteristics
  • Humankind has the ability to reason and to gain
  • Enable us to make reasoned choices among
    alternatives and to change.
  • Ability to understand ourselves and act
    rationally are trademarks of a mature individual.

  • Inferences for counseling and other helping
  • The environment, from birth on, either nourishes
    or suppresses development.

  • Counseling program development must be based
  • Human growth and development.
  • Understanding characteristics and needs of all
    our clientele.
  • Understanding of the environment that shapes
  • Societal needs and expectancies.

The Professional Counselor
  • The term professional counselor distinguishes us
    from those who may use the title from another
    occupation (loan counselor, sales counselor,
    investment counselor, etc.)

The Professional Counselor
  • Responsibilities of professionalism
  • Become fully trained and qualified.
  • Masters degree.
  • Theoretical base.
  • Committed to constantly updating and upgrading
    skills and knowledge.

The Professional Counselor
  • Conducts or participates in research studies
    designed to advance knowledge for the profession.
  • Professional writings.
  • Program presentation at professional meetings.
  • Active participating member of the appropriate
    professional organizations at all levels
    (national, regional, state, local).
  • Aware of and adheres to legal and ethical

Counseling As A Discipline
  • Foundation for counseling derived from the field
    of psychology
  • Counseling theory and practice.
  • Standardized assessment.
  • Individual and group counseling techniques.
  • Career development and decision-making theories.

As A Discipline
  • Specialty areas and their contributions
  • Educational Psychology.
  • Learning theories, human growth and development,
    and their implications for educational settings.
  • Social Psychology.
  • The impact of social situations on individuals.
  • The environments influence on behavior.

As A Discipline
  • Ecological Psychology.
  • Study of environments.
  • How individuals perceive and are shaped by, as
    well as influence, their environments.
  • Developmental Psychology.
  • Understand why and how individuals grow and
    change over their life span.

As A Discipline
  • Contributions of other sciences
  • Sociology.
  • Understanding of human groups and their influence
    on human behavior.
  • Anthropology.
  • Insight into the cultures of peoples.
  • Cultures provide guidelines for behaviors and
    viewpoints of their members.

As A Discipline
  • Biology.
  • Understand the human organism and its uniqueness.
  • Health Professions.
  • Awareness of the importance of wellness and

  • A guidance program is a program of services
    specially designed to improve the adjustment of
    the individual for whom it was organized.
  • Guidance services
  • Primarily preventive in nature.

Traditional Activities
  • Teacher plays a major role.
  • Needs trained personnel.
  • Requires coordination.
  • Uses and improves on present practices.
  • Not an added activity.
  • Group of facilitating services.

  • The training background of guidance workers
    requires certain elements.
  • CACREP (Council for Accreditation of Counseling
    and Related Educational Programs) specifies that
    all counselors should study eight core areas
  • Human growth and development
  • Social-cultural foundations
  • Helping relations
  • Group work
  • Career and lifestyle development

Traditional Activities
  • Appraisal
  • Research and program evaluation
  • Professional orientation

  • Individual Assessment
  • Identify the characteristics and potential of
    every client.
  • Primary skill of professional counselor.
  • Resulted from standardized testing movement.

Traditional Activities
  • Popular and traditional techniques
  • Observation and observation reports.
  • Self-reporting techniques.
  • Values clarification techniques.

Traditional Activities
  • Individual Counseling.
  • Core activity through which all other activities
    become meaningful.
  • One-to-one helping relationship focusing on
  • personal growth and adjustment,
  • problem-solving, and
  • decision-making needs.

Traditional Activities cont.
  • Demands confidentiality.
  • Establish psychological contact--build a
  • Counselor genuineness or congruence.
  • Respect for the client.
  • Empathic understanding of the clients internal
    frame of reference.
  • Utilize theory.

Traditional Activities
  • Counseling programs will suffer in effectiveness
    and credibility unless counselors exhibit
    understanding, warmth, humaneness, and positive
    attitudes toward humankind.

  • Group Guidance (Gazda, 1984)
  • Organized to prevent the development of problems.
  • Included educational-vocational-personal-social
    information not taught in academic courses.
  • Classroom setting 20 to 35 students.
  • Leader classroom teacher or counselor.
  • Recommended on regular basis.
  • Instructional media used

  • Group Counseling (Gazda, 1984)
  • Prevention oriented.
  • Individuals can function in society, but are
    experiencing some rough spots.
  • If rough spots can be smoothed through
    successful counseling, no serious personality
    defects are incurred.
  • Growth engendering.
  • Provides participants with incentive and
    motivation to make changes that are in their best

  • Remedial.
  • Individuals engage in self-defeating behavior,
    but are capable of reversing this downward spiral
    without counseling intervention (individual).
  • Content is the same as group guidance, but some
  • Recommended only for those who are experiencing
    continuing or temporary problems that information
    alone will not resolve.

  • Group counseling makes a direct attempt to modify
    attitudes and behaviors whereas, group guidance
    is an indirect attempt.
  • Group counseling is dependent upon group
    cohesiveness and sharing personal concerns, which
    are most applicable to small, intimate groups.
    Group guidance is applicable to classroom-size

  • Group guidance is most likely to be found in
  • Group counseling is popular in agency and
    institutional settings and utilized somewhat,
    although not as frequently as group guidance, in
    school settings.
  • Group psychotherapy typically occurs in clinics
    and agency or institutional settings.

  • Career Assistance.
  • Career Guidance
  • Developmental approach suggests certain
    experiences and understandings at each stage of
    individual growth to build foundation for later
    career planning and decision making.
  • Counselors in both school and non-school settings
    provide career planning and adjustment assistance
    to clients.

  • Technological developments impacting career
  • Computer-based programs
  • Internet
  • Distance learning
  • Interactive learning systems

  • Placement and Follow-Up.
  • Traditionally a service of school counseling
  • Educational placement in courses and programs.
  • Student scheduling
  • College admissions
  • Increasing attention has been given to employment
    placement planning in schools (1990s) due to
    concerns for youth unemployment.
  • Strives to match students seeking part-time or
    regular employment with available jobs.

  • Follow-up is a means of assessing the
    effectiveness of a programs placement activities.

  • Referral
  • The practice of aiding clients in finding needed
    expert assistance that the referring counselor
    cannot provide.
  • Establish a network of qualified helping
    professionals for referral purposes.

  • Consultation
  • A process for
  • Helping a client through a third party (triadic
  • Helping parents of troubled children or teachers
    with problem pupils.
  • Helping a system improve its services to its
    clientele(process consultation).
  • Focuses on the processes that an agency or
    institution may be using to carry out its mission.

  • Research.
  • Necessary to the advancement of the counseling
  • A means for
  • providing empirically (based on experiment and
    observation rather than theory) based hypotheses
    relevant to the ultimate goal of implementing
    effective counseling,
  • producing additional knowledge in our field, and
  • seeking answers to questions and issues of
    professional concern.

  • Outcome Research.
  • Research that measures the outcomes of various
    counseling practices and activities.
  • Recent interest.

  • Evaluation and Accountability.
  • Evaluation
  • A means or process for assessing the
    effectiveness of the counselors activities.
  • Fundamental to verification and improvement of
    professional and program performance.
  • Accountability
  • An outgrowth of demands that schools and other
    tax-supported institutions and agencies be held
    accountable for their actions.

  • Prevention.
  • Seeks to prevent the occurrence of a disorder.
  • Focuses on the settings and life conditions that
    shape early adaptation.
  • Social institutions that profoundly affect early
    human development.
  • Family
  • School

  • Family.
  • Community mental health-oriented agencies are
    working with families to head off anticipated
    stresses such as
  • Divorced individuals, single parents, poverty
    and low-income, widows and widowers, and so forth.

  • School.
  • Provides intellectual achievement, and more
    importantly, can shape the entire social group.
  • Schools can play a major role in the promotion of
    positive mental health.
  • Wellness.
  • Recognizes both the mental and physical
    well-being of the individual.
  • A holistic approach to counseling includes the
    body, mind, spirit, and emotions.

Basic Principles (Philosophical Framework)
  • For Schools
  • Programs are designed to serve the developmental
    and adjustment needs of all youth.
  • Concerned with the total development of the
    students it serves.

Basic Principles
  • Trained professional counseling personnel are
    essential for ensuring professional competencies,
    leadership, and direction.
  • Certain basic activities are essential to program
    effectiveness--must be specifically planned and
    developed to be effective.

Basic Principles
  • The program should base its uniqueness on a
    regular, systematic assessment of the student
    clienteles needs and the characteristics of the
    programs environmental setting.
  • The program must reflect the uniqueness of the
    population it serves and the environment in which
    it seeks to render this service.

Basic Principles
  • An effective instructional program requires an
    effective program of pupil counseling and
    guidance--good education and good guidance are
  • Teacher understanding and support of the school
    counseling program is significant to the success
    of such programs.
  • The program is accountable--recognizes need to
    provide objective evidence of accomplishments and
    value of accomplishments.

Basic Principles
  • School counselor is a team member.
  • Program must recognize the right and capability
    of the individual to make decisions and plans.
  • Program must respect the worth and dignity of the
    individual--every individual.
  • Program must recognize the uniqueness of the
    individual and the individuals right to that
  • School counselor should be a role model of
    positive human relations--unbiased, equal

Basic Principles
  • For Community Agencies Blooms (1984) seven
  • Regardless of where your paycheck comes from,
    think of yourself as working for the community.
  • As you learn about community-mental-health-related
    needs, you have the responsibility to tell the
    community what you are learning.

Basic Principles
  • Help the community decide among various courses
    of action in its efforts to solve its own
  • Work toward the equitable distribution of power
    in the community.

Future Directions
  • Increasing standards for counselor preparation.
  • 45-48 hour programs are anticipated to move to 65
    hours and beyond in the 21st century.
  • Anticipate a lifetime of learning - constantly
    updating your skills and knowledge
  • Increasing attention to specialty fields.
  • Increasing use of technology.

Future Directions
  • Increasing focus on empirical results.
  • More attention is being focused on informing the
    public of factual evidence documented by
    empirical research supporting counselor
    activities and results.
  • Updating the professions traditional theories.
  • The relevancy of the traditional theories has
    been scrutinized in view of changing
    characteristics, dynamics of society, and the
    world of work.
  • New theories will emerge in the 21st century.

Future Directions
  • Renewing attention as well as expanding career
    counseling parameters.
  • Dramatic changes in the world of work.
  • Increasing attention to public communication and
    political activity.
  • Counselors must publicly communicate what
    counselors do, and what they are accomplishing.

Future Directions
  • Increasing attention to program relevancy.
  • Increasing multicultural sensitivity and
  • We have failed to transform our skills in
    individual counseling and small group
    relationships to the broader community.