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Essentials of Marketing Research William G' Zikmund

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self-selected group. based on preference for. soft drinks. Subjects in one group ... One Shot Design (After Only) One Group Pretest-Posttest. Static Group Design ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essentials of Marketing Research William G' Zikmund


1
Essentials of Marketing Research William G.
Zikmund
  • Chapter 9 Experimental Research

2
Experiment
  • A research investigation in which conditions are
    controlled
  • One independent variable is manipulated
    (sometimes more than one)
  • Its effect on a dependent variable is measured
  • To test a hypothesis

3
Basic Issues of Experimental Design
  • Manipulation of the Independent Variable
  • Selection of Dependent Variable
  • Assignment of Subjects (or other Test Units)
  • Control Over Extraneous Variables

4
The experimenter has some degree of control over
the independent variable. The variable is
independent because its value can be manipulated
by the experimenter to whatever he or she wishes
it to be.
5
Experiment Treatment
  • Alternative manipulations of the independent
    variable being investigated

6
Independent Variable
  • The experimenter controls independent variable.
  • The variables value can be manipulated by the
    experimenters to whatever they wish it to be.

7
Manipulation of Independent Variable
  • Classificatory vs. continuous variables
  • Experimental and control groups
  • Treatment levels
  • More than one independent variable

8
Experimental Treatments
  • The alternative manipulations of the independent
    variable being investigated

9
Dependent Variable
  • Its value is expected to be dependent on the
    experimenters manipulation
  • Criterion or standard by which the results are
    judged

10
Dependent Variable
  • Selection
  • e.g... sales volume, awareness, recall,
  • Measurement

11
Test Units
  • Subjects or entities whose response to the
    experimental treatment are measured or observed.

12
Two Types of Experimental Error
  • Constant errors
  • Random errors

13
Field versus Laboratory Experiments
14
Controlling Extraneous Variables
  • Elimination of extraneous variables
  • Constancy of conditions
  • Order of presentation
  • Blinding
  • Random assignment

15
How May an Experimenter control for Extraneous
Variation?
  • Eliminate Extraneous Variables
  • Hold Conditions Constant
  • Randomization
  • Matching Subjects

16
Establishing Control
17
Demand Characteristics
  • Experimental procedures that intentionally hint
    to subjects something about the experimenters
    hypothesis

18
Demand Characteristics
  • Guinea pig effect
  • Hawthorne effect

19
Field vs. Laboratory Experiment
20
Laboratory Experiment
Field Experiment
Artificial-Low Realism
Natural-High Realism
Few Extraneous Variables
Many Extraneous Variables
High control
Low control
Low Cost
High Cost
Short Duration
Long Duration
Subjects Aware of Participation
Subjects Unaware of Participation
21
Control Groups
  • Isolate extraneous variation

22
When does an Experiment have Internal Validity?
  • Internal Validity - The ability of an experiment
    to answer the question whether the experimental
    treatment was the sole cause of changes in a
    dependent variable
  • Did the manipulation do what it was supposed to
    do?

23
Factors Influencing Internal Validity
  • History
  • Maturation
  • Testing
  • Instrumentation
  • Selection
  • Mortality

24
Isolating Extraneous Variation with a Control
Group
  • History Effects
  • Maturation Effects
  • Mortality Effects

25
Type of Extraneous Variable
Example
History - Specific events in the environment
between the Before and After measurement that are
beyond the experimenters control Maturation -
Subjects change during the course of the
experiment Testing - The Before measure
alerts or sensitizes subject to nature of
experiment or second measure.
A major employer closes its plant in test market
area Subjects become tired Questionnaire about
the traditional role of women triggers enhanced
awareness of women in an experiment.
26
New questions about women are interpreted differen
tly from earlier questions. Control group and
experimental group is self-selected group based
on preference for soft drinks Subjects in one
group of a hair dying study marry rich widows
and move to Florida
Instrument - Changes in instrument result in
response bias Selection - Sample
selection error because of differential selection
comparison groups Mortality - Sample
attrition some subjects withdraw from experiment
27
How can Internal Validity Increase?
28
Increasing Internal Validity
  • Control group
  • Random assignment
  • Pretesting and posttesting
  • Posttest only

29
What are the Different Basic Experimental Designs?
30
Quasi-Experimental Designs
  • One Shot Design (After Only)
  • One Group Pretest-Posttest
  • Static Group Design

31
One Shot Design (After Only) X O1
32
One Group Pretest-Posttest O1 X O2
33
Static Group Design Experimental Group X O1
Control Group O2
34
Three Good Experimental Designs
  • Pretest - Posttest Control Group Design
  • Posttest Only Control Group
  • Solomon Four Group Design

35
Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design
Experimental Group R O1 X O2 Control
Group R O3 X O4
36
Posttest Only Control Group
Experimental Group R X O1 Control
Group R O2
37
One-Shot Design Internal Validity Problems
  • History
  • weak
  • Maturation
  • weak
  • Testing
  • not relevant
  • Instrumentation
  • not relevant
  • Selection
  • weak
  • Mortality
  • weak

38
One-Group Pretest-Posttest Internal Validity
Problems
  • History
  • weak
  • Maturation
  • weak
  • Testing
  • weak
  • Instrumentation
  • weak
  • Selection
  • controlled
  • Mortality
  • controlled

39
Static-Group Design Internal Validity Problems
  • History
  • controlled
  • Maturation
  • possible source of concern
  • Testing
  • controlled
  • Instrumentation
  • controlled
  • Selection
  • weak
  • Mortality
  • weak

40
Pretest-Posttest Control Internal Validity
Problems
  • History
  • controlled
  • Maturation
  • controlled
  • Testing
  • controlled
  • Instrumentation
  • controlled
  • Selection
  • controlled
  • Mortality
  • controlled

41
Solomon Four-Group Design Internal Validity
Problems
  • History
  • controlled
  • Maturation
  • controlled
  • Testing
  • controlled
  • Instrumentation
  • controlled
  • Selection
  • controlled
  • Mortality
  • controlled

42
Posttest-Only Control Internal Validity Problems
  • History
  • controlled
  • Maturation
  • controlled
  • Testing
  • controlled
  • Instrumentation
  • controlled
  • Selection
  • controlled
  • Mortality
  • controlled

43
Solomon Four Group Design
Experimental Group 1 R O1 X O2 Control
Group 1 R O3 O4 Experimental Group
2 R X O5 Control Group 2 R
X O6
44
Test Marketing
  • Test marketing is an experimental procedure that
    provides an opportunity to test a new product or
    a new marketing plan under realistic market
    conditions to measure sales or profit potential.

45
Selecting A Test Market
  • Population size
  • Demographic composition
  • Lifestyle considerations
  • Competitive situation
  • Media
  • Self-contained trading area
  • Secrecy

46
Control Method Of Test Marketing
  • Small city
  • Low chance of being detected
  • Distribution is forced (guaranteed)

47
Advanced Experimental Designs Are More Complex
  • Completely randomized
  • Randomized block design
  • Latin square
  • Factorial

48
Complex Experimental Designs
Control no music
Experimental treatment slow music
Experimental treatment fast music
Average minutes shopper spends in store
16 18 12
49
RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGN
Independent Variable
Blocking Variable
50
Factorial Design
Independent Variable 1
No Music Slow Music Fast Music
No grocery cart signs Grocery cart signs
Independent Variable 2
51
2 x 2 Factorial Design
Ad A Ad B
Men Women
65 65
Main Effects of Gender
gt
70 60
gt
Main Effects of Ad
52
Interaction Between Gender and Advertising Copy
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
Women
Men
Believability
Ad A Ad B
53
Factorial Design -- Roller Skates
Package Design
Price Red Gold 25 Cell 1 Cell 4 30 Cell
2 Cell 5 35 Cell 3 Cell 6
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