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Creating Systems: K12 Reading Model and Response to Intervention RTI

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To provide an overview of the K-12 Reading Model and RTI systems, to discuss ... Skim through tabs. Note attached 'Action Planner' Note Phases (see pg. 26-28) (8 min) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Creating Systems: K12 Reading Model and Response to Intervention RTI


1
Creating Systems K-12 Reading Model and
Response to Intervention (RTI)
  • Cheryl A. Young, Ph.D.
  • Barbara Tobias
  • K-12 Reading Division
  • OSPI Secondary Reading Plan
  • February 13, 2008

2
Purpose
  • To provide an overview of the K-12 Reading
    Model and RTI systems, to discuss their
    alignment, and explain how they can be
    incorporated at the HS level.

3
Objectives
  • Participants will
  • Understand the major components of the K-12
    Reading Model and RTI systems
  • Apply current reading research to K-12 RM and RTI
  • Understand SAILS and corresponding RTI principles
  • Understand how RTI is part of the assessment,
    instruction and intervention components in SAILS.

4
RTI
  • Response to intervention
  • Revised Individuals with Disabilities Education
    Act (IDEA, 2004)
  • Practitioners previously used a discrepancy model
    (IQ and achievement) to identify students as
    having learning disabilities
  • Now, RTI may be used
  • Originally focused on K-5, but expanding

5
What is RTI?
  • RTI is the practice of (1) providing
    high-quality instruction/intervention matched to
    student needs and (2) using learning rate over
    time and level of performance to (3) make
    important educational decisions to guide
    instruction
  • National Association of State Directors of
    Special Education, 2005

6
Why does WA State have RTI and the K-12 RM?
  • RTI was included in the language of IDEA (2004)
  • Prior to IDEA (2004), the State of Washington
    wanted a reading system that was effective and
    fluid
  • OSPI hired experts in the area of reading to
    create a three-tiered system based upon research
  • The K-12 Reading Model was created

7
Major Components of the K-12 Reading Model
  • Standards
  • Assessment
  • Instruction and Intervention
  • 3 Tiers
  • Programs/resources
  • Leadership
  • System-wide Commitment
  • Personnel
  • Scheduling

8
K 12 Reading Model and RTI
  • K 12 Reading Model
  • RTI
  • Addresses three-tier instructional plan
  • Addresses assessment system
  • Addresses reading
  • Implementation is conducted with General
    Education and Special Education
  • Compilation of research based practices that are
    recommended by the State of Washington in Reading
  • Addresses three-tier model of school supports
  • Addresses assessment system
  • Addresses Reading, Math, Writing and Behavior
  • Implementation is conducted with General
    Education and Special Education
  • Authorized by Congress (IDEA, 2004) as an
    alternative method that can be used to identify
    and serve students with specific learning
    disabilities

9
Three-Tiered Intervention
  • Washington State K-12 Reading Model

10
Response to Intervention What are the big ideas?
  • High quality instruction/intervention
    Instruction or intervention matched to student
    need that has been demonstrated empirically and
    by practice to demonstrate high learning rates
    for most students
  • Learning rate and level of performance Learning
    rate refers to students growth in academic or
    behavioral skills over time in comparison to
    prior levels and peer growth rates. Level of
    performance refers to a students relative
    standing (growth) on some critical dimension of
    academic or behavioral skills compared to
    expected/predicted growth.
  • Important educational decisions Student
    intervention outcomes drive decision making at
    every tier. Decisions about intensity and
    duration of interventions are based upon data
    across multiple tiers of intervention.

11
Why RTI?
  • Provides appropriate learning experiences for all
    students
  • Uses school-wide progress monitoring to assess
    entire class progress and individual student
    progress
  • Promotes early identification of students at risk
    for academic failure
  • Involves multiple performance measures rather
    than measurement at a single point in time
  • Under RTI, students receive interventions based
    on reliable and valid data earlier than the wait
    to fail scenario

12
Response to Intervention Core Principles
  • Use all available resources to teach all students
  • Use scientific, research-based interventions
  • Monitor classroom performance
  • Conduct universal screening/benchmarking
  • Use multi-tier model of service delivery
  • Make data based decisions using a problem
    solving/standard protocol approach
  • Monitor progress frequently
  • Implementation fidelity

13
Response To Intervention
  • RTI does not tell you what to think, it tells you
    what to think about.
  • It gives you the data to make instructionally
    relevant decisions.

14
Overview
  • K-12 Reading Model

15
Become familiar with K12 RM
  • Skim through tabs
  • Note attached Action Planner
  • Note Phases (see pg. 26-28) (8 min)
  • Briefly summarize the main concepts of the
    sections with two-three people (5 min)

16
Major Components of the K-12 Reading Model
  • Standards
  • Assessment
  • Instruction and Intervention
  • 3 Tiers
  • Programs/resources
  • Leadership System-wide Commitment
  • Personnel
  • Scheduling

17
System-wide Commitment
Three Tiers of Instruction
Comprehension Vocabulary Fluency Phonics Phonemic
Awareness
Intensive Intervention Strategic Instruction Core
Content
Screening
Diagnostics Monitoring
Five Essential Components
Outcome
Assessments
Leadership
18
Introduction to K-12 RM Guide
  • Foreword p. iv
  • Table of Contents p. v
  • Introduction p. 1-4
  • School Improvement Planning p. 5
  • Reading Instruction Overview p. 6
  • Reading Leadership Teams p. 8
  • Three Phase Comprehensive Action Plan p. 7-27
  • Abridged Action Plan p. 28

19
Dig-in Activity
  • Count off by six at your table
  • 1 and 2 read pp. 7-13
  • 3 and 4 read pp. 14-20
  • 5 and 6 read pp. 21-27
  • At the signal, be prepared to synopsize your
    section and report it out to your group
  • Be prepared to share out about your section to
    the larger group

20
Major Components of the K-12 Reading Model
  • Standards
  • Assessment
  • Instruction and Intervention
  • 3 Tiers
  • Programs/resources
  • Leadership System-wide Commitment
  • Personnel
  • Scheduling

21
Standards
  • What students should know and be able to do
  • Connected series of learning competencies (K-10)
    necessary to become proficient readers
  • Minimum skills acquired at the end of each grade
    level

22
Washington StateReading Standards (2004)
  • Essential Academic Learning Requirements (EALRs)
  • broad statement of learning
  • Component
  • further defines the EALR
  • Grade Level Expectations (GLEs)
  • a statement of cognitive demand and the important
    content or process to be learned.
  • Evidence of Learning
  • a bulleted list of student demonstrations that
    provides the teacher with common illustrations of
    the learning.

23
The Reading EALRs
  • EALR 1 Reading word skills and strategies
  • Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary
  • EALR 2 Reading for understanding
  • Comprehension
  • EALR 3 What materials and why
  • Text and purpose
  • EALR 4 Student goal setting and monitoring
    progress
  • Assess strengths and weaknesses and develop
    reading interest

24
Understanding the Reading GLEs
EALR 2 The student understands the meaning of
what is read. Component 2.1 Demonstrate evidence
of reading comprehension.
WASL Eligible GLE
Grade Level Expectation
Evidence of Learning
25
Assessing Student Performance
  • The WASL is one way of assessing student
    performance of the standards, or one way of
    assessing what students know and are able to do
    at the end of each grade level

26
Major Components of the K-12 Reading Model
  • Standards
  • Assessment
  • Instruction and Intervention
  • 3 Tiers
  • Programs/resources
  • Leadership System-wide Commitment
  • Personnel
  • Scheduling

27
Assessment Plan
  • An assessment system must be in place and include
    the following
  • Data collection and management plan to collect
    and analyze school or system-wide results each
    quarter
  • Set aside screening windows throughout the school
    year outside of administration of the state
    assessment

28
Assessment System
  • Multiple measures
  • Screening assessments
  • Progress Monitoring assessments
  • Diagnostic or Targeted assessments
  • Outcome assessments

29
1) Universal Screening (RTI)
  • School staff conduct universal screening in all
    academic areas and behavior to all students three
    times/year
  • Purpose of universal screening is to identify
    students at risk for academic or behavior
    failure
  • Universal screening data tells us whether a child
    is on track compared to peer group and/or state
    standards
  • The students data at benchmark testing periods
    can be utilized to validate the effectiveness of
    intervention. Is the gap closing?

30
Implementation for Secondary Reading Plan Schools
(pilot)
  • Administer multiple screening assessments
  • WASL
  • Comprehension and vocabulary (e.g., MAPs,
    Gates-MacGinitie, GRADE)
  • Fluency
  • Meet with child study team, evaluate student
    results
  • Place students in reading intervention classes
    based upon data and team input

31
Universal Screening Math example
32
Universal Screening Math example
33
2) Progress Monitoring (RTI)
  • Documents student growth over time to determine
    if students are learning critical skills at an
    adequate rate
  • Curriculum Based Measurements (CBMs) are
    primarily used as a method for progress
    monitoring because they are brief, easy to
    administer and score, and are good predictors of
    student ability
  • Progress monitoring data provide a picture of the
    students performance and rate of growth to
    inform instructional and curricular changes so
    that every student reaches proficiency on
    targeted skills

34
Words Read Correct
X
X
X
35
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Words Read Correct
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
36
Implementation for Secondary Reading Plan Schools
(pilot)
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Create progress monitoring charts or use progress
    monitoring charts of reading intervention program
  • E.g., chart fluency (at instructional level)
    every two weeks

37
3) Diagnostic or Targeted Assessment
  • Targeted assessment means shifting to evaluations
    that are designed around the specific targeted
    concerns of the student.
  • In other words, we select assessments that
    measure the area of concern rather than
    administering an assessment and then trying to
    determine what it means.
  • Usually conducted when student enters Tier III,
    but may be conducted earlier

38
Implementation for Secondary Reading Plan (pilot)
  • Diagnostic Assessment (and/or norm-reference
    test)
  • Reading intervention teachers (with help of
    literacy coaches) may want to administer to each
    student. E.g.,
  • Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT)
  • Analytic Reading Inventory (ARI)

39
4) Outcome
  • Measures student performance after instruction
    and/or intervention usually compares students
    to national grade level peers
  • E.g.,
  • WASL
  • Norm-referenced test (e.g., Comprehensive Test of
    Phonological Processing (CTOPP) Woodcock Reading
    Mastery Test-Revised)
  • Criterion referenced measure (e.g., DIBELS,
    fluency)

40
Implementation for Secondary Reading Plan (pilot)
  • Outcome Measures
  • WASL
  • Fluency (Read Naturally 4th grade passages)
  • Woodcock Reading Mastery Test Revised

41
WASL
  • Remember big picture to smaller picture
  • WASL
  • Comprehension
  • Vocabulary
  • Fluency
  • Decoding
  • Phonemic Awareness

42
Four Possible Types of Students
Fluency difficulties may exist within any
section.
43
Using Assessment Data to Determine Placement
  • Outcome
  • WASL
  • Screener
  • Fluency
  • Achievement
  • Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised

44
Placement Decisions
Fluency difficulties may exist within any
section.
45
Examine Assessment Results
46
Placement Decisions
Fluency difficulties may exist within any
section.
47
So, now what?
48
Using Assessment to Identify Specific
Intervention/Remediation
  • What intervention programs do students need?
  • Decoding/Phonics
  • E.g., CR Wilson Language! Phonics Blitz
  • Fluency
  • E.g., Jamestown Six Minute Solution REWARDS
  • Comprehension
  • E.g., CR Edge

49
What else do we consider?
  • Number of students who need each skill
  • Number of teachers
  • Intervention programs
  • Available class time and space
  • Cost
  • How do we combine teaching staff and intervention
    programs and blend funding?

50
Placement Decisions
51
Your Turn!
52
Using Assessment to Identify Specific
Intervention/Remediation
  • Diagnostic
  • Analytic Reading Inventory (ARI), Qualitative
    Reading Inventory (QRI) or Gray Oral Reading Test
    (GORT)
  • Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM)
  • Wilson Placement Test, Corrective Reading
    Placement Test, Edge Placement Test

53
Tools and Resources for Assessments
  • OSPIs Reading Assessment Tool
  • http//www.k12.wa.us/CurriculumInstruct/Reading/pu
    bdocs/ReadingAssessmentMatrixV12-5-5.doc
  • Use as a reference tool
  • Not endorsed by OSPI
  • Simply a consumers guide to norm and criterion
    referenced assessment tools and purpose and type
    of measurement
  • Reading, math and writing tools
  • http//www.interventioncentral.org/
  • Aimsweb/DIBELS
  • Stay tuned for the Guide to Selecting Diagnostic
    Assessments coming soon!!!

54
Data-Based Decision Making
  • The purpose of using data based decision making
    is to find the best instructional approach for a
    student with an academic or behavioral problem
  • Decisions are made by teams consisting of
    professionals knowledgeable about the student,
    and the parent
  • Data collected from assessment information
    gathered the previous year or term and across 4
    content domains using the R.I.O.T. techniques
  • Decisions are made through the problem solving
    process or standard protocol approach

55
A Problem Solving Process
56
Major Components of the K-12 Reading Model
  • Standards
  • Assessment
  • Instruction and Intervention
  • 3 Tiers
  • Programs/resources
  • Leadership System-wide Commitment
  • Personnel
  • Scheduling

57
Three-Tiered Intervention
  • Washington State K-12 Reading Model

58
Tier I Core Instruction ALL Students
  • All students receive high quality scientific,
    research based instruction in the core curriculum
    in all areas
  • Core curriculum provides the foundation for
    instruction upon which all strategic and
    intensive interventions are formulated
  • Serves approximately 80-90 of the student body
  • Some Tier 1 interventions may be applied to at
    risk students followed by progress monitoring to
    confirm or disconfirm the student is at risk

59
Tier II Strategic Interventions Some Students
  • Strategic interventions supplements instruction
    to students who are not achieving standards
    through the core curriculum alone
  • Consists of 5-10 of the student body
  • Occurs in small groups of 3-6 students
  • Short-term in duration 9-12 week blocks
  • Recommended 3-4 sessions per week at 30-60
    minutes per session
  • Students progress is monitored more frequently at
    Tier II, usually every 2 weeks

60
Strategic Interventions, cont.
  • Students may receive more than one block of Tier
    II interventions if progressing but who have not
    yet reached the goal
  • Students who reach goal would be reintegrated
    into Tier I
  • Students who do not progress in Tier II may
    require more intensive interventions, or referred
    to Tier III (e.g., Special Education)

61
Programs/Resources Tier II Strategic Reading
Intervention
  • Tier II-Strategic Intervention
  • Core curriculum
  • Supplemental Materials (examples)
  • Corrective Reading
  • REWARDS
  • REWARDS Plus (Science and Social Studies)
  • Jamestown Fluency
  • Six Minute Solution
  • EPS Publishing vocabulary/comprehension

62
Tier III Intensive Interventions Few Students
  • Designed to accelerate a students rate of
    learning by increasing the frequency and duration
    of individualized interventions based on targeted
    assessment data.
  • Students performing significantly below standards
    and have not responded to Tier I or Tier II
    interventions (i.e., for those students reading
    far below grade level or virtual non-readers)
  • Progress is monitored on at least a weekly basis

63
Tier III Intensive Interventions Few Students,
cont.
  • Consists of less than 5 of student body
  • Occurs in groups of no more than 3 ideally
  • May occur longer than 9-12 weeks
  • Students who are successful at Tier III
    reintegrate to Tier I with Tier II support
  • If not successful at Tier III, consider referral
    for special education and/or other long-term
    planning 504 plan, additional Tier III cycle

64
Intensive (Tier III) Reading Intervention
  • Specifically designed reading instruction that
    extends beyond the time allocated for Tier I and
    Tier II
  • High school students may require double dosing
    in a two period block, using a research-validated
    specially designed program to accelerate their
    learning to read

65
Programs/Resources Tier III Intensive Reading
Intervention
  • Comprehensive Acceleration/Remediation Materials
  • Language! (Sopris West)
  • Phonics Blitz
  • REACH System (SRA)
  • Corrective Reading
  • Reasoning and Writing
  • Spelling Through Morphographs
  • Read 180 (Scholastic)
  • Wilson Language Training (Wilson)
  • High Point /Edge (particularly for English
    Language Learners)

66
Major Components of the K-12 Reading Model
  • Standards
  • Assessment
  • Instruction and Intervention
  • 3 Tiers
  • Programs/resources
  • Leadership System-wide Commitment
  • Personnel
  • Scheduling

67
Seven Common Traits of High-Performing,
High-Poverty Schools
  • 1. Principals must be free to make decisions
  • 2. Principals use measurable goals to establish a
    culture of achievement
  • 3. Master teachers bring out the best in a
    faculty
  • 4. Rigorous and regular testing leads to
    continuous student achievement

68
Seven Common Traits
  • 5. Achievement is the key to discipline
  • 6. Principals work actively with parents to make
    the home a center of learning
  • 7. Effort creates ability
  • No Excuses! Lessons from 21 High-Performing,
    High-Poverty Schools by Samuel Casey Carter

69
Table Talk
  • With your tablemates, briefly brainstorm
    effective leadership skills (5-7 min.).
  • Discuss the following questions and the section
    on Leadership in the K-12 Model for 10 minutes.
    Record one or two ah-has and/or questions on
    sticky notes. Be prepared to share out with the
    entire group the information you came up with in
    your discussions.

70
Self Evaluation Leadership
  • Are leaders organizing resources and personnel to
    support reading instruction? Building schedules?
  • Are there plans for focused professional
    development to assist teachers in understanding
    the standards, the research, and the best
    instructional practices for effectively closing
    the achievement gap in reading?
  • Have program materials been purchased that align
    with scientific research and the standards, or
    have supplemental materials been purchased to
    fill gaps in the current program?

71
Self Evaluation Leadership
  • Are grade level teams or other work teams
    currently focused on data, instruction, or
    aligning lessons to the standards?
  • Do ALL teachers K-12 understand the importance of
    teaching reading comprehension skills and
    strategies and vocabulary strategies during
    lessons in ALL subject areas? Has professional
    development centered on making this a priority?
  • What would need to occur in your
    school/district/system to guarantee that all
    students are getting the instruction they need?

72
Major Components of the K-12 Reading Model
  • Standards
  • Assessment
  • Instruction and Intervention
  • 3 Tiers
  • Programs/resources
  • Leadership
  • System-wide Commitment
  • Personnel
  • Scheduling

73
System-wide Commitment
Three Tiers of Instruction
Comprehension Vocabulary Fluency Phonics Phonemic
Awareness
Intensive Intervention Strategic Instruction Core
Content
Screening
Diagnostics Monitoring
Five Essential Components
Outcome
Assessments
Leadership
74
Figure 1
75
Calculating the math
76
Developing A Building Schedule A Walla Walla
District Model
  • Students should be placed in academically
    heterogeneous classes (elementary, content area
    and electives at secondary)
  • Second language learners should be grouped with
    English speaking students for non-academic
    instruction
  • Students should be homogeneously flexibly
    grouped for skills-based instruction
  • The most at-risk students need to be placed in
    the smallest skill groups and most experienced
    staff
  • Develop the schedule starting with Tier III, then
    II then Tier I.

77
Bell Schedule Example
78
Other Ideas
  • Tier II support
  • Student has fluency class T, W, Th before school
  • Signs contract if more than 4 absences, must
    take elective
  • Teacher (e.g., Title I) teaches class comes in
    early, leaves early
  • Tier II or Tier III support
  • Elective Reading Class and/or Sp.Ed.

79
High School Instructional Plans for Reading
  • These are from Appendix B in the K-12 Reading
    Model
  • Guidelines for placement and for strategies for
    identifying students needing additional reading
    instruction
  • Assessment data needs to be the driving factor in
    placement

80
Same players new roles I
  • The New Psychologist Role
  • Data Manager
  • Data Analyzer
  • Data Synthesizer
  • Detective Extraordinaire
  • Progress Monitoring?
  • The New SpEd Teacher Role
  • Data Provider
  • Targeted Assessment
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Intervention opportunities

81
Same players new roles II
  • The New Parent Role
  • Data Provider
  • Interventionist
  • Progress Monitoring
  • The New General Ed.Teacher Role
  • Tier 1 Tier 2 interventions
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Data provider for Learning Environment
  • Be ready for intervention

82
Same players new roles III
  • The New Principal Role
  • As goes the principals leadership, so goes the
    team
  • Provides for the assessment of intervention
    fidelity
  • The New Perspective
  • We are not looking at the child as broken
  • Focus is, Why isnt the general education
    curriculum working for this child?

83
RTI and Child Find
  • Anyone, including parents and teachers, can make
    a referral at any time in a RTI system.
  • A student cannot be required to go all the way
    through Tier III before being evaluated if
    evidence exists to suspect a disability.

84
Parent Involvement in RTI
  • In a RTI system parents must be provided progress
    monitoring data. 34 CFR Sec. 300.309(b)(2).
  • Parents must also be informed of
  • State policies regarding the amount and nature of
    student performance data that is collected and
    the general education services that are provided
  • The strategies for increasing the students rate
    of learning and
  • Their right to request an evaluation.
  • 34 CFR Sec. 300.311(a)(7).

85
Using RTI data to identify Specific Learning
Disability
  • District procedures set out criteria for using
    RTI data to establish SLD.
  • District criteria must incorporate new federal
    regulations on SLD.
  • Students may be identified as needing services
    under Section 504.
  • 34 CFR Sections 300.309 through 300.311

86
Resources
  • Reading Next A Vision for Action and Research in
    Middle and High School Literacy
  • www.all4ed.org
  • Washington State K-12 Reading Model
    Implementation Guide www.k12.wa.us/CurriculumInstr
    uct/Reading/default.aspx
  • RTI Manual www.k12.wa.us/SpecialEd/RTI.aspx
  • Grades 4-12 Reading Intervention Materials Review
  • www.k12.wa.us/CurriculumInstruct/Reading/pubdocs/
    4-12ReadingIntervention.doc

87
More Resources
  • Washington State Instructional Materials Review
    www.k12.wa.us/CurriculumInstruct/Reading/default.a
    spx
  • US Dept of Education Adolescent Literacy
    www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/pi/hs/reading.h
    tml
  • Florida Center for Reading Research
  • www.fcrr.org
  • Alliance for Excellent Education
  • www.all4ed.org

88
For your time, energy, and for everything you do
to make Washington State an exemplary place to
get an education. YOU make the difference for
students every day! For more information Cheryl
A. Young, Ph.D. Barbara Tobias K-12 Reading
Specialist Reading Programs Manager OSPI OSP
I 360.725.6429 360.725.6058 Cheryl.young_at_k12.wa
.us Barbara.tobias_at_k12.wa.us
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