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Emissions Quantification Workshop

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Title: Emissions Quantification Workshop


1
Emissions Quantification Workshop
  • for Canadian Chemical Producers Association
  • Montreal - Toronto - Edmonton
  • February 2004
  • presented by
  • Levelton Consultants Ltd.

2
Welcome
  • Introductions CCPA, presenters, participants
  • Health Safety
  • Workshop format
  • presentations - informal
  • questions / discussion
  • breaks, lunch, timing
  • closing 430

3
Workshop objective
  • To improve CCPA members ability to quantify
    emissions from facilities for reporting to NERM,
    NPRI, O. Reg. 127, AENV, etc.
  • Overview of reporting requirements to provide
    context assume participants know the
    requirements

4
Agenda
  • Introduction
  • Overview of Emission Reporting Programs and
    Requirements
  • Emission Sources and Pollutants of Concern
  • General Methodologies for Emissions Quantification

5
Agenda (contd)
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Individual
    Species
  • Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs)
  • Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)
  • Quantification of Other Sources
  • Quality Assurance / Quality Control
  • Closing

6
Focus and format of todays workshop
  • overview of reporting requirements to provide
    context - refer to program documents for details
  • focus on methods for quantifying emissions from
    chemical facilities
  • identification of resources to help facilities
    with emissions quantification
  • use of illustrative examples, case study
  • interactive discussion gtgt questions

7
Guideline for Quantifying Emissions from Chemical
Facilities(draft)
8
How can this workshop help you?
  • your role / responsibility in emissions
    quantification
  • your expectations for this workshop
  • your particular areas of interest

9
Emission Inventories and Their Role in
Responsible Care
  • Responsible Care requires
  • an awareness and public communication of all
    emissions to the environment
  • a program to reduce emissions which are of health
    and environmental concern

10
Overview of Emission Reporting Programs and
Requirements
11
NPRI
  • implemented in 1993
  • constantly evolving
  • covers releases to all media and transfers for
    disposal / recovery / recycling
  • annual notice in Canada Gazette, Part 1
  • reporting criteria based on employee threshold,
    mass thresholds, concentration threshold, sector-
    or activity-specific
  • as of 2003 reporting year, 323 reportable
    substances or groups of substances

12
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13
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14
Release and Transfers
  • on-site pollutant releases to
  • air
  • water
  • land ( including spills, leaks, other)
  • final disposal
  • on-site (landfill, land treatment underground
    injection)
  • off-site (landfill, land treatment, underground
    injection and storage)
  • off-site transfers for treatment prior to final
    disposal
  • off-site transfers for recycling and energy
    recovery

15
Ontario Regulation 127
  • commenced in 2001
  • air contaminants only
  • 3 Substances Lists
  • Table 2A 11 contaminants comprised of CACs and
    GHGs w/ release-based reporting thresholds
  • Table 2B 76 contaminants w/ graded MPO reporting
    thresholds
  • Table 2C all contaminants on NPRI list w/ same
    reporting thresholds

16
Alberta
  • Alberta facilities regulated by approvals under
    Alberta Environmental Protection and Enhancement
    Act are required to report emissions
  • Alberta Environment and Environment Canada
    developing a framework for cooperation for the
    collection of CAC emissions data
  • NPRI commenced CAC emissions data collection in
    2002 on behalf of Alberta Environment
  • NOx and SO2 thresholds are 10 tonnes per year

17
NERM
  • developed in 1991 to meet the Responsible Care
    code elements regarding emissions and wastes,
    risk reduction and public right-to-know
  • uses the definitions, thresholds and criteria
    adopted for the NPRI and OMOE Reg. 127 as a
    minimum requirement
  • companies are encouraged to report all emissions
    of any substances that they or their community
    consider to be of health or environmental concern

18
NERM (contd)
  • more comprehensive list of substances than NPRI
    OMOE Reg.127
  • As NPRI and OMOE add new substances and/or
    reporting requirements, these are incorporated in
    NERM - in many cases the new substances are
    already on NERM substances list
  • longer emissions projection reporting (5 versus 3
    years)

19
Other Programs in the U.S., North America
  • U.S. EPA
  • Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)
  • National Emission Inventory (NEI)
  • North American Commission for Environmental
    Cooperation (CEC)
  • Taking Stock
  • (North American Pollutant
  • Releases and Transfers)

20
Total EmissionsNERM vs. NPRI
21
2002 Emission Inventories
CCPA Context
22
2002 NERM Emissions
  • Canada
  • Quebec

23
2002 NERM Emissions by Media
  • Canada
  • Quebec

24
2002 Emission Inventories
CCPA Context
25
2002 NERM Emissions
  • Canada
  • Ontario

26
2002 NERM Emissions by Media
  • Canada
  • Ontario

27
2002 Emission Inventories
CCPA Context
28
2002 NERM Emissions
  • Canada
  • Alberta

29
2002 NERM Emissions by Media
  • Canada
  • Alberta

30
Review of Reportable Substances and Emission
Sources
31
Substances and Issues
  • list of NERM reportable substances has grown each
    year
  • substances are categorized based on several
    health and environmental issues
  • toxic substances
  • smog - air quality
  • climate change - greenhouse gases
  • ozone depleting substances
  • water quality

32
Toxic Substances
  • CEPA 99 toxic - Schedule 1, PSL Toxic
  • substances of special concern
  • dioxins/furans
  • hexachlorobenzene
  • PAHs
  • mercury
  • carcinogens
  • IARC Groups 1 and 2A
  • benzene
  • 1,3-butadiene

33
Smog - air quality
  • Criteria air contaminants (CACs) and their role
    as precursor emissions (smog, ozone, secondary
    particulate, acidic deposition, visibility
    impairment)
  • VOCs
  • NOx
  • SOx
  • Particulate (total, PM10, PM2.5)
  • CO

ozone, its precursors, and precursors to
secondary particulate formation have been
declared CEPA-toxic, as of 2003
34
Climate Change
  • greenhouse gases and global climate change issues
  • six greenhouse gases (for which targets exist
    under the Kyoto Protocol)
  • carbon dioxide, CO2
  • methane, CH4
  • nitrous oxide, N2O
  • other greenhouse gases

- hydrofluorocarbons, HFCs - perfluorocarbons,
PFCs - sulphur hexafluoride, SF6
35
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
  • Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)
  • chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs
  • hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFCs
  • carbon tetrachloride, CCl4
  • methyl chloroform, MCF

36
Releases and Transfers
accidental releases, spills
stack discharges
fugitive emissions
wastewater sources
loading operations
storage
transfers to off-site disposal
on-site disposal
off-site transfers for recycling, energy recovery
off-site transfers for treatment
37
General Methodologies for Emissions Quantification
38
Emissions Estimation Methodologies
  • Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEMs)
  • Predictive and Parametric Emission Monitoring
    (PEMs)
  • Source Testing (Stack Sampling)
  • Mass Balance
  • Emission Models
  • Emission Factors
  • Engineering Estimates

39
Comparison of Methodologies
40
Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs)
  • measures contaminant concentration and stack gas
    flowrate on a continuous basis
  • may require certification and adherence to
    stringent protocols
  • most accurate
  • comparatively expensive

41
Predictive Emission Monitoring (PEMs)
  • hybrid of continuous monitors, emission factors
    and testing
  • develops a mathematical relationship between
    emissions and some measurable operating
    parameters (e.g. fuel use)
  • more accurate than stack tests if based on data
    that reflect the range of actual operating
    conditions
  • less expensive than CEMs
  • requires a measurable and reliable predictor

42
Source Testing
  • snapshot of source emissions during test period
  • collects a volume of the stack gas and measures
    the corresponding exhaust flow rates, moisture
    content, temperature and other parameters
  • normally follows standard test methods (e.g. from
    U.S. EPA)
  • often used to demonstrate compliance with air
    permit requirements
  • must be performed under representative operating
    conditions
  • extrapolation of a few hours testing to annual
    emissions

43
Mass Balance
  • applies the law of conservation of mass
  • mass balance equation
    Min
    Mout Maccumulated/depleted
  • requires detailed facility data such as MSDS,
    fuel analysis, production records and knowledge
    of chemical transformation in process streams
  • preferred method for operations involving
    materials which contain solvents (e.g. surface
    coating, degreasing, solvent cleaning, printing)
  • reliability depends on source type

44
Emission Models
  • algorithms or correlations developed to estimate
    emissions
  • available for some industry sectors or specific
    equipment from process designers, government
    agencies and others
  • requires detailed data input such as equipment
    specifications and process conditions
  • U.S. EPA TANKS, Water9, others

45
Emission Factors
  • relates emissions from a given source to some
    activity associated with the source
  • general equation
  • Ex BQ CEFx or
  • Ex BQEFx (1-CEx)

Where E emission BQ base quantity CEF
controlled emission factor EF emission factor
(uncontrolled) CE control efficiency
46
Emission Factors (contd)
  • site/process/industry specific
  • available from government agencies, industry
    associations and others (e.g. U.S. EPA AP-42,
    FIRE database, EPA Locating Estimating report
    series)
  • emission factors derived from testing of
    representative sources - are these representative
    of your facility?
  • EPA factors are rated from A to E
  • CCPA recommends using C or better
  • D and E rated factors should be used with
    caution, with work undertaken to improve the
    estimate

47
Engineering Estimates
  • emissions estimated from engineering principles,
    judgement and site-specific knowledge
  • knowledge of the chemical and physical processes
    involved
  • design feature of source
  • understanding of the applicable physical and
    chemical laws
  • reliability of estimates depends on complexity of
    process and understanding of its emission
    characteristics

48
Choosing Your Methodology
  • different methods work better for different
    sources
  • all of the methods will be improved by applying
    site-specific information
  • compare results from different methods
  • good record-keeping is essential
  • keep methods updated
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