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Reducing Poverty on a Global Scale Learning and Innovating for Development ABCDE Conference Frannie

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Title: Reducing Poverty on a Global Scale Learning and Innovating for Development ABCDE Conference Frannie


1
Reducing Poverty on a Global Scale
Learning and Innovating for Development ABCDE
Conference Frannie Léautier Tokyo, May 29, 2006
2
Why a Shanghai Conference?
RESULTS
SCALE
LEARNING
3
Shanghai Global Learning Process What was
unique about the methodology?
  • Approach Complex aggregation of multiple
    perspectives of individuals and organizations
  • Content Lessons distilled from 106 case
    studies, 6 video documentaries, 11 field visit
    reports, 28 recorded structured global dialogues
    (videoconference and online discussions among
    regions), and decision-making conference with
    high visibility
  • Process centered around a common learning
    experience between practitioners and policy
    makers at both national and international levels
  • Evaluation of the Learning Experience (WBIEG) to
    extract key lessons in process
  • Learning Guide to capture the main findings and
    make the lessons more useful for the Banks
    operational departments and development
    practitioners outside

4
Key Questions Asked of Case Writers
  • How have countries achieved poverty reduction at
    scale? What did they do? How did they do it?
  • What can be learned from the successes (Asian
    experience, pockets of success elsewhere) and
    failures?
  • What are the key enabling factors for success?,
    What seemed to be the main constraints holding
    countries back?

5
Definition of Scaling Up
  • Macroeconomic strong growth as the solid
    foundation for reducing poverty and inequalities
    at the country level
  • Inter-temporal duration, sustainability,
    continuity of projects/programs and further
    beneficiary outreach
  • Spatial across geographies such as rural-urban,
    one province to next
  • International/Cross-border cooperation,
    commitment (trade, aid, debt), knowledge and ideas

6
Analysis Framework
7
Images from Shanghai
8
Images of Shanghai (cont.)
9
Lessons from Shanghai on Scaling-Up
  • Power of Ideas Ideas travel (EDUCO,
  • Bolsa Familia-Progresa, micro-finance), but the
    rest is learning by doing
  • 2. Role of Institutions Building institutions
    critical, requires long time horizon,
    experimentation
  • 3. Country specificity is central there is no
    one-size-fits-all blue-print need to tailor and
    adapt ideas to country circumstances

10
Lessons from Shanghai on Scaling Up
  • Binding Constraints Scaling-up requires
    focusing on the binding constraints
  • Financing a little money goes a long way but
    its hard to get a little money
  • Accountability Framework putting the client
    first
  • Capacity to implement, measure, evaluate, and
    adapt

11
Lessons from Shanghai on Scaling Up
  • Implementation Process simplifying
    implementation arrangements, standardizing
    processes, unbundling decision-making can promote
    expansion and replication, but there are limits
  • Learning process enable country practitioners
    to share their experiences, direct interaction
    between practitioners, can facilitate scaling-up
  • 7. Management Matters focus on results,
    measurement (indicators), evaluation, and feedback

12
What has led to success?
  • Maintaining macro-stability and sustaining
    broad-based economic growth
  • Developing and sustaining institutions that
    produce good governance
  • Creating an environment in which learning and
    adaptation as well as mid-course correction can
    take place

13
How have countries done that?
  • Commitment and Leadership emergence of good
    leaders, formation of coalitions for change,
    knowing where to start and how to sequence
    reforms, continuity and staying power, defining
    goals and getting short term results, speed of
    action
  • Learning and Innovation processes for
    discovering what works, adapting practices and
    fine-tuning processes, sharing promising
    models/ideas, using crises as opportunity windows
    for change
  • Approach to monitoring and evaluation use of
    data for information, accountability and
    performance enhancement, for policy and
    decision-making, and for coalition forming
  • Financing (external, domestic, private sector,
    partnerships, user fees), fiscal space,
    certainty/predictability,
  • External catalyst technical and knowledge
    support to support home grown reforms and trigger
    fundamental changes openness to international
    cooperation and agreements

14
Important Lessons in Leadership
  • Different approaches to getting coalitions for
    sustained change single leader in place for
    long time (Korea, Malaysia, Uganda) embedding
    implementation in centralized body/agency (China,
    Malaysia) smart communication with technocratic
    support (Uganda)
  • Political versus policy continuity compromises
    in a democratic setting (Chile), smooth
    transition across regimes (Malaysia, Korea)

15
How do you create an environment for Learning and
Innovation?
  • Competition Costa Rica Private Health
    providers-- performance culture
  • Decentralization Costa Rica, El Salvador,
    China, more responsibility and accountability
  • Involvement/participation ideas are generated
    and shared (Chile)
  • Crisis mother of invention (Indonesia)
  • Support risk taking India, Tamil Nadu
    infrastructure financing, China
  • Ad hoc trials HIV/AIDS harm reduction approaches
    in India (Manipur)
  • Incentives building a results culture (Morocco
    Rural Roads), rewards for achievement (Mexico
    Oportunidades)
  • Explicit Experimentation decision to experiment
    and learn in China

16
Systemic Change Morocco Rural Roads Project
Development Outcomes
, ideas
Production Inputs
Access to Services
Agricultural Productivity Land used for
vegetable and fruit increased by 40 Education
Outcomes Primary enrollment more than doubled
and quality of education improved Health
Outcomes Doubling in use of health care
facilities Frequency of visits by women to health
center increased from 1.1 to 2.4 per year
Cost of inputs reduction in costs of
agricultural inputs to market by 59 compared to
58 increase in non-project area Cost of
outputs reduction of 74 in cost of
agricultural outputs compared to 6 reduction
in non-project Areas
Access villages with easy access to roads from
43 to 70 Time time to reach markets and
social services down 50 Traffic 24 growth in
commercial traffic per year
17
Scaling Up Reform on a Regional Basis The
Southern and Eastern Europe Trade and Transport
Facilitation Project
Regional Impact
User Based Monitoring
Common Performance Measures
P4
P5
Pilots in each country
P1
P2
P3
Albania
Bosnia
Bulgaria
Croatia
Macedonia
Moldova
Romania
Serbia
18
Information, Data, Analysis and Monitoring
  • Need systematic monitoring and evaluation
  • Need good performance indicatorssimple,
    trackable, linked to objectives
  • Integrate data and analysis to communication and
    decision making
  • Define outcomes and track progress towards them
    (Morocco Rural Roads)
  • Cases demonstrating this issue China---South
    West Poverty Project Indonesia---KDP
    Morocco---Rural Roads Project

19
Tracking the Results Chain China Rural Water

Health Outcomes
Access to Services
Health Behaviors
Water consumption from 20 to 41 liters per
capita per day Time spent fetching from 183 to
zero hrs/year Access to latrines from 4 to 23
For Primary School Students Hand-washing before
meals from 73 to 89 Hand-washing after using
toilet from 56 to 72 Nail cleaning from 36
to 56 For Housewives Hand-washing before meals
from 25 to 72 Use of soap for
hand-washing from 65 to 92 Washing fruit
before eating from 34 to 77 Covering
kitchenware and food from 61 to 92
Reduction in incidence rates enteritis by
88 dysentery by 80 Hepatitis A by 78 Impact
1985-1986 29 project villages incidence of
intestinal diseases down by 68 24 non-project
villages incidence of intestinal diseases down
by 30
Training
20
Special Case of China The Reform Context
  • Sequencing started with rural reform and opening
    for trade, with rapid growth and significant
    reduction in rural poverty from 1978-89
  • Challenges Poverty reduction slowed and income
    inequality increased in 1990-93 political
    leaders were seeking answers
  • Response New ideas (a) multi-sectoral and
    participatory approach (b) direct targeting of
    households for the first time (c) large scale
    cascading into the National 8-7 poverty reduction
    plan for 1994-2000

21
The Southwest Poverty Reduction Project Key
features
  • Embedded in National 8-7 Program
  • 464 million spent in 3 provinces from 1995-2001
  • With 8 components aimed at
  • a) demonstrating comprehensive, multi-sectoral
    and participatory approach
  • b) facilitating market friendly labor mobility
    from poor to better off regions
  • c) upgrading poverty monitoring at local and
    national levels and
  • d) reducing absolute poverty in 35 of the poorest
    counties through better targeting

22
Evaluated Impact 1993-2000
23
What has been scaled up?
  • Labor mobility idea through demonstration
    effect, and government support at all levels.
    China has 100 million migrant workers in cities.
    A project Poverty V is under discussion
  • Multi-sectoral comprehensive approach used in
    Poverty II and III
  • Village and Household Targeting adopted
    nationwide, extended to 146,000 poor villages in
    China
  • Long-term Vision/Phased Implementation adopted
    nationwide in the Outline for Poverty reduction
    and Development in Chinas Rural Areas
    (2001-2010)
  • Poverty monitoring adopted by National Bureau of
    Statistics. An annual Poverty Monitoring Report
    is published since 1997

24
Why has China succeeded in scaling up?
  • Leadership and Commitment Home-grown reform,
    strong support across all levels of government
    and grassroot units
  • Institutional Innovation and Experimentation
    pragmatic and experimental approach in
    institutional reform allowed China to avoid
    economic downturns and instability
  • Balanced Approach strong focus on rural issues
    and poverty targeting, but also on growth and
    improved investment climate. This led to rapid
    growth in coastal regions key to job creation
    for poorer regions

25
Driving Factors for Scaling Up the Culture of
Learning Measuring
  • Institution building and capacity enhancement
  • Monitoring, evaluation and accountability

26
Lessons learned by China
  • Balanced Growth labor mobility component was
    successful, but for replication you need booming
    economy and abundant job opportunities
  • Fiscal Decentralization Farmers have heavy
    burdens of taxes and fees (tuition for rural
    primary schools is relatively high) reflecting
    mismatch of local government responsibilities and
    their resources
  • Rural microcredit is critical yet lacking China
    could learn from others
  • Risk taking is key some components can fail--two
    project components were less successfulsupport
    to staff to encourage risk taking is key

27
Global lessons
  • Scaling up is possible if we combine good ideas
    with requisite financing, in an environment
    conducive for development
  • Affirmation of prior hypotheses leadership and
    commitment, experimentation and learning,
    institutional innovation, external catalysts
  • Harmonization of donor practices in design and
    implication makes a difference
  • Learning and Exchange among practitioners is best
    way to speed up transmission of ideas
  • Financing for development is key for scaling up
  • Approach to measuring results is deal-breaker,
    but need to invest in learning environment

28
Credibility of these Lessons
  • Comparison between Shanghai lessons and those
    from the Lessons of the 1990s study
  • Comparison of lessons from Shanghai with rigorous
    impact evaluations
  • 16 out of 103 case studies had rigorous impact
    evaluation (chapter 6)
  • These lessons are cited in those 16 cases
  • Evaluation of participants in the various
    processes during the extraction of lessons
    learned
  • WBIEG evaluation indicates that this was a very
    valuable learning experience

29
Evaluating the Shanghai Process
  • Based on four activities
  • An online survey of participants (respondents
    from 49 countries)
  • One-on-one interviews with participants and
    organizers (102 interviews in 10 countries)
  • Focus group discussions with participants and
    organizers and,
  • A desktop review of materials relevant to the
    Shanghai experience.

30
Quality and Effectiveness of the Shanghai
Learning Process
  • Participants were highly satisfied with the
    quality and effectiveness of the Shanghai
    learning processes
  • Active and open engagement of practitioners and
    policymakers is what distinguishes Shanghai from
    other global learning activities

31
Transferability and Applicability of the Shanghai
Learning Products
  • Over 90 percent of participants report having
    used what they acquired from
  • the Shanghai learning process
  • Main impacts have been at the personal level
  • Most significant impact the process of learning
    (tools and approaches) that
  • Shanghai activities engendered

32
Effects of the Shanghai Conference
  • Highest conference ratings are from participants
    from middle-income countries
  • Conference location matters for impact Shanghai
    was also a field visit
  • to the majority of participants

33
Key Outcomes
  • Public Good from Lessons Learned
  • Wealth of ideas embedded in case studies
  • Process of experiential learning
  • Basis for impact assessment and results
    monitoring
  • Shanghai Consensus
  • Consultation process
  • Key expectations/actions to date?
  • Operational Agenda
  • Staff learning
  • Modernization work
  • Harmonization agenda

34
Post Shanghai Work at the Regional Level Africa
  • Using Shanghai lessons to support broader
    capacity development agendaCountry
    Director-Sector Manager dialogue Quality group
  • Mainstreaming South-South peer learning
    approaches, keeping client in expert chair
  • Integrating Shanghai lessons into Africa project
    design Lesotho Legal Reform
  • Partner Learning AfDB staff learning event,
    April 2005
  • Ethiopia CAS building on Shanghai Cases

35
Post Shanghai work at the Country Level China
  • China leadership role China announced 100
    million aid to African, Asian Development Funds
    83 million to tsunami victims.
  • China increasingly seen as source of knowledge
    and experiences on poverty reduction.
  • Establishment of China International Center for
    Poverty Reduction (CIPRC).
  • Poverty Forum for East Asia Region to be held in
    Beijing, April 19-22, 2005
  • Client LearningGDLN dialogues reached over 1700
    participants in poor and western regions

36
Post Shanghai Work in Partner Organizations
  • Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  • Cross-regional exchange with Inter-American
    Development Bank (ADB cases to be shared at IDB
    Annual Meeting in Okinawa on April 6-12, 2005)
  • Cross regional GDLNs on case studies from LAC and
    EAP/SA
  • African Development Bank (AfDB)
  • Joint AfDB-WB Workshop (April, 2005)
  • Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
  • GDLN on transfer of equity programs and urban
    issues
  • DfiD Shanghai lessons featured in internal
    website

37
Press Quotes Washington Post Arts of Development
By Sebastian Mallaby Monday, May 24, 2004  A
strange reversal is underway in the development
business . . . The conference that opens
tomorrow in Shanghai, convened by World Bank
President James Wolfensohn, will celebrate this
pragmatism. Rather than treating development as a
quasi-science, it will present it as an art, in
which the heroes are the resourceful managers who
implement programs. In place of top-down analysis
by first-world econometricians, it will feature
bottom-up case studies presented by third-world
practitioners. Just about every speaker in the
two-day program will come from the developing
world the delegates from the rich North will be
there to listen to them. It will be hard to turn
the conference into newspaper headlines. But it
will have captured the real spirit of
development.
38
Questions/Issues
  • Robustness of evidence/ lessons learned how many
    of these cases have been subject to impact
    evaluations?
  • Operational implications what implications may
    the Shanghai lessons have for IFI procedures?
  • Evaluating CDD approaches have the lessons
    learned from evaluation on CDD been sufficiently
    considered?

39
  • www.reducingpoverty.org
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