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Tables, graphs, and diagrams

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Pie chart. Clinical features. Table. Birth weight of 36217 newborns ... Avereage BMI by category of weight. Standard symbols in tables. Cause specific mortality ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Tables, graphs, and diagrams


1
Tables, graphs, and diagrams
  • Barbara Schimmer Jurmala, Latvia, 2006

Based on EPIET material
2
Contents
  • Use of tables, graphs and graphics
  • Graphics in descriptive epidemiology
  • describe
  • Graphics in analytical epidemiology
  • compare
  • Designing graphics

3
Background
4
Epidemiology
  • Purpose
  • Description
  • Time
  • Place
  • Person
  • Clinical features
  • Comparison
  • Odds ratios
  • Relative risks
  • Methods
  • Surveillance
  • Outbreak investigations
  • Other studies clinical epidemiology field
    trials experimental epidemiology

5
Use of data tables and graphics?
  • Process data
  • Organise triage, cleaning
  • Summarise aggregate
  • Explore
  • trends
  • relationships
  • errors
  • Present data
  • Communicate
  • Paper
  • Poster
  • Screen static ? animated

6
Paper vs. screen
  • Paper
  • Time unlimited
  • Repetition
  • Details notes?
  • White, grey and black
  • Screen
  • Time lt 1 min
  • No repetition
  • Less details
  • Colours possible

7
Tables, graphics, and diagrams
  • Self-explanatory
  • Simple!
  • Title
  • (what, who, where, when)
  • Define abbreviations and symbols
  • Note data exclusions
  • Reference the source

8
Time
9
The epidemic curve 1
10
The epidemic curve 2
  • Histogram
  • Area proportional to number
  • No space between columns
  • One population
  • X-axis time
  • Start before epidemic, continue after
  • Interval 1/4 of incubation period
  • Y-axis number of cases
  • Usually one square one case Easy to make
    in Excel

11
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12
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13
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14
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15
The arithmetic-scale line graph 1
16
The arithmetic-scale line graph 2
  • For time series
  • Show actual changes in magnitude
  • X-axis time
  • Y-axis rate (or number) of cases
  • Start at 0
  • Breaks possible, clearly marked

17
The semilogarithmic-scale line graph 1
18
The semilogaritmic-scale line graph 2
  • For time series when
  • interested in rate of change
  • X-axis time arithmetic
  • Y-axis rate (or number) of cases, logarithmic
  • Straight slope constant rate of change
  • Steep slope constant rapid change
  • Parallell lines same rate of change
  • Change in slope acceleration ? deceleration of
    rate
  • Start at lowest cycle, e.g. 0.1-1 or 1-10
  • No breaks

19
In graphs...
  • Labels for axes, scales and legends
  • Legends or keys if gt1 variable
  • Scale divison, appropriate scale
  • Units of measurements in title
  • No grid, no numbers
  • No 3D

20
Place
21
The one-variabletable
22
The spot map
Figure 1. Cases of meningococcal disease in
Dublin 1998 by place of residence. 1 dot 1 case
23
The area dot (or dot density) map
Figure 2. Cases of meningococcal disease in
Dublin 1998 by area of residence. 1 dot 1 case
24
The area map
Figure 3. Incidence rate (per 100,000) of
meningococcal disease in Dublin 1998 by area of
residence.
25
Person
26
The two-variable table
27
Grouped bar chart
28
Stacked bar chart
29
Component bar chart
30
Bar charts
  • Order
  • Natural
  • Decreasing or increasing
  • Vertical or horizontal
  • Same width of bars
  • Length frequency
  • Space between bars and groups, but not within
    groups
  • Tables are often better

31
Pie chart
32
Clinical features
33
Table
34
Birth weight of 36217 newborns
35
Anything wrong with the distribution ?
36
Anything else than the relation ?
37
Comparison
38
The 2x2 table for a cohort study
39
The 2x2 table for a case control study
40
Table from a case control study
41
Design
42
Think data-ink
  • Every bit of ink should have a reason

43
Designing graphics
  • Show the data
  • Use ink for the data
  • Remove unnecessary ink
  • Remove gimmicks
  • No 3D
  • Careful with colours

44
Standard symbols in tables
45
Standard symbols in tables
46
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47
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48
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49
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50
Summary
  • Use of graphics Explore and present
  • Presentation Paper vs screen
  • Description
  • Time - line graphs or epicurves
  • Place - maps or tables
  • Person - tables or bar charts
  • Clinical - tables
  • Analysis
  • Comparison - 2x2 tables, other tables
  • Design Save your ink!
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