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Chapter 11 Information System Development and Programming Languages

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Title: Chapter 11 Information System Development and Programming Languages


1
Chapter 11 Information System Development and
Programming Languages
2
Chapter 11 Objectives
Discuss the importance of project management,
feasibility assessment, documentation, data and
information gathering techniques, and information
systems security during system development
List other programming languages and other
program development tools
Describe various ways to develop Web pages
Discuss the purpose of each phase in the system
development cycle
List the six steps in the program development
cycle
Differentiate between low-level languages and
procedural languages
Explain the basic control structures used in
designing solutions to programming problems
Identify the benefits of object-oriented
programming languages and program development
tools
3
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is an information system (IS)?

Hardware, software, data, people, and procedures
that work together to produce quality information
SystemSet of components that interact to achieve
common goal
Businesses use many types of systems
p. 406
4
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What are the phases of the system development
    cycle?

Phase 2. Analysis
  • Conduct preliminary investigation
  • Perform detailed analysis activities
  • Study current system
  • Determine user requirements
  • Recommend solution

Phase 1. Planning
Phase 3. Design
  • Review project requests
  • Prioritize project requests
  • Allocate resources
  • Form project development team
  • Acquire hardware and software, if necessary
  • Develop details of system

Phase 4. Implementation
Phase 5. Operating, Support, and Security
  • Develop programs, if necessary
  • Install and test new system
  • Train users
  • Convert to new system
  • Perform maintenance activities
  • Monitor system performance
  • Assess system security

p. 406 Fig. 11-1
5
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What are guidelines for system development?

Arrange tasks into phases (groups of activities)
  • Involve users (anyone for whom system is being
    built)

Develop clearly defined standards (procedures
company expects employees to follow)
p. 407
6
The System Development Life Cycle
  • Who participates in the system development life
    cycle?

p. 407 Fig. 11-2
7
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is a systems analyst?

Responsible for designing and developing
information system
Users primary contact person
p. 407
8
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is the project team?

Formed to work on project from beginning to end
Consists of users, systems analyst, and other IT
professionals
Project leaderone member of the team who
manages and controls project budget and schedule
p. 408
9
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is project management?
  • Process of planning, scheduling, and controlling
    activities during system development cycle
  • Project leader identifies elements for project

Required activities
Goal, objectives, and expectations, collectively
called scope
Time estimates for each activity
Cost estimates for each activity
Activities that can take place at same time
Order of activities
p. 408
10
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is a Gantt chart?
  • Popular tool used to plan and schedule time
    relationships among project activities

p. 409 Fig. 11-3
11
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is feasibility?

Operational feasibility
Measure of how suitable system development will
be to the company
Four feasibility tests
Schedule feasibility
Economic feasibility (also called cost/benefit
feasibility)
Technical feasibility
p. 409
12
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is documentation?

Collection and summarization of data and
information
Includes reports, diagrams, programs, and other
deliverables
p. 409
13
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What are six data and information gathering
    techniques?
  • Review documentation
  • Observe
  • Survey
  • Interview
  • Joint-application design (JAD) session
  • Research

p. 410 Fig. 11-4
14
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What are some reasons to create or modify an
    information system?

To improve existing system
To correct problem in existing system
Competition can lead to change
Outside group may mandate change
p. 410
15
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is a request for system services?
  • Formal request for new or modified information
    system
  • Also called project request

p. 411 Fig. 11-5
16
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is the planning phase?

Begins when steering committee receives project
request
Steering committeedecision-making body for the
company
Function of committee
Review and approve project requests
Allocate resources
Form project development team for each approved
project
Prioritize project requests
p. 413
17
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is the analysis phase?

p. 413
18
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is the preliminary investigation?
  • Determine exact nature of problem or improvement
    and whether it is worth pursuing
  • Findings are presented in feasibility report

p. 413 - 414 Fig. 11-6
19
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is detailed analysis?

1. Study how current system works
2. Determine users wants, needs, and requirements
3. Recommend solution
Sometimes called logical design
p. 415
20
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is the system proposal?

p. 415
21
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What are possible solutions?

Horizontal market softwaremeets needs of many
companies
Buy packaged softwareprewritten software
available for purchase
Vertical market softwaredesigned for particular
industry
Write own custom softwaresoftware developed at
users request
Outsourcehave outside source develop software
p. 415
22
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is the design phase?

Acquire hardware and software
Develop all details of new or modified
information system
p. 416
23
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is needed to acquire new hardware and
    software?
  • Identify all hardware and software requirements
    of new or modified system

Solicit vendor proposals
Identify technical specifications
Test and evaluate vendor proposals
Make a decision
p. 416
24
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What are three basic documents used to summarize
    technical specifications?

Request for quotation (RFQ)
Request for proposal (RFP)
Request for information (RFI)
p. 416
25
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is a value-added reseller (VAR)?
  • Complete system provided by value-added reseller
  • Value-added reseller (VAR) purchases products
    from manufacturer and then resells them, offering
    additional services with product

p. 417 Fig. 11-7
26
The System Development Life Cycle
  • How do systems analysts test software products?
  • References from vendor
  • Talk to current users of product
  • Product demonstrations
  • Trial version of software
  • Benchmark test measures performance

p. 417
27
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is a detailed design?

Detailed design specifications for components in
proposed solution
Includes several activities
Database design
Input and output design
Program design
p. 418
28
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is a mockup?
  • Sample of input or output that contains actual
    data

p. 418 Fig. 11-8
29
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is a layout chart?
  • Input or output that contains programming-like
    notations for data items

p. 419 Fig. 11-9
30
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is a prototype?

Working model of proposed system
Beginning a prototype too early may lead to
problems
p. 419
31
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is computer-aided software engineering
    (CASE)?
  • Software tools designed to support activities of
    system development cycle

p. 419 Fig. 11-10
32
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is the implementation phase?
  • Purpose is to construct, or build, new or
    modified system and then deliver it to users

Convert to new system
Train users
Install and test new system
Develop programs
p. 420 - 421
33
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What are the four types of tests performed by
    system developers?

Systems test
Unit Test
Verifies each individual program works by itself
Verifies all programs in application work together
Integration Test
Acceptance Test
Verifies application works with other applications
Verifies the new system works with actual data
p. 420
34
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is training?
  • Showing users exactly how they will use new
    hardware and software in system

p. 420 - 421 Fig. 11-11
35
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What are conversion strategies?
  • Used to change from old system to new system

p. 421
36
The System Development Life Cycle
  • Perform maintenance activities

Monitor system performance
  • What is the operation, support, and security
    phase?
  • Provides ongoing assistance after system is
    implemented

Assess system security
p. 422
37
The System Development Life Cycle
  • What is a computer security plan?
  • Summarizes in writing all of the safeguards that
    are in place to protect a companys information
    assets

For each risk, identify the safeguards that
exist to detect, prevent, and recover from a
loss
Identify all security risks that may cause an
information asset loss
Identify all information assets of an
organization
p. 422
38
Design Phase
Video A Tour of Lucasfilm Data Center
39
The Program Development Cycle
  • What is the program development cycle?
  • Steps programmers use to build computer programs
  • Programming teamGroup of programmers working on
    program

p. 438 - 439 Fig. 11-29
40
Programming Languages
  • What is a computer program?
  • Set of instructions that directs computer to
    perform tasks
  • Programming languageused to communicate
    instructions

p. 423 Fig. 11-12
41
Programming Languages
  • What are low-level languages and high-level
    languages?

High-level language
Low-level language
Machine-dependent runs only on one type of
computer
Often machine-independent can run on many
different types of computers and operating
systems
Machine and assembly languages are low-level
p. 424
42
Programming Languages
  • What is machine language?
  • Only language computer directly recognizes
  • Uses a series of binary digits (1s and 0s) with a
    combination of numbers and letters that represent
    binary digits

p. 424 Fig. 11-13
43
Programming Languages
  • What is assembly language?
  • Instructions made up of symbolic instruction
    codes (mnemonics). Meaningful abbreviations and
    codes
  • Source program contains code to be converted to
    machine language

p. 424 - 425 Fig. 11-14
44
Programming Languages
  • What is a procedural language?

Uses series of English-like words to write
instructions
Programmer writes instructions that tell computer
what to accomplish and how to do it
Often called third-generation language (3GL)
p. 425
45
Programming Languages
  • What is a compiler?
  • Program that converts entire source program into
    machine language before executing it
  • Translator
  • compiler
  • interpreter

p. 425 Fig. 11-15
46
Programming Languages
  • What is an interpreter?
  • Program that translates and executes one program
    code statement at a time
  • Does not produce object program
  • Many intrepreters include a Just-In-Time compiler
    (JITer)

p. 426 Fig. 11-16
47
Programming Languages
  • What is COBOL?
  • Designed for business applications
  • English-like statements make code easy to read,
    write, and maintain
  • COmmon Business-Oriented Language

p. 426 Fig. 11-17
48
Programming Languages
  • What is C?
  • Powerful language originally designed to write
    system software

/ Compute Regular Time Pay
/ regular_time_pay regular_time_hours
hourly_pay_rate / Computer Overtime Pay
/ if
(over_time_hours gt 0) over_time_pay
over_time_hours (pay_rate 1.5) else
over_time_pay 0 / Compute Gross Pay
/ gross_pay
regular_time_pay over_time_pay / Print Gross
Pay printf(The gross pay is 8.2f\n, gross_pay)
p. 427 Fig. 11-18
49
Programming Languages
  • What is an object-oriented programming (OOP)
    language?

Used to implement object-oriented design
Major benefit is ability to reuse and modify
existing objects
  • Event-drivenchecks for and responds to set of
    events

Java, C, and C, are complete object-oriented
languages
Object is item that contains data and
procedures that act on data
Event is action to which program responds
  • Object-oriented Programming
  • Procedural Programming

p. 427
50
Programming Languages
  • What is Java?
  • Developed by Sun Microsystems
  • Uses just-in-time (JIT) compiler (in interpreter)
    to convert source code into machine code

p. 427 - 428 Fig. 11-19
51
Programming Languages
  • What is C?
  • Includes all elements of C, plus additional
    features for working with object-oriented
    concepts
  • Used to develop database and Web applications

What is C?
  • Object-oriented programming language based on C
  • Accepted as a standard for Web applications and
    XML-based Web services

p. 428
52
Programming Languages
  • What is Visual Studio?
  • .NET is set of technologies that allows program
    to run on Internet
  • Comprised of Visual Basic, Visual C, and Visual
    C

p. 428 - 429 Fig. 11-20
53
Programming Languages (Enterprise Software)
  • What is Delphi?
  • Powerful visual programming tool
  • Ideal for large-scale enterprise and Web
    applications

What is PowerBuilder?
  • Another powerful visual programming tool
  • Best suited for Web-based and large-scale
    object-oriented applications

p. 429
54
Programming Languages
  • What is a visual programming language?

Provides visual or graphical interface for
creating source code
Examples include Alice, Mindscript and Prograph
  • Visual Studio
  • Net Beans

p. 429
55
Programming Languages
  • What is RPG (Report Program Generator)?
  • Used for generating reports, accessing data, and
    updating data in databases

/free //Compute Regular Time Pay
regular_time_pay regular_time_hours
hourly_pay_rate
//Compute Overtime Pay if over_time_hours gt 0
over_time_pay over_time_hours
(pay_rate 1.5) else
over_time_pay 0 endif //Compute Gross
Pay gross_pay regular_time_pay
over_time_pay //Print Gross Pay except
GrPay /end-free
p. 430 Fig. 11-21
56
Programming Languages
  • What is a fourth-generation language (4GL)?
  • Nonprocedural language that allows access to data
    in database
  • Popular 4GL is SQL, query language that allows
    users to manage data in relational DBMS

p. 430 Fig. 11-22
57
Programming Languages
  • What are other available programming languages?

ALGOL
Ada
APL
BASIC
Python
FORTRAN
Forth
LISP
Modula-2
Logo
Pascal
Ruby
PL/1
PILOT
Smalltalk
p. 431
58
Programming Languages
  • What is an application generator?
  • Program that creates source code or machine code
    from specification
  • Consists of report writer, form, and menu
    generator
  • Form provides areas for entering data

p. 431 - 432 Fig. 11-24
59
Programming Languages
  • What is HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)?
  • Used to create Web pages

p. 433 Fig. 11-25
60
Programming Languages
  • What is a scripting language?
  • Creates a script that is interpreted. It runs
    inside a browser.
  • Typically easy to learn and use
  • JavaScript
  • Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language)
  • PHP (PHP Hypertext Processor)
  • Rexx (Restructured eXtended eXecutor)
  • Tcl (Tool Command Language)
  • VBScript (Visual Basic, Scripting Edition)

p. 434 - 435 Fig. 11-26
61
Programming Languages
  • What is dynamic HTML (DHTML)?
  • Allows developers to include more graphical
    interest and interactivity in Web page

p. 435 Fig. 11-27
62
Programming Languages
  • What are XHTML, XML, and WML?

Includes features of HTML and XML
XHTML (Extensible HTML) enables Web sites to be
displayed more easily on microbrowsers
XML (Extensible Markup Language) allows
developers to create customized tags
Server sends entire record to client, enabling
client to do much of processing without going
back to server
RSS 2.0 and ATOM
WML (Wireless Markup Language) allows developers
to design pages specifically for microbrowsers
Many Internet-enabled smart phones and PDAs use
WML as their markup language
p. 436
63
Programming Languages
  • What is Ajax? (update changes to a web page)
  • Stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML
  • Method of creating interactive Web applications
    designed to provide immediate response
  • Combines JavaScript, HTML or XHTML, and XML
  • Google Maps and Flickr use Ajax

What is Atom?
  • Along with RSS is a set of specifications that
    content aggregators use to distribute content to
    subscribers.
  • The name Atom applies to a pair of related
    standards. The Atom Syndication Format is an XML
    language used for web feeds, while the Atom
    Publishing Protocol (AtomPub or APP) is a simple
    HTTP-based protocol for creating and updating web
    resources.

p. 436
64
Programming Languages
  • What is Ruby on Rails (RoR)?
  • Open source framework that provides technologies
    for developing object-oriented, database-driven
    Web sites
  • Designed to make Web developers more productive

p. 436
65
Programming Languages
  • What is Web page authoring software?
  • Creates sophisticated Web pages without using
    HTML
  • Generates HTML

p. 436 - 437
66
Programming Languages
  • What is multimedia authoring software?
  • Combines text, graphics, animation, audio, and
    video into interactive presentation
  • Used for computer-based training (CBT) and
    Web-based training (WBT)
  • Software includes Toolbook and Director

p. 437 Fig. 11-28
67
The Program Development Cycle
  • What is a sequence control structure?
  • Control structure that shows actions following
    each other in order
  • Control structure depicts logical order of
    program instructions

p. 440 Fig. 11-30
68
The Program Development Cycle
  • What is a selection control structure?
  • Tells program which action to take, based on a
    certain condition
  • Two types
  • Case control structure
  • If-then-else control structureyields one of two
    possibilities true or false

p. 440 Fig. 11-31
69
The Program Development Cycle
  • What is a case control structure?
  • Yields one of three or more possibilities

p. 440 - 441 Fig. 11-32
70
The Program Development Cycle
  • What is a repetition control structure?
  • Enables program to perform one or more actions
    repeatedly
  • Do-while control structurerepeats as long as
    condition is true (pre-test)
  • Do-until control structurerepeats until
    condition is true (post-test)

p. 442 Figs. 11-3311-34
71
Companies on the Cutting Edge
Video Electronic Arts Going Mobile
72
Summary of Information System Development and
Programming Languages
Phases in the system development life cycle
Various programming languages and program
development tools used to create and modify
computer programs
Web development and multimedia development tools
Guidelines for system development
Program development cycle
Activities that occur during the entire system
development cycle
Chapter 11 Complete
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