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Physical Disabilities


Caused by degenerative muscle fibers in the legs before it spreads to the arms. ... Paraplegia: Paralysis of the bottom half of the body, including both legs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical Disabilities

Physical Disabilities
  • By
  • Richard Baird
  • Michelle Dodd

Physical Disabling Conditions
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Spina Bifida
  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • Spinal Cord Injury

Cerebral Palsy
  • A neurological disorder characterized by motor
    problems, general physical weakness, lack of
    coordination, and perceptual difficulties.

Types of CP
  • Spastic CP- stiff and difficult to move
  • Athetoid CP- involuntary and uncontrolled
  • Ataxic CP- disturbed sense of balance and depth
  • Mixed CP- there is a combination of any of the

History of CP
  • First recognized as a medical condition in 1861
  • The term CP came into use in the late 1800s
  • CP used to be called Littles Disease after Dr.
    William J. Little who first published work on the

Pregnancy Elements of CP
  • Complicated labor and/or delivery
  • Premature birth and low birth weight
  • Multiple births
  • Nervous system defects
  • Other physical defects
  • Maternal bleeding in the last three months of

Signs of CP in the First Few Months of Life
  • Lack of Alertness
  • Irritability
  • An abnormal high pitched cry
  • Trembling of the arms and legs
  • Poor feedings abilities
  • Abnormal posture to one side of the body
  • Seizures, eye fluttering, body twitching
  • Abnormal reflexes

Signs of CP in the First Six Months of Life
  • A change in muscle tone from low to high
  • The child holds their hands in fists
  • One side of the body moves more freely than the
  • Poor feeding abilities

Risk Factors for CP
  • Mother 40 or over
  • Mother or father younger than 20
  • African-American ethnicity
  • The child being fifth or later in the siblings.
  • Weighing less than 3.5 pounds
  • Premature infant
  • Infection of mother during early pregnancy
  • Mother having a weak central nervous system

Causes of CP
  • Injury to the brain before, during, or shortly
    after birth
  • Failure of the brain not developing properly
  • Neurological damage to the brain
  • Infection
  • Lack of oxygen to the brain
  • Bleeding in the Brain

Treatment of CP
  • Physical Therapy- help to develop gross motor
  • Occupational Therapist- help to develop small
  • Speech and Language Therapist
  • Surgery- usually to improve muscle development
  • Drugs- prevent seizures
  • Sensory Integration Therapy
  • Adaptive Equipment

Statistics of CP
  • 2 of every 1,000 born in U.S. have CP
  • 5000 infants and toddlers diagnosed each year
  • 1200-1500 preschoolers diagnosed each year
  • 500,000 people have CP in the U.S.

Spina Bifida
  • A developmental defect of the spinal column.

Types of Spina Bifida
  • Spina Bifida Occulta- oblique split in one or
    several of the vertebral structures.
  • Spina Bifida Cystica- a malformation of the
    spinal column in which a tumor-like sac is
    produced on the infants back.
  • Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele- type of spina
    bifida cystica in which the characteristic
    tumor-like sac contains both spinal fluid and
    nerve tissue.
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Diagnosis of Spina Bifida
  • MASFP- blood test that looks for high levels of
    alpha-fetoprotein which may show that there is a
    neural tube defect
  • Ultrasound- this can determine if there are
    defects in the spine
  • Amniocentesis- doctor removes fluid from the
    amniotic sac to detect sources of
    alpha-fetoprotein because this shows that the
    spinal cord could be leaking

Risk Factors of Spina Bifida
  • Presence of a neural tube defect in a previous
  • Lack of folic acid
  • Certain medications
  • Diabetes
  • History of miscarriage
  • Being a first born
  • Teenage mothers

Causes of Spina Bifida
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Largely unknown

Long Term Effects of Spina Bifida
  • Loss of sensation
  • Mental retardation
  • Paralysis
  • Permanent loss of bladder and bowel control
  • Seizures
  • Weakness

Treatment of Spina Bifida
  • Physical Therapy
  • Occupational Therapy
  • Assistive devices
  • Medication
  • Surgery to cover defects with skin to prevent
  • Surgical correction with various organ systems
  • Ventriculoperitoneal shunt- a tube from the brain
    to the abdomen to drain excess fluid

A Way to Prevent Spina Bifida
  • Mothers should consume high levels of folic acid
    while pregnant.
  • This reduces the possibility of spina bifida and
    neural tube defects by 50 to 70 percent.

Statistics of Spina Bifida
  • 95 of children with spina bifida have parents
    with no history of it in their family
  • 6 in every 100,000 births have spina bifida
  • 240 people in U.S.

Muscular Dystrophy
  • What is MD?
  • A group of more than 30 genetic diseases
    characterized by progressive weakness and
    degeneration of skeletal muscles that control
    movement. Some can be seen in infancy, while
    others may not appear until later in life.

Types of Muscular Dystrophy
  • Childhood Onset
  • Duchenne MD most common form of MD. Only affects
    boys. Caused by degenerative muscle fibers in the
    legs before it spreads to the arms.
  • Becker MD less severe than Duchenne MD. Some
    patients can walk in their 30s, while others are
    unable to walk past adolescence
  • Congenital MD Along with muscle and joint
    problems, patients suffer from respitory and
    swallowing difficulties, vision and speech
    problems, and seizures.
  • Emery-Dreifuss MD Primarily affects boys. Causes
    slow wasting of the arm and upper leg muscles and
    symmetric weakness. Heart problems are extremely

Types of Muscular Dystrophy
  • Adolescent Onset
  • Facioscapulohumeral MD (FSHD) initially affects
    muscles of the face, shoulders, and upper arms,
    with progressive weakness. Life expectancy is
    normal, but some individuals become severely
  • Limb-Girdle MD Weakening of muscles primarily in
    the shoulders and hips. Most people are severely
    disabled within 20 years of disease onset

Types of Muscular Dystrophy
  • Adult Onset
  • Distal MD Primarily affects distal muscles.
    Typically less severe than other forms and
    involves fewer muscles.
  • Myotonic MD Most common adult form of MD.
    Affects the central nervous system and other body
    systems. Neck and facial muscles are typically
    first to weaken.
  • Oculopharyngeal MD (OPMD) Patients typically
    first report problems in the face and with
    swallowing. They may find it difficult to walk,
    climb stairs, kneel, or bend. Most people usually
    lost the ability to walk

  • Blood and urine tests
  • Exercise Tests
  • Genetic Testing
  • MRI
  • Muscle Biopsies
  • Neurophysiology Studies

How many people have MD?
  • Most common forms are in children which affects
    approximately 400-600 male births each year in
    the US
  • The amount of people living with MD varies
    between types Some types affect over 30,000
    Americans, while another type has only 300
    recorded cases

  • Physical Therapy
  • Respiratory Therapy
  • Speech Therapy
  • Corrective Orthopedic Surgery
  • Drug Therapy

Research Goals
  • Studies are being done to understand MD and
    develop new techniques to diagnose, treat,
    prevent and ultimately cure the disorder.

Spinal Cord Injury
  • Key terms
  • Paraplegia Paralysis of the bottom half of the
    body, including both legs
  • Tetraplegia (Quadriplegia) Complete paralysis of
    the body from the neck down

How common is SCI
  • Studies suggest around 40 cases of spinal cord
    injury per million people in a population
  • Given the US population, this is about 11,000 new
    cases each year
  • It is estimated that there are somewhere between
    183,000 230,000 alive today in the US with
    spinal cord injury

Leading Causes of SCI
  • 1 Car accidents (38.5)
  • 2 Acts of violence (24.5)
  • 3 Falls (21.8)
  • 4 Sports (7.2)
  • 5 All Others (7.9)
  • Other causes are vascular disorders, tumors,
    infectious conditions, spondylosis, and
    developmental disorders

Who is most likely to suffer a Spinal Cord Injury
  • Most people are between the ages of 16 and 30.
  • Males are 4 times more likely to suffer from SCI
    than females

SCIs Affect on the Rest of the Body
  • Breathing usually causes short, shallow
    breathing, or requires the help of a tracheotomy
  • Irregular heartbeat and low blood pressure SCI
    often affects the cardiac accelerator nerves,
    causing the heart to beat too fast or too slow
  • Blood clots People with SCI are at triple the
    risk for blood clots
  • Spasms The spinal cord can no longer control
    reflex movements. These movements can sometimes
    become so exaggerated that they require medical
  • Bladder and Bowel Problems The nerves that
    control these functions are in the lower part of
    the spinal cord. Most people with SCI need a
    catheter to control these functions.
  • Pneumonia One of the leading causes of death in
    people with SCI

Life After Spinal Cord Injury
  • About 40 of people with paraplegia return to
    work within 10 years
  • About 30 of people with tetraplegia eventually
    return to work within 10 years
  • Approximately 5 of people discharged from the
    hospital with a SCI are released to a nursing
    home. Most people return to their prior homes.
  • Living expenses for a person with tetraplegia is
    about 460,000 in the first year after the
  • Living expenses for a person with paraplegia is
    about 260,000 in the first year after the
  • The leading cause of death among people with SCI
    is kidney failure

Stem Cell Research
  • Stem cells have the ability to develop into many
    different cell types in the body. Scientists are
    working on how to grow these cells in a
    laboratory in order to use them to treat
    different diseases, disorders, and injuries, or
    to test new drugs.

Christopher Reeve
  • An actor, best known as Superman who was
    injured in a horseback riding accident in 1995
    which left him paralyzed from the neck down
  • The Christopher Reeve Foundation has made extreme
    strides in spinal repair research, stem cell
    research in particular

Carl Riccio
  • Outstanding high school athlete, recognized in
    multiple sports who became paralyzed after an
    accident during a wrestling match in his junior
    year of high school

Carl Riccio
  • Carls Dads account of the day
  • When I got out to the mat that day, my
    beautiful, strong, athletic son looked me in the
    eyes and said Dad, I cant move anything and
    tears ran down his face. At that moment I knew my
    life was different. That moment is with me every
    night, it never changes, I wake up crying. I had
    to hold it together. My youngest boys were there
    and were panicked and crying. My wife and older
    kids were on the other side of the country at
    Peter Jr.s (Villanova) opening of the baseball
    season. That was how our new life began. My wife
    eventually got to the hospital and has led us
    through this turbulent year.
  • http//

  • Which of the following is NOT a type of CP?
  • Spastic CP
  • Athetoid CP
  • Muscular CP
  • Ataxic CP

  • True or False
  • Cerebral palsy is caused by Damage to the brain.

  • What causes Spina Bifida?
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Child Abuse
  • Largely Unknown
  • Both A and C

  • What reduces the risk of Spina Bifida?
  • Alcohol Consumption
  • Protein Consumption
  • Folic Acid Consumption

  • Which of the following is not a form of Muscular
  • Duchenne MD
  • Limb-Girdle MD
  • Distal MD
  • All of these are forms of MD

  • What is the leading cause of Spinal Cord Injury?
  • Car accidents
  • Developmental Disorders
  • Child Abuse
  • Most people are born with SCI

Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved March 12,
2006, from the University of Alabama at
Birmingham Web site http//
/show.asp?durki20183 NINDS Muscular Dystrophy
Information Page. Retrieved March 12, 2006, from
the National Institute of Neurological Disorders
and Stroke Web site http//
rders/md/md.htmWhat_is Cerebral Palsy A Guide
for Care. Retrieved March 12, 2006, from The
Alfred I Dupont Institute Cerebral Palsy Web
site http//
_ortho/clinics/c_palsy/cpweb.htm All Refer
Health. Retrieved April 11, 2006, from URAC and
ADAM Web site http// Hardma
n, M. L., Drew C. J., Egan M. W. (2006).
Human Exceptionality School, Community, and
Family. Eighth Edition. New York Pearson, Allyn
and Bacon.
  • Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved March 12,
    2006, from University of Alabama at Birmingham
    Web site http//
  • NINDS Muscular Dystrophy Information Page.
    Retrieved March 12, 2006, from National Institute
    of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Web site
  • Spinal Cord Basics Tutorial What Happens
    Following a Spinal Cord Injury. Retrieved March
    17, 2006, from Christopher Reeve Foundation Web
    site Spinal Cord Basics Tutorial What Happens
    Following a Spinal Cord Injury Christopher
    Reeve Foundation
  • Carls Blog. Retrieved March 17, 2006, from The
    Carl Riccio Trust Web site The Carl Riccio
    Special Needs Trust