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An Introduction to the Capability Maturity Model for Software SWCMM

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Title: An Introduction to the Capability Maturity Model for Software SWCMM


1
An Introduction to the Capability Maturity Model
for Software (SW-CMM) Census Bureau Mark C.
Paulk April 29, 2003 ? Capability Maturity
Model, Capability Maturity Model Integration,
CMMI, and CMM are registered in the U.S. Patent
and Trademark Office.
2
Topics
  • Introduction
  • Process Management Principles
  • The Capability Maturity Model for Software
  • Using the CMM
  • Conclusion and Discussion

3
Is There a Software Crisis?
  • From the Standish Groups 1995 CHAOS study
  • 31 of projects canceled before completion
  • 53 of projects cost 189 of original estimates
  • spend 81 billion for canceled software projects
  • only 16 of software projects completed on-time
    and on-budget
  • Is the crisis self-generated? Is change
    needed?
  • Quote from a CIO, Id rather have it wrong than
    have it late. We can always fix it later.

4
Topics
  • Introduction
  • Process Management Principles
  • The Capability Maturity Model for Software
  • Using the CMM
  • Conclusion and Discussion

5
Defining Software Process
  • Process - a sequence of steps performed for a
    given purpose (IEEE)
  • Software process - a set of activities, methods,
    practices, and transformations that people use to
    develop and maintain software and the associated
    products (CMM)

6
Process Management Premise
  • The quality of a (software) system is largely
    governed by the quality of the process used to
    develop and maintain it.
  • This premise implies focus on process as well as
    product.
  • The value of this premise is visible world-wide
    in the Total Quality Management movements in the
    manufacturing and service industries.

7
Applying TQM to Software
TQM
Organization
Projects
C
A
B
System
Hardware Software
CMM
  • Process improvement fits in an overall business
    context CMM applies to software.

8
Process Management and the Known
  • Management must deal with both the known and the
    unknown.
  • Process management focuses on the known, on
    controlling repeatable (if not repetitive)
    processes.
  • mechanisms for managing the known include quality
    assurance, configuration management, peer
    reviews, etc.
  • Risk management focuses on the unknown.
  • mechanisms for managing the unknown include
    evolutionary and incremental life cycles, on-site
    customers, prototyping, etc.

9
Topics
  • Introduction
  • Process Management Principles
  • The Capability Maturity Model for Software
  • Using the Software CMM
  • Conclusion and Discussion

10
What Is the Software CMM?
  • A common-sense application of the concepts of
    Total Quality Management to software projects
  • A model for transforming organizations
  • A community-developed guide with descriptions of
    good engineering and management practices for
    software
  • A prescription for changing organizational
    behavior and capability in five levels
  • The basis for reliable and consistent CMM-based
    appraisals

11
Software CMM v1.1
Level
Focus
Key Process Areas (KPAs)
Continuous
Defect Prevention Technology Change Management P
rocess Change Management
Quality Productivity
process
Optimizing
5
improvement
Quantitative Process Management
Software Quality Management
Product and
process quality
Engineering
Organization Process Focus Organization Process D
efinition Training Program Integrated Software M
anagement Software Product Engineering Intergrou
p Coordination Peer Reviews
Defined
processes and
organizational
support
Project
Requirements Management Software Project Planning
Software Project Tracking Oversight Software
Subcontract Management Software Quality Assurance
Software Configuration Management
management
processes
Risk Waste
Competent people (and heroics)
Initial
12
Goals of the Key Process Areas
  • Summarize the key practices of the key process
    areas
  • Are considered important for enhancing process
    capability for that level of maturity
  • Can be used to guide organizations and appraisal
    teams in assessing alternative ways to implement
    key process areas
  • Each key practice maps to one or more goals

13
Required, Expected, and Informative
  • The rating components of the Software CMM are the
    maturity levels (5), key process areas (18), and
    goals (52).
  • You must satisfy all the goals for a key process
    area to satisfy the KPA.
  • Key practices, subpractices, examples… are
    informative material to guide professional
    judgment.
  • Key practices are expected, but not required!

14
Importance of Institutionalization
  • The organizational culture conveys the
    process.
  • The Software CMM has four common features that
    focus on institutionalizing the process.
  • commitment to perform
  • ability to perform
  • measurement and analysis
  • verifying implementation
  • Activities performed focus on implementing the
    process.

15
Evolution of Process Capability
Level
Process Characteristics
Predicted Performance
Optimizing
5
Time//...
Managed
4
Time//...
Defined
3
Time//...
Repeatable
2
Time//...
Initial
Time//...
16
Understanding the Initial Maturity Level
  • Performance driven by the competence and heroics
    of the people doing the work
  • Consistency and compliance to standards driven by
    management priorities usually schedule is the
    top priority
  • High quality and exceptional performance possible
    so long as the best people can be hired
  • Unpredictability for good or ill
    characterizes the initial level organization

17
Understanding the Repeatable Maturity Level
  • Management must walk the talk to initiate an
    improvement effort.
  • Management discipline is necessary to retain good
    software engineering practices in the crunch.
  • Management processes establish role models for
    process improvement.
  • Management and process discipline empowers
    the engineering processes and the technical staff.

18
The Repeatable Level KPAs
19
Understanding the Defined Maturity Level
  • Standard processes defined, documented, and
    deployed across the organization.
  • Shared understanding established of how the
    process works and each persons role.
  • Software engineering process group (SEPG) focuses
    on process management and improvement.

20
The Defined Level KPAs
21
Understanding the Managed Maturity Level
  • Applying the principles of statistical process
    control, address special causes of process
    variation

Management is able to predict performance within
quantified bounds targets are predictable.
22
The Managed Level KPAs
23
Understanding the Optimizing Maturity Level
  • Continuous process improvement means controlled
    change
  • Identify and eliminate chronic causes of poor
    performance

24
The Optimizing Level KPAs
25
Topics
  • Introduction
  • Process Management Principles
  • The Capability Maturity Model for Software
  • Using the Software CMM
  • Conclusion and Discussion

26
Assessment Versus Evaluation

Evaluation source selection substantiate pra
ctice evaluate commitment performance risk
CMM findings only audit-oriented predict n
ext project known to DoD
Issue Use Objective Improvement goal O
utput Range of findings Style Focus of re
sults
Status of results
Assessment process improvement assess curren
t practice catalyst for improvement input fo
r action plan non-CMM findings possible coll
aborative applies to organization confidenti
al
27
Using Professional Judgment
  • Software CMM is intended for a wide range of
    situations.
  • key practices and goals allow for flexibility
  • Key indicates a focus on the major leverage
    points
  • key process areas
  • key practices
  • The Software CMM is not exhaustive.
  • There are software management and engineering
    processes and practices that are not described in
    the CMM.

28
Let Common Sense Prevail!
Disciplined Process
Yes
No
Creative Chaos
Quality
Yes
Common Sense
Mindless Chaos
Mindless Bureaucracy
No
With thanks to Sanjiv Ahuja, former President and
COO of Telcordia Technologies.
29
Topics
  • Introduction
  • Process Management Principles
  • The Capability Maturity Model for Software
  • Using the Software CMM
  • Conclusion and Discussion

30
Releases of the Software CMM
Capability Maturity Model Guidelines for
Improving the Software Process (v1.1)
Addison-Wesley Book Form

Key Practices of the Capability Maturity Model
for Software v1.1 Paulk et al., CMU/SEI-93-TR-2
5
Characterizing the Software Process A
Maturity Framework Watts Humphrey, IEEE Softw
are

Key Practices of the Capability Maturity Model
for Software v1.0 Weber, et al., CMU/SEI-91-TR-
25

Managing the Software Process Watts Humphrey
1987 1989 1991
1993 1995 1998
31
Software CMM v2 Release Halted
  • Software CMM v2.0 was scheduled for release at
    the end of 1997.
  • SEIs sponsor, the Office of the Under Secretary
    of Defense for Acquisition and Technology,
    directed that the Software CMM Version 2 release
    be halted in favor of work on CMM Integration.
  • One of the source documents for CMMI is Software
    CMM v2C.

32
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)
  • Sponsored by the DOD and the National Defense
    Industrial Association (NDIA)
  • Collaborative endeavor
  • Industry
  • Government
  • Software Engineering Institute (SEI)
  • Over 100 people involved

33
CMMI Source Models
  • Capability Maturity Model for Software V2, draft
    C (SW-CMM V2C)
  • EIA Interim Standard 731, System Engineering
    Capability Model (SECM)
  • Integrated Product Development Capability
    Maturity Model, draft V0.98 (IPD-CMM)

34
CMMI Benefits
  • Efficient, effective assessment and improvement
    across multiple process disciplines in an
    organization
  • Reduced training and assessment costs
  • A common, integrated vision of improvement for
    all elements of an organization
  • A means of representing new discipline-specific
    information in a standard, proven process
    improvement context

35
Questions and Answers
  • ?
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